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Received in Ezchanob 

J^hn Cr»rar Lllsrary 



Received in Exchamoe 

J<^m Crarar Library 










The SENTIMENTS of a Practical Hus- 
BANDMAN, CD various S<ibjeds of great Im- 


Th^ Exportation of Corn. 
The Balance of Agriculture 

and Manufactures. 
The prefent State of Hufban- 

The Circumflances attending 

large and ffnall Farms. 
The prefent State of the Poor. 
The Prices of Provifions. 

The Proceedings of the So- 
ciety f )r the Encourage- 
ment of Arts, &c. 

The Importance of Timber 
and Planting. 

Emigrations to the Colonies. 

The Means of promoting the 
Agriculture aod Population 
of Great Britain, &c. ^c» 

To which are added. 

S Y L Y Ml 


•Its -*«. 



'■"^-'•^ ;i ON 


The SECOND EDITION, corceaed and enlarged. 

Quicquid in orbe vides, paret mihi % : Florida tellus 
Cum volo fundit opes ; fcopulique/*at<^ue horrida faxa 
Niliadas jaculantur aquas. 


J AgricuUura fcilicet^ 


Printed for W. NicotL, at the Paper-Mill, No. 51^* 

io St. Paul's Church- Yard. M DCC LX VIU, 



FEB 19 1937 

CON TEN t'& 



^^^lOf^ideratitms on the importance of agricul^ 

ture^ compared noitb that of mamfaSlUref 

r^Ube bigkpriceofProvifions.^-^fRipts^ 

Itaxesj &c. Page i 


m« fbfilfereni (treumftan^s ofkr^e^nd 
fmcllfarmf gK<imim4--^l^tity ^nd V4flue 

, ef their produSl'-'— Number and value of 
the bands employed in tbem^'Lattdhrdsad' 

, vmta^e-^aff-farmf 99 

jy, froportim hftween the Arable and ^^fi- 
Unds (f 9 farm--— 'Arrangement of 
cr^ii—Qre4t impprtance of -mrkin^ with 
wen 1 56 

y. Tbeprice^ of pro^ifom cmfidere^'-'-^^a^ 
Iflnce between labour and provifions^"--* 
Many vulgar errors-^State of the labour^ 
hgpoor^ 178 

A 2 VI. . 



VI. Remarks on the conduS of the Society 

for the Encouragement of }irts^ Mahufac^ 

iures^ and Commerce — Of their premiums 

for agriculture-^^E'xperimtntfpropofed''--'-^ 

Of hujbandry writings Page 2 n 


VII. Of timber Trefervation of it' 

Planting ' ' >'54 

• .* f . t .A. 

VIIL Of population-^ Remarks on the Foot 
Laws of Engl^nd'-^yilterations propofed. 
Of hundred houfes of induftry — State of 
marriage — Of the Englifh colonies^ inre^ 
fpeSi of our own agriculture and popula^ 
tion ' a63 


IX. Of the means of promoting the agriculture 

and population of Britain Neye^ pro^ 

hibit exportation — Abolijh tythes — FrarHB 

new Poor Laws Convert the wajle^^ 

land of the kingdom into arable farms''— * 
Finifh the enlargement of the capital — 
Reduce the prices of necejfaries — Unite 
Ireland to Great Britain — Confequence of 
debts and taxes 320 

8 SYL VM. 


S Y L f^ M. 

Comparative profit of pafture and arabk'^ 

land Page 358 

Expences and profit of a dairy 383 

improvement of wet pafiures 3 96 

Common farmers vindicated 412 

Of mowing wheat 416 

Of Lucerne 418 

Of manuring land 422 

Of broad-wheekd waggons 425^ 

Reafons why farming fo often proves un-- 
profitable ^ ' 43,8 

Propojitions for acquiring a complete ktmo^ 
ledge of foreign agriculture 456 

Of the Rev. Mr. Harte's E/fays on Hufi>an^ 
dry ^ 479 

> o 

■1# -f 

r -» 

s. »> 

f ' K 



t tJ E 




MY fellow cduntrymen, it is a Man in 
obfcurity that addrefles you — but 
ifefles you on points of great im- 
portance • 6n fubjecls which nearly con- 
fcefn your being as an independent people ; 
and every enjoyment of life as any people 
at all. However inelegant his language 
inay be ; however he may be wanting in a 
difplay of erudition, his fubjeft and the 
thought and attention he has given it, will, 
he hopes, plead powerfully in excufe for 
his manner of treaiting it, 

I apprehend it will be allowed by every 
one, that it is not only tjie number of a peo- 
ple that is thfe glory of a Hate, but their 
Employment. The knowing precifely vv^hat 
employments are moft beneficial to the'pub- 
lic good, is a matter of hifiriite corifequence, 

B l)ut 


but not atten<led to with that care it der 
ferves. I (hall endeavour in this letter as 
plainly as poflible to elucidate this fubjefl ; 
to ftate the different degrees of populouf- 
nefs arifing from different profefFions ; to 
confider how well our prefent agriculture 
and manufa£lures are harmonized; and 
the different value to the ftate of the hands 
employed in each. This will naturally in- 
troduce the enfuing fubjefts, and open the 
way to enquiries curious, eafy and impor- 

In a round of diflferent profeflions, all 
muft either abfolutely or relatively depend 
on each other ; and fome amongft them 
will be of that general importance as in a 
great meafure to be the foundation of all 
the reft* It will require no long chain of 
reafoning to prove that fuch primary pro- 
feflions ought chiefly to be encouraged, as 
their well-being will naturally give rife ta^ 
and fupport the fecdndary ones — fuch a 
conne£lion and dependance is confequent- 
ly natural. 

Agriculture is beyond all doubt the 
foundation of every other art, bufineii, or 
profeffion : and it has therefore been the 
ideal policy of every wife and prudent peo- 

I 3 ] 

pk to ^ticoui^age it *to the utmon;« I call 
k idetd policy ; finoe as perfetftly as its kn-^ 
poitance 'has been <^knowfi^ it ^hasnotalwayir. 
met wi#i that care and -attention ks woHh 
Fcquires : and tlie great -peBtiioil manage"* 
ment in ftatefi where ^nanufaStui^es and 
agriculture are ^ both encouraged, is, to give 
due attention *t^boCh, 'but in.every ^ircum-' 
ftance'to fee»that ithe wrong fcalc does not 

To^ enter anto all the political rcafoning 
^hidh has fo long been ^m^loyed on thefe 
topics, woifld be otily tcrepfeatwhat'haa 
been faid a *1?hoirfand tiroes bdfqre. This 
is fai: ^rom -being -niy defigni ^ut ? 
apprehend the fubje€l, far, very far 
from 'being ei^haufled j and wifhouc 
treading in theexaSt >paths of ppeoedin|f 
Writers, I think I can point out (bme cir- 
^umftances which 'have been omitted j and 
others not duly confidered by them* 

To aflc one queftion which will be 
entering immediately on the Tubje€l : 
4i there -any fr/ofefflin orbufinefs nx^hidb imght 
4o be advanced to the height it is capable of , 
iefbre <rtbers are eMouragi^ *mhich draw off f he 
-working bands from the former ?— The ^air 

B 2 is 

. \ 

;[ 4 1 

is clear, precife and determinate : agricul- 
ture, that greateji of all manufaBures *, 
ought to flouriftl to the full cultivation of 
the land, before what w'e commonly call 
manufaSlures^ take place as. articles of trade 
land commerce. And after cultivation is at 
its* height, thofe manufa6lures ought firft 
to be encouraged which work upon mate- 
rials of our own growth ; and laft of all, 
thofe which employ foreign materials. 
• As agriculture therefore is the firft and 
moft important of all bufinefs, and the 
foundation which fupports manufactures; 
let us enquire whether our agriculture is at 
prefent at that point of perfedipn to which 
it is capable of attaining. A traniient view 
of thebeft cultivated counties will. at once 
convince us of the contrary. If England^ as 
it has been faid, contains thirty-four milli- 
ons of acres j I have little doubt but fifteen 
of them are wafte and uncultivated, that is, 
they are unimproved woods, downs, and 

Is it not therefore an enquiry vyorthy of 
the utmoft attention, whether the moft 
material obje6l of our care, is iK)t the cul- 
tivation of thofe wafte acres ? and whe- 

♦ Montcfquieu. 


t 'j i . 

ther all'the hands en^plj&yecf^'iii manufec^ 
tures, &c. to tl« amount feffhofeneceflaif 
for fuch culture, are not employed to the 
detriment of the ftate ? Provided/ if they 
were otherwife empld^ed than they are at! 
prefent, it would be in the purpcfes of fuchr 
cultivation. Themoft impartial coitfide-i 
ration of thefe points leadfi me readily tcai 
anfwer that ^Wfuch manufaBures are fn^ 
judiciaL — 

- The anfwer to this argument which I ap-' 
prehend moll likely to appear — is this^^' 
That the gr^ateft part of that land I ha\re 
called wajley is of more ufe to the publio 
in maintaining (heep, and ;confequently 
numbers of people in manufa^fluring theii? 
wool, than it vv^ould be if turned into ara* 
ble land : And likewife that manufa6lures 
in general employ hands ufelcfs to agricul-f 
ture, fuch as old people and children. 
* . That there is fome appearance of reafon 
in thefe replies, mutt be allowed ^ but if ab* 
folute knowledge of the matter of faft exi 
•perimentally founded, cannot be gained, as 
atiiever was yet, the reader ought tobc fa- 
tisfied with flidh certainty as the nature of 
-the fufbjeft will ^mit ; and from its impor- 
tance to the wfeU^being of the ft ate, every 

B 3 one 

C 6 ] 

on^ comtrnedf ou^bb to» make thefe en'*^ 
^ivies which aire wkhiA hk veoidkt to 

As fo the dtHereince between land* em-- 
ployed in the feecHng of fheepi. oi^ raifing 
fUlfivated vegistabless it is a point of fiicb 
iaiportance, and lb vei^ curious in the faiiit 
ddf(piiil]ition» that I fh^ not avoid endiea^ 
vQuring to explain it as far as I amr able. 
——One circumftancc fhould be prenailbd^ 
wbi(fb iis, that a thoufand acres of the 
pooteft arable land ever employ an infitiite-* 
}y g^elter number of hufl)andry hands than 
a ibck of fheep doesi If we cc^fidet that 
there are very few ^ep^walks that have 
Bbt under the Airface a ^atwn of marle^ 
chalky or clay; and that fnch manure;? 
dog, and fpread on the filrface, bicoclie i 
fbft and lafting i»provement when ma^ 
naged with kn^owledgc and difcrction, we 
niuft allow that a noble and eictenfive field 
i^ o|)en for private ztid public gain, an4 
the emp£(^iiient of a great number of iht 
jbeft hand^ >^hicb a fi'ate can poifei^. 

This in^proveiAent has been carried to 
great perfe£iton in ievcral parts of the 
kingdom^ and ha« anfwered very f^i$fac«- 
torihr to thofe farmers that harre had> the 


[ 7 1 

purfe and refblurion neceffary for the work, 
I have known a great number of fuch at- 
tempts on various foils, and do not recol- 
letSl one inftance of any failure owing to 
an inferiority of profit in land after being 
improved : but a general advance in the 
value of itsproduftionsand the profit made 
by the cultivator. 

I know many inftances of an advance of 
land from one fhilling rent to eight, nine 
and ten, anxl this not on a fmall farm or 
two, but over a large extent of country. 

The general run of flieep-walk land, 
when marled or clayed with judgment 
(which improvement cofts at an average 
about three pounds per acre *) will produce 
in middling ieafons three quarters and a 
half of bartey per acre 5 two, two and an 
half, and three quarters of rye ; and tur- 
nips to the value of about thirty fhiUings 5 
the mean amount of thefe three crops may 
be about two pounds five (hillings : the bar- 
ley reckoned at fixteen fhillings the quar* 

* Sbeep-walks may m foAe places be iaoproved at a 
moch: cheaper rate, i^z. where ttiey ai^e near timi'Jone^ 
and either coals, wood, or furze. Foor chaldroas wUl 
generally be a full manuring for three crops, and may 

be burnt for y 9. or 8 1. a chaldr^o. C. — — 

My togeoious. friexul fliouid not forget that marie 
laffs twenty crops. 

B 4 ter. 



( J ] 

ter, and the. rye at twenty -four. - Dedu£^ 
the expences on them, and let any intelli- 
gent perlbn make the comparifon betweei) 
the profit and that of three years flieep- 
feed : It will be found to bear none. But 


then comes the manifed fuperiority ; by 
introducing thefe crops in regular courfes 
of hufbandry, they excellently well prepare 
the ground for artificial grades fowri witK 

the Ipring corn and, without having re- 

courle to burnet or other newly difcovered 
plants, I may fafely aflert that a judicious 
farmer will (by means of clover and ray- 
t^rals) maintain nearly as many fliecp ori 
three hundred acres (laid down in coiirfe 
for three' years) as before were kept on a 
thoufand. This affcrtion, which I venture 
•on very good authority, furely is fufficient 
to conclude the argunlefit in favour of till- 
age. — ^^— Biit there are yet other points to be 

. Bcfkics tlid fuperiority of the produce of 

the land* wheft. improved in grain, we are 
"to confider, that a part of it kept conftant* 
4>in tillage, will-etpploy morehand^ than 
, attending the. original number of Iheep 

znd manufia6li|fjng their wool. Thp 
Jiands immediately employed by the farmer 

arc confiderable. Whereas one man (ex- 

■ cept 

^t: r: 1 


'f [ 9 1 

jcept at the (hearing) will take care of five 
Jiundred Iheep. The employment alfo of 
vvheel-wrights, black-fmiths, harnefs- ma- 
kers, &c. is of no fmall confequence. All 
this is fuppofing no fhecp kept -, but the 
circumftance of keeping nearly, if not as 
many as before, alters that cafe greatly, 

I have ftated the. improvements as com- 
jtnonly managed. But the pradice of fome 
fmall trails of country which I have viewed, 
is I am perfuaded of more private as well as 
' public advantage, in yielding a greater pro- 

fiuce, and employing, more hufbandry- 
hands. It confifls in letting the artificial 
^rafs (generally clover) remain only one 
year on the ground ; adding to the other 
jcrops, carrots, and fo in five years reaping 
rye, bgrley, carrots, turnips, and clover; 
keeping, no flock, only fatting cattle, 

I am: perfectly vvell faitisfied that the cafe 
^s I have flatcd it, is much under the 
truth ; for it is incredible what noble crops 
of corn are raifed on improved (heep- 
ivalks. Half the county of Nor/oik, with- 
in the memory of man, yielded riothing 
but fheep-feed ; whereas thofe very trads 
of land are now covered with as fine bar- 
ley and i7e as any in the world-r — and 
great qwantitics of wheat befides* I have 
"^ " often 

[ lO J 

often irv that country feen fields of wheat 
of five quarters pec acre, and fix quarters 
a» acre of barley are common : all thofe 
light lands in wet fcafons yield prodigious 
cwps. A profpect' far different from Hocks 
erf fheep wandering over the fluggard 
walkS) followed each by their one (hep-- 
bcrdx with a boy and a couple of dogs ! 
Think of the weakh; fucb a cultivation 
as I have hinted at, pours into the king- 
dom ! Think of the employment given to 
the ht& hands a kingdom boaiib ! Think of 
tliis improvement ; and then behold in the 
fame country as many fiieep as ever ! 

It is in this place neceflary to take no- 
tice of an argument uibd in favour of un<- 
cultiivated lands,, or rather an inftance d 
timr value^ broi^ht by a lale author, but 
without fairly naming the place* The 
pafiage alluded to is the following : 

" One finglc aft for indofure has dfe* 
il^'Qyed iiooo (beep, all breeding ftock 
hmn off one ground, within th^e county 
of Tofk ; ands of coa&qoerKe, has taken 
away the employment of 6oa manufactur- 
ers i ansd in the laine years will prevent 
Sogooo flieep from coming to the fham^ 
bks : but probably within that time may 
(kaw 20,000 pcnmds out of the pub^ 


[ " 1 

]^e treafury in bomntks^ for fending du 
|)roduce of eorn; abroad ; aiwT woi^nd^ing 
this country in the mofl! IcafiMe manner, 
A barbarous polky this ! and fuch: a one 
as our forefathers of any preceding genei^ 
jration, for two centuiies paft, would haw 
looked u|)oA with refentment; but now 
unhappily adopted ds a hudable aixd pru*^ 
,denl5 itieafure In this*. They encouraged 
and^ fuj^ported our woollen manufactory 
with the wifeft laws human prudefice 
could fuggeft, from a cfear convi£i:iony that 
ihe profperky of the nation was connected 
wiitbit; and their pdky hasbeen^ juftified 
by faftt it having atta'med (in confe- 
^^noe of thofe mcafures) a degree of 
ftrength and opulence unknown to former 

Without enquiring what traft of coun* 
try thie is in Tork/hirey I ihall fupp^fe it 
Qiatter of fajft, and take it as this writer 
ftates it Fomrcrly it was a fheep-walk, 
and now, it is c^'ident from what he fays 
of its drawing a bounty on exported corn^ 
it is 2t cultivated coirt country. He fays, it 
maintained 600 manufaflflrers. — I defire 
to be informed how many people it main- 

* The Occajion oftbi dearnefs of Prov'tftonu By a ma* 
pufaQurer. p. 22. 


r 12 ■] 

tains at prefent--^but that piece of infor-^ 
ination makes not for his argument, and 
confequently finds no place in it. What 
^ childifh enquiry into the expediency of 
anymeafure, is it, to ftate tlie cafe^j iV 
wasy and not hkeWife as it isy and draw a 
comparifon l)etween the two ! It is to be 
confidercd what vaft employment the very 
inclofing gives, and afterwards the con-^ 
ft^ntly keeping the fences, • gates, ftiies, 
bridges, &c. in .repair -, then likewife cdhies 
the employment of converting the waftes 
into arable farms, the variety of buildings 
neceflary, the numbers requifite for till^ 
age ; and laft of all, the number of mantis 
fafturersj for as I have alreidy remarked; 
a very confiderable number of Iheep may 
always be kept, and if (as in Norfolkj the 
turnip hufbandry is introduced, the'manu- 
fafture of hides encreafes amazingly.* • All 
thefe circumftances. outweigh the 600 ma- 
nufacturers of wool, who can by no means 
be compared either in meer number, or 
in progreflive population, to the vaft fupe- 
riority of employment arifing from the in* 
clofure ; and as to the 80,000 fheep in 
nine years, it is a meer matter of multipli- 
cation 5 if the tillage is fuperior in one year, 
it is proportionably in nine. 


IL i;3 J, 

The author mentions juft .before the 
above paflage, claufes in afis^againft putting 
iheep into. the. new inclofure's ; for nine or: 
eleven years ■ ■ , 'the only cqnfequence of 
which, is a variation in the farmers ma^ 
nagpment during that time 5. conf|fting of 
throwing turnips pftener into the courfes, 
or fallow years,, and fowing the lefs clover 
and rayrgrafs : we may lay it down as a 
njaxim, that the farmers will not lofe by 
this, they will adapt their hufbandry to 
this temporary circumftance, and inftead 
of the production of fheep, will produce an 
additional equivalent, either in black cat- 
tle, cows, or corn. In either cafe, (ftieep 
kept, or not) the land is converted to an 
infinitely fuperior ufe, by being cultivated^ 

A tra6t of wafte land maintains 1 1 ,000 
Iheep, and 600 manufacturers ; the land- 
lords, we will fay, know no further of it^ 
but refide at London^ poffibly, and fpend 
fcarce a (hilling on this uncultivated coun- 
try. They get an a6l for inclofing it. 
What a different view it immediately exhi^ 
bits ! A very great part of their income 
is fpent on this wafte foil, the whole 
neighbourhood is benefited, vaft numbers 
of poor people are fct to work, at hedging, 

5 ditching. 

t H ] 


Pitching, and pkntong ^^Jfarm-houfes^ 

barns, and offices are bmk — -the makera 
of allkinddof implements of agriculture 
employed, and where there were formerly 
one perfon at work, in conlequence of 
iheep, twenty will be regularly Is^ept 
by tillage. What a prejudice there- 
fore is it) to think one moment that ai 

fliecp-walk is preferable 1 But the 

drawing 20,000/. out of the public trea-* 
fury, in bounties on the exportation of 
the corn pioduced on this (heep^wsdk, 
leems much to hurt this writer; whereas, it 
is of all other pieces of policy, that which 
'kaft deferves the name of barbarous, as 
will fully be proved in my next letter, fincc 
the body of maniifafturers are moft in- 
dubitably more obliged to that meafure 
than to any ever framed ; at leaft if cauf- 
ing a cheapnefsof bread, is tobe confidered 
.as a benefit. 

In the latter part df the above quoted 
paflage, a policy contrary to. the prefent is 
•feid to have advanced the woollen manufac- 
tory to a degree of ftrength and opulence 
unknown to former ages; from which 
we are to gather that the woollen manu- 
'fa6lory has been on the decline ever iinee 

3 th« 

C 15 ] - 
the bounty was giv«n, in t688, which is 
contrary to fa6l; but if the writer fhould 
afleut this to be the cafe, then I would de^ know in what manner the profpcri- 
ty of TOanufa(5^ttres depends upon the 
cheapncfs of provifions, as wheat, the 
^principal of all, has been regularly chea- 
per ^w^ the bounty. To enter further 

into ah anfwcr to this fentiment would be 
to antrcipatemy fubje6t ; a clear ftate of the 
fafl:s and confequences, with all their com- 
binations, is the beft anfwer, even to par- 
ticular aflertions. To return : 

The fecond part of the objeflion to 
'breaking up fheep-walks, viz. the employ- 
ment of old people and children in the raa- 
•nufad^ure of wool, furefly falls to the 
ground if my foregoing reafoning is good. 
For if the fame number of (heep is not kept 
by the ground in an improved ftate — ^if 
there would be a certain number of fuch 
hands thrown out of their employment— 
the increafe of tillage would take fome, and 
the trades dependent upon it, many : For it 
is a miftaken idea that agriculture finds no 
employment for fuch. In the villages with 
which I am acquainted, the farmers em- 
ploy a^U boys, that can earn four pence a day 


[ 16 ] 

by fpinning ; indeed it is very rare to find 
one at that work that earns three pence j 
and as to thofe very little children and old 
people who at prefent fpiri, they would 
moft undoubtedly meet with as good work 
then, confidering the vaft number of fheep 
which muft always be kept, let tillage be 
ever fo flourifhing. 

And here, it may pot be amifs flightly 
to confider the different employments chil- 
dren and old people meet with in a farm 
perfectly cultivated, or but indifferently fo. 
Weeding — picking of feed-corn — frighting 
vermin — ^planting peafe and beans — fli- 
cing and dropping potatoe-fetts,— gather- 
ing potatoes, — with an infinite variety of 
''other bufinefs, will, in a large farm, per- 
feftly well cultivated, yield far more fuch 
employment, than one managed in the 
flovenly way too often feen. » 

Having, as I think, fufficiently proved 
that it would be the moft political condu6l 
to turn all the commons and flieep-walks in 
the kingdom into arable farms; and there 
beings as I have obferved, fifteen millions 
of acres of fuch; the next enquiry ought 
to be, whether we a6l rationally in giving 
, tjhe leaft encouragement to manufafturers 
■(i ^ (always 

(afways confidcring them in two ligml; 
one working on our own prodnftions, and 
the other on foreign dhes) until fuch wafte 
lands are duly improved and converted to* 
the ufes of arable farms t 

Let us confidcr the diffcrfenfie between s 
dumber of men employed in manufactur- 
ing a foreign produftion— ^Si!k, for in- 
ftance— — and the fame hands employed Irt 
l>reaking up, and cultivating trails of un- 
improved land. I am aware that it will at 
once be remarked, that wc mtift purchafe 
of foreigners (witti money ppfljbly) thofe 
vefy manufactures which we at prefent 
make ampnigft ourfclves. The query there- 
fore is, Whether it would not be more ad- 
vantageous to employ the hands in the cul- 
tivation of the earth, and if we mtift have 
thofe manufaclures, purchafe them with 
the value of the earth's prbdu6ls? fuppof- 
ing the amount of each the fame. Or, in 
other words, whether a thoufand men em- 
|)loyed in manufacturing a foreign com- 
modity are of equal value to tjie State as^ 
the fame number employed in the arts of 

Here it muft be remembered, that One 
millions worth of things vendible^bein^ produc-* 

e tfoni^ 

[ i8 1 

tions from our earthy and raifed by our own 
hands at home^ w/7/, njohen exported^ bring a 
nation more real gain^ than the Jale of three 
millions worth of goods in manufadlures^ pro^ 
videdthe materials manufactured are purchq/e J 
from abroad^ From he.nce it appears that 
there is a balance of three to one in favour 
of the produftions raifed by the hands in 
queftion on our uncultivated lands, fupe- 
rior to the manufaftures they work upon^ 
in value to the State. 

And that this fuperiority is real, and 
branches out to a variety of other intereds, 
is manifeft if we confider the difference in 
Jlability of a commerce founded on the w- 
ceffities ov fuperfluities of life. The demand 
for corn will, always, in every human 
probability, be more regular and certain 
than that for (ilk ,or any other elegant ma- 
pufa^ure ; our prefent experience teaches 
us this fa6t, fmce of all the branches of our 
extenfive trade, none is fo univerfally be- 
neficial as that of corn. England m five 
common years, namely from 1745 to 1750, 
(hipped off in grain of all forts, to the 
amount of 7,405,786 pounds fterling, 

* Eflays on Hulbaadry, p. 25. 


[ 19 ] 

which, as has been obferved before, is 
equivalent, in national advantage, to 
22,000,000 raifed by manufaftures expor- 
ted, when the materials are not our own 
produSiion. The infinite importance of 
fuch a trade muft appear from hence fuffi- 
ciently ftriking. Such a vaft demand ipt 
our corn, having fo long continued an 
almofl: regular trade, we ought furely with 
all imaginable attention to encreafe the 
culture, not only to enable us to continue, ' 
but even encreafe the quantity exported, as 
an increafe bf the growth will be attended 
with a falling in the price, which will con- 
fequently add to the permanency of the 
commerce, by inducing foreign nations 
rather to buy their corn of us than to cul- • 
tivatc it themfelves. 

That this is a probable confequence may 
be inferred from the conftitutions, cuf* 
toms, manners and religion of feveral coun- 
tries in Europe, which are unkind to 
the cultivation of the earth; and fo oppo- 
fite to that general freedom which is the 
Rfe of agriculture, that it may be a mea- 
fure more eafy, fure, and ready to purchafei 
corn ^t)f us, than to go about the great 
hufinefs of cultivation themfelves. Does it 

' C z not 

[ 20 ] 

not therefore behove us greatly to take eA 
pecial care of their being fare in their de- 
pendance on usj and not> when tlieir day 
of fcarcity comes, refufe them fuch a nc- 

ceffary of life. No ^ not on any confir 

deration $ for it is not to be imagined that 
the lofs is only dun>ng the time we think 
proper to proliibit om exportation : we 
fhould be lucky indeed if the extent of our 
lois w^s meafured only by the period of 

our owtf prohibition*. Much greater 

reafon have we to expe^ that fuch people^ 
difappointed in fo . neceflary an importa- 
tion, will either go all lengths to raife a fuffi- 
ciency, (and wherever that is the cafe m$re 
than a fufficiency) or turn their eyes to 
fbrne wifer people for a fupply *. 

Now the enabling ourfelves to fupply fo.»- 
reign nations in a regular and fure manner, 
and alfo keeping the price of corn at a pre^ 

* Sir James Stewart fpeakmgof the management of 
a truly political ftatefman, fays, " He muft at the fame 
time continue to give proper encouragement to the ad- 
vancement of agriculture, that there may be conftaat-- 

ly found a furplus oi fubfiftence, (fr without a Jurp/ks. 
there can never be enough -,) this muft be allowed to go 
abroad, and ought to be confidered as the provifion of 
thofe induftrious hands which are yet unborn. ' Enquiry, 
into the Principlesof Poliiical OEcomrny^ Vol. i. pt. /fcS- 

i 11 ] 

per height, can only be effefted hjJiiUy cul- 
tivating the earth, before hands are fuffered 
to be employed about any mamifa6l«res 

but what are abfolutely neceffary 1 fay 

abfoltaely neceffary; fince thofe between 
which and agricuhure there is a mutual de- 
pendence, will relativdy be encouraged by 
advandng agriculture *. 

There is not only a great fuperiority in 
the value to the ftateof the productions of 
the earth railed, for inftance, by a thou- 
fand hands— —over the manuf azures 
wrought by the fame number ort a foreign 
commodity ; but thofe employed in agri- 
calture wHl find a more fure and regular 
dep^dance on their bufinefs than any ma- 
mifafturers can. Popular riots, infurrcc- 
tions, and complaints are infinitely more 
common amongft the latter than the for- 
mer ; which, when founded in reafon^ are 
very plain proofs, that they do not meet 
with fuch conftant work as their regular 

• M. Bertrand with very great jaftice therefore lays it a maxim» that, Ancune manufadiure ne doit 
etre etablie aux depends de Tagriculture & de la culture 
da Ue en p^dcojier. Ce princlpe a ete etabli par des 
ar£um^as ipTiacjlbles en divers endroits du recueil de 
la Sopieie CEconoyjouiue'de Berne. EJfai/ur UEfprit 

C 3 main- 

E " ] 

. malntainanee requires. At fome particular 
times their earnings may be confiderable ; 
but fuch ir^gular advantages amongft a 
fet of men, remarkable for fpending in one 
day the wages of three, (when in one day 
they can earn the pay of three) is of very 
little ufe to themfelves, their families, or 
their country. Whereas the people employ- 
ed in agriculture are equal in their earn- 
ings I their pay is fmall, but then it is con* 
ftant ■ they are not flung out of work 

for a fmgle day nor do they, except at 

ftated regular times, like harveft, earn 
enough in one week to make them lazy for 
three ; and as thefe, beneficial feafons come 
fo regularly, they are Yeldom attended with 
the ill confequences fo remarkable in the 
other cafe. The labourer's pay is low dur- 
ing winter, it rifes gradually to harvefl-, 
and then finks again, but not immediate- 
ly J and this variation is not owing to any 
accidental caufe, but comes regularly with 
the feafons. Any fuch fudden change as a 
mourning on the one hand*, or an unex- 


^ Depais que le commerce eft devenu la bafe de la 
puifance politique, rioduftrie generate eprouve con- 
tHiueilement des grandes revolutions. La liaifon qae 
lous le$ etats de r£urope ont enfemble, fait qa'une 





[ 23 ] 

peded demand for goods on the other^ he* 
ver ftarves him with the total want of em- 
ployment— —or on the contrary, pours a 
tide of money on him pernicious in every 
confequence *. 

The ftriking corollary to be drawn from 
thefe pa^rticulars furely is this : Never to ob- 
ftruSl or in any meafure difiredit the f ale of the 
cultivator i produSis in favour of the people 

gaerre qdi^ft a deux cent lieuesd'im contincDt, fufpend 
les arcs & les manufadures d'un autre. Alors une foule 
4*Ouvriers eft fans travail, & par coufequent, fe trouve 
reduic^ a la meDdicite, fans que ces - fondatioDs dont 
nous venoqs de parler puiflTent remedier a cet inconveni- 
ent. Les Inter efts ie \a France malentendus^ torn. 3. 

pu 30"2. 

♦ The beil politidans are feo/ible of the great value 
of this clafs or inhabitants. Si J'on demaudoit quelle 
portion de fes hommes un etat dolt donner a la culture 
des terr69, on pourrpit prefque repondre que I'exces 
n*eft point a craindre dans cette profeflion : Remarques 
fur les Avantages et les Defavantages de la France et dg la 
Grand Bretagne, p. 20. On ne pourroit done decrire 
dans un trop grand detail le oombre des laboureurs 
dans chaque Paroifle, le nombre des mariages, leur 
fecondite, la duree de la vje de ces hommes precieux qui 
exercent I'emploi le plus necejjairej le plus penible, & 
le moins paye, de la fociete \ rhumanite & Tinteret 
generate concourreroient unanimeroent a leur faire un 
fort doux & aife : I'etat en feroit recompenfe par Taug- 
mentation de fes richefles en hommes & en produc* 
tioM.p. 291, 

C 4 employed 

t H ] 

fmpJojfid in mant^aShites. Enafatih^ bur 
panufa6lur^rs to feU their goods cheajp to 
foreigners, is undoubtedly a wife zn^fof e 
r--7-but it ceafes to be fucb, iivfaen eflS&d:e4 
(fuppoling it ever was) by cramping the 
iale of the produce of our lands * : Be- 
(caufe iziore than we gain by one meafurf 
we lofe by the other* But cMiftaht expe- 
rience evinces that whatever klcreafes the 
fale of a produftion, likcwifc increafes the 
quantity of itj thwcfor^ if we would have 
bread cheap for pur manufaftpres, wc 
fiiould fuffer the exportaticm c^ com to be 
conftant find unobftru£ted. ^ 

I have hitherto fpoken of manufa^res 
rather in a general fepfe, and bi^t (lightly 
^iltinguifhed between th6& Which are 
V^orkcd up from our own produ^ions^ 
^d fuch as are wrought from foreign oiies* 

^ Although )napqfa4li^re$, art^ and comineree. 671 
M. Carardf well dircftcd iTcrve to vivify JigricultiirQ^ 
peverthelefs a bad poUtician miight eaiily reader theoEi 
pernicious to his country, by depriving it of thofe 
bands it ipoft wants. If he iacrifices thp cultivators tc) 
^he traders ; if for re^ndering labour cheap, ^^ cra^ipt 
the former in the fale of their commodities, ihpy bc^ 
come difgufled at their culture, and a|-e tran8forine4 
for the moft part into dQQQeAics and miferable artiaKt|»* 
tfEfprit it la Legtjlatim pour encouragtr fAffrUaJltwri* 
]^(era. Mem. 1765. Vol. 2.p. 263, 


t *s i 

ifrk^ proportion the number of hands em^ 
ftofed in the kft btar, to the minrber ne- 
Oi^aLtf to eemfktf our cultivation^ I tannot 
^recifely affcrt : But if they were all em- 
ployod towarda perfe^ing fueh cultivation^ 
I iMivie reafon {vStcvtat to beHeve their la- 
bour xwoqld be attended with an infinitely 
greater benefit to th6 public ^. 

As » thofe mattufa^urcs which are 
*i^oUght from our own produfts, reafon 
ftt onofe tdlk u« that they are of infinitely 
greater v*kie to us than the others. This is 
9i jsiaxifn lb fdif-'evident that it needs no 

^ Several Frchch writers are fenfible of the ill con* 
fisqfienc^ r^&lldng £rosi puftii&g manufafhires too fan 
**' £ecaufe onr maoufaftures of gcldand filmer AoA 
fiild laces yfeld a living to a great number of work* *7 
inoQL\ 'becafttfc flicy employ our genius ; becaufe they 
p%c\%G the adnuratioD of fomgocrs ; bteaofe they irri<r ^ 
tate luxury ; becaufe they occafion a certaia confumpr ^ 
tion; our adminiftratioo fee nothing elfe. Neverthe--. 
kft tbeambmitof the evils they xraufe the public to fee} 
|s much mere confiderable than the good they procure* ^ 
1. They crainp all other branches of induftry, 2. They ^ . 
ibocafioQ a great number of fubjcfts lofing fight of ne- ^^ 
ceflary proteilions ; which they entirely abandon. 3. 
They caufe a geeeral dearnefs in confumption, becaule 
this inrdtiftry » better paid than any other. 4. LaHly, 
diey conibiDe gre»t Quantities of gold and filvcr, which 
prcnlated thro' our fioancea, would augment the power 
of the Stat^/' Lis Inttnp mal entendus^ torn* 2. 


f 26 1 

proofs The chief of • thefe ^re wool and 
leattier* And here it is worthy of obfcr- 
yation, that our moft valuable manufac* 
tures are fo very nearly .conne6ted with 
agriculture, as to depend on the farmer 
for their very being. I have already drawn 
part of a parallel between a (he^walk re- 
maining for^ its old purpofe, or converted 
into ^n arable farm ; from .whatever know- 
ledge I can gairf on the fubje6^, there is the 
cleareft certainty of the fuperior value of 
the latter : — -that is, the value of the pro- 
dudlions of the farm in corn, neat cattle, 
&c. added to the quantity of wool which 
it will yield in its iiriproved ftate (fuppofing 
fewer ftieep are then kept, which I have 
no reafon to believe is the cafe) is altoge- 
ther a fource of infinitely greater public and 
private wealth, than the fame land occu-^ 
pied folely in feeding (heep. And yet how 
many times has the meafure of breaking 
up flieep-walks been cenfured by men 
whofe intelligence one might have thought 
better founded ? 

As to the other manufafture, that of 
leather, it is well known the quantity of 
hides would be greatly increafed from the 


C ^7 ] 
confumptioa of ttunips, ,flraw and hay,, 
above . what would be neceflary for winter 
provifion for thelheep. 

Wool has been fo long fuppofed the. fa« 
cred flaple and foundation of all our 
wealth) that it is fomewhat dangerous to 
hazard an opinion not confonant to its 
encouragement. But if the cultivation 
of the land and the manufacture of wool 
/hould come in competition ; the former 
ought to be encouraged in preference* [But 
be it ever remembered, that the wife policy 
in all cafes is to harmonize agriculture and 
manufadlures- — and if one is in need of 
encouragement, it ought ever to receive it 
\ifpoJJible without prejudicing the other. 

In reipe<5l to the different importance of 
the produce of corn and the panufa^ure 
of wool, another circumftance ought not 
to be omitted, which is, that corn finds a 
more regular and conflant fale than cloths 
—that foreign nations make greater ad- 
vances in manufactures than in agricul- 
ture, owing perhaps to the formers flou- 
riftiing better than the latter under arbitra- 
ry governments. That we have loft the 
trade of cloth to France^ owing to the ma- 
nufacture at Abbeville ; and are declining 






[ a8 1 

in many other places where agriculture is 
not encour^ed equally with their manu* 
failures. All people mufl eat bread, and 
if they are wanting in that wife policy of 
providing it in preference to clothing, we 
IhaTl, to our glorious advantage, find our 
profit in fupplying them with the one, how 
foon foever we may be beat out of the 

other J provided the contrary event does 

not arife from the want of a regular and 
perpetual exportation. 

In diefe affairs the example of France 
ought to deter us from a rage in favour of 
maniifaflures. I fhall copy here the words 
of a true politician *. — " Colbert rather de- 
preffed than promoted the interefts of 
France^ when he conceived a projeft of 
enriching it by eftablifhing a vaft number 
of manufactures ; flattering bimfclf at the 
fame time, that bylpaaking the produftions 
of his manufaftures fubfcrvjent to luxury 
and falfely refined elegance, he fhould muU 
tiply the wealth of his own nation by fup- 
plying and feeding the extravagance and 
vanity of other nations ; but fome part of 
the Jolly happened toftick where it took its rije^ 
and became infeSiious at home-, which fhews 
that luxury is an unfortunate faftiion in 

^ Hartis EJfaji on Hajband^'ji Eflay I. p. 1 79, &c. 



[ ^ I 

any country/ though at the fame time it 
preferibes the mode to foreiguers, and in«- 
duces them to purchaie iuch mei-ely orna- 
mental elegsuocies as are the workraanlhip 
of our own artifts. Under the idea of 
hoarding up great quantities of proviiions 
for the fuppprt of his workfolks> (and that 
prihci^lly 1y aifiru^ng the free vent and^ex^ 
porttfthn tfcerm) this minifler had the ap- 
plaufe ofthe poor, who naturally favour 
any fidiienne, ireal or in^inary^ that pro* 
rtiifes to lovsrer the price of bread ; for their 
widerftandings can rarely i]be deeply into 
the truth of things, any more than the ad-* 
vams^e of a nation in general, or of them- 
iblves upon the whole. In like nfianner 
the hlftorians and poets hoaded the prime 
nainilkr with .pan^yrics, as the true fa<> 
flier of the people, and made no ceremony 
to. d^redate the wifer conduS of &uUy. 
But alas ! it never truly appeared that trade 
and commerce, even in their nvoift flou- 
liihing (late, emiched a kingdcun like the 
folid' re vemjes th^t proceied from a right and 
efie^al cultivation of the earth* Thus» 
though the Fremb nation was intoxieated 
with the hopes of icnmenfe riches, and 
though they fupplied all Europe with filks 

I and 

[ 30 3 

and embroideries and expenfive trifles, yet 
the fund of real wealth was deficient at bot- 
tom, Famine made its appearance frequently 
and almoft periodically *. The proprietors of 
^ landed 

♦ ** Heretofore, fays a French author, the EngHJb com- 
plaiaed that Prance poured iu a prodigious quantity of 
gvain upon them, and were themfelves furprized that this 
commerce did not diminish her riches, nor the immeofe 
sibundanceof her confumption. The greatCd/^^r/,]efs fore- 
feeing than Sully^ believed that he favoured the ftate, by 
prohibiting the exportation, of corn. But the &me edi^ 
which prevented the farmer from difpoilng of his crop 
to his miiid, occafioned his fowing the lefs : from 
ihence aroTe the frequent famines, which in fucceffioa 
afflifted by turns the feveral provinces of France^ even 
the mofl fertile. Colbert could not perfuade himfelf 
that the liberty of exportation, procured a prodigious 
importation of grain; the one neverthelefs refulted 
from the other. The merchant, who had entire liber- 
ty in this article, found, for inflance, that corn Was 
dieaper at Dantzick than in France ; he brought it 
from thence and depoGted it in the maritime cities of 
the latter, re^dy for a market in Spain and Portugal. 
But if, in the mean time, he found that the crop of a 
province had failed, his com jxnmedi^tely fupplies the 

?»lace, for finding a profit* in felling it at home, he 
reely accepts it without running any new hazards. If 
odi the contrary, all the provinces have an abundant 
crop, they find an eafy method of felling the furplus, 
by which means the corn is prevented from, falling to 
fo low a price as to difcouragc the cultivator. I think 
that a total liberty of importation and eytx>rtation of. 
this commodity would now procure the fame advan- 
tage, but I am certain it ought not to have the lead 
duty upon it. This is the Angle means of re-eflablifii- 
ing a competition with the Engiijh^^ Rich'efe de 


[ 31 ] 

landed eftatcs (for they with others at firft 
ran into the univeiial notion of admiring 
the projcft) thought themfelves very hap^ 
py, after a confiderable traft of time^ to 
advance their rents a ftxth part, though nno^ 
ney bore tme third a greater value than be- 
fore : Impofts and taxes were increafed im-*' 
moderately ; And a coniiderable part oii 
the lands (not being found, or, at leaft, 
not believed to anfwer the experices <A ciil- 
tivation) was overlooked and neglected l)y 
little and little, and, at length, degenerf- 
ted into wafte and defolated tfiafits pf 
country. All which m^y fuffice to fliew, 

VEtat a Us Pieces qui ont paru pour (f centre ^iy,64^ 
p. 278. /dies d*un Citoyenfur P Adminijiration des Finan-^ 
cesdu Roi. Ao apology by fome may be thoughx ne-' 
cefTary, fot introduciDg fo many quotations front 
French authors ;. bat the reader will pleafe to coiifider,^ 
that there is at,prefent in France a fet of political wri^ 
ters, whofe. works are really admirable j and if we may 
judge by the prefent plan of domeftic policy purfue^ 
by the miniflry, there is great reafon to believe it aQu-* 
»ted by their advice, for many of their beft projefl^^ 
have of late been executed. This circumftance,, 
and their being hitherto utitranflated, will, I ap- 
prehend, plead my excufe. Amidft a deluge o^ 
tranflations of romances and frivolous pieces, it is 
amazing that this nation of politicians has not called for 
thofe writings of the French patriots, and cfpecially qi\ 
the fubjcft of encouraging agriculture, which havc^ 
made ib great a noife in divers parts of Eur^pe^ 

8 that 


[ s^ i 

ifttfkt the cultivation of the e^rdi ought ric^ 
to he fuperiedoi by a paffioa (or com* 

The poiot of balance between agricul-'' 
tiire and manufadure muft beconfidereit 
in another light, ft is fuppoied, that top- 
ping the fak of tiic earth's prodju£iion8 isr 
to encpufagement to our xnamifaftures : 

fW^ a very juft idea of Colter f$ miniftry., •' Csftertf fays 
e» to whom £m;/i coaiided the care of augmcDtiDg his 
fomnf ^ an augooeiitsitioa of qommerce^ xaifed hU edifice 
lefore he had laid the foandatioo. He iaw the ^raodfa/ 
of the monarchy through the medium of manura^iuresy 
whereas he oogbc^o have viewed them through thtf 
medium of primary materials. He fixed his attentiou too 
much upon the artSj but ucver coi^fideiied agticulture 
enough, ff I may be allowed the expreiOony he was 
always fabricating, but never creating. His .geui^s 
poIfelTed every part of the d^tpil, b^t,ne.h^d no^bicA 
of the great l^iflator. Be Vira;^ fpnkiin ijqinuuae, ^ni 
never rofeabove th^sir fphcre. The biapufa^^urer abr 
fbrbed the minifler. The fabricator carded away the 
ftfitefman. Urged by reputation, be wpuld fipiflii his 
work, at a time when his. real glory vfas to commence. 
la fpite of his high reputation (a reputation acquired 
by all who make great chapg^sin a government) he pro* 
jefted none of thofe great ftrokes of State, or, as it is 
better eXprefTed in the French, thofe coups d'etaty which 
decide the fortune of a nation. In his fyfiem he moved 
in a beaten rout, but never ftruck put a path of his^ 
own." Les Inter e/is de U France mfil entmdus^ Ume Ti* 
f. 265, 266, 267. 

I think' 

i 33 ] 

1 think I have already proved, that was tlfe 
effeft fuch as is fuppofed, it would be a 
mod impolitic meafure. But I (hall nbw 
bfFer a few confiderations to difplay the 
falfity of the expe6i;ation— — and venture to 
aflert that the lowering the price of provi- 
fions is of no ufe to our manufaftureS. 
This is a very fruitful fubjecl, ami would ' 
admit of many reflexions of the utmofl: 
importance on the good of manufa<5lures 
in general ; but I (hall be fliort in what I 
have to offer on this head, as the matter 
has been handled in a very fenfible maimer 

We fhould, in the firft place, take ^ 
vJew of populous manufafluring coun- 
tries, and obferve if provifions bearing 
a high price adds to the dearnefs of their 
manufaflures. Amongft fuch people, the 
Dutch hold the firft .rank. Now it has* 
been aflerted •{-, and it feems on perfe£Hy 
good authority, that a Dutch manufa6lurer 
pays near a third of his earnings in taxes 
**—— an EngUJh manufafturer not above 
one tenth. — Again ; fuch bread a^ thtEn* 
glijh manufadlurer eats, the Dutchpan 

* Coali<j€rationi on Taxes, 1765. flbid. 

D muft 

( 34 J 

nsuft pay three pence per pound for, tLn4 
buys his flefh at nine pence per pound. . 
And if the prodigious national debt of Hoi-- 
land^ which, with the landing expences of 
the ftate, &c. occafion a vaft variety and 
height of taxes, was not attended with this 
cffe6t, it would be very ftrange: Nor 
ifaould we fc^get the fmall quantity of their 
land, with their numerous inhabitants, as 
a contrail which greatly adds to the price 
of provifions. Neverthelefs, great as the 
price conftantly is, loaded as they are with 
taxes, the Dutch manufa6lure the products 
of a variety of countries, and afibrd thent 
at a lower rate at market than any people 
among whom the necefiaries of life are 
cheaper. Hence Mr. Locke long ago ob- 
served, that the frugality and induftry oF 
the Dutch were fo great from the high price of 
provifions, that they would buy our rape- 
ieed, make it into oil, and fell it cheaper^ 
than we could. — Notwithftanding the vaft 
weight in expences of food and taxes un- 
der which the Dutch labour, yet their dailf 
pay is not above fourteen pence. 

The fame circumftances may be obfer-- 
ved in France ; the price of brea^ there iB^ 
often fix times above its average ^ and as 



to their tixess they are coUe«ed m w 
Tbui thenfomc a manner, and fall in fuch am 
infinitely heavier proportion on th^ poor 
J)eople, than on any clafs in thp ftate, 
that their amount mujft be confidered 
fes Far greater than ours. ^leverthelefsj 
labour is there three times as cheap 
)as with us ) by which means the French 
are enabled to underfell us in all markets 
where there antes a competition ♦. 

Now, on the contrary, take a view oi 
thofe countries where the neceffaries oF 
life are extremely cheap, and it will inva* 
riably be found, that fuch countries are 
lieither fo well peopled nor do manufac-* 

» TK^ pekit ^hlch I here aim at protiog, has Ijeen 
the <M>ibioB i>f the moil feniibie politidatis. lit WilH^m 
temple fays, ** In order to advance the trade of Ireland^ 
** provHions mcift be rendered fo dear as to enforce ge- 
.« ©eral indufttt-" ^^^s^ Voh i.^. 114.' Sir miliam 
fttty^ Sir Jopah Chlld^ Mr. Polixfen, ,Mr. Gee, and 
t)thefs, have all concurred in the fame obfervaiioa, 
Wr. thit trade caa neVer be greatly extended where the 
fuceffarie^ if life areverj cheap. The author of the V'trt^ 
iicaiion of Commerce and the Arts^ {2iys^ ** The reafoa 
■*• why conifli6rC6 f^ldo'm flo'uriflies in a fertile countrv- 
«* thiQly peopled, is becaufe fend being there of fmall 
** valua, from the fcarcity of inhabitants, provifionB 

** are cheap and plentiful, and labour dear." See 

ttlfo Dr. Franklin in his Ohfetvations concerning the In^ 
creafe ^ Mankind \ s^nd Mr, Locke, De ff^itt fays, 
** That high taxes promote invention, induftry aad 
•• frogtlity/'-*.Confideralion on Taxes, p. 29. 

D 2 * tures 


I 36 ] 

turcs' flourifti amongft them. This fact is 
too well known to require illuftration. 

As thefe circumftances are very fpeaking, 
and as the example of our own country adds 
to the proof, it is worth inquiring into the 
reafons of them. They are fupported by the 
concurrent teftimonies of variety of times, 
nations, and authors \ it is a certain fa6t 
that manufa(5lures never flourifti in coun- 
tries where bread, and confequently other 
provifions are very cheap. 

There is not a more common argument 
than pleading for the neceflity of fupply- 
ing our manufadurets ' with provifions 
cheap, that they may afford to work 
cheap, and their matters to fell cheap : 
This chain of conclufions is fo obvious 
and natural, that it is at once taken upon 
truft, and confidered, eontr&ry to all ex- 
perience, as matter of' reality. But the 
truth is, workmen work to live j and if 
four' days earnings are fufficient to main* 
tain them fix, they will be idle the remain- 
ing two. This, beyond all doubt, is the 
reafon for the foregoing aflerted fafts being 
true. There \% not a more pernicious evil 
to manufactures than idlenefs among the- 
workmen : if they fpend a day or two ia 
7 the 

t 37 1 


the week without work, it hurts them* 
when they do work — their labour durihg 

the tirne is loft to the ftate and cheap- 

jieis of living enables them to treat their 
isiafters in a manner not to the fervice of 
the bufinefs in general : On the contrary, 
when provisions are fo dear that they are 
obliged to ftick clofe to their work for a 
maintainance, the trade has the benefit of 

all their ' labour and bufinefs goes on fo 

regularly that the matters are enabled to 
fupply the markets cheaper than when a 
great plenty allows the workmen to earn 
in a (hort time what will fuffice for their 
maintainance during a longer. " Thofe, 
fays the author of the Confideratiom^ who 
are concerned in the manufadories of this 
kingdom, know, by experience, that the 
poor do not labour, upon an average, 
above four days in the week, unlefs prp- 
vifions happen to be very dear. When 
this is the cafe, a general induftry is im- 
mediately created, the poor crowd about 
the houfes of matter manufafturers, beg- 
ging for work almoft at aily rate :— -The 
quantity of labour then offered tends to 
Ipwerits price, and the populace work five 
QX fix days in a week inftead of three op 

P 3 .fpMr, 

C 38 3 

fpur, becaufe they cannot live by working 
Jefe. The very fevsrfc of this happ?n> 
when wheat and other provifions 9x^ at 4 
low pfice- Tippling houfes and Ikittle^ 
grounds are then crowded, inileaci of their 
maimer's court yard ; idlenefs and debavch-^ 
e^ . generally take place j labour grQW9 
fcarci^, and mailers are obliged to feek it, 
^nd CQUxt the labourer to his work. B^^* 
perience evinces that this is the true, thp^ 
tnelanchoLy ilate of the cafes and front 
lience it appears, that the poor 8)ight live 
(lomfort^bly by working fix d^ys in th© 
week, even though neceiferies were taxed 
double to what they are at prefent.*' 
' It; is » little remarkable th^t fo qiany 
jiutbors of credit fliould fall into the cpm* 
xnon opinion, that provifion$ being cheap, 
is an advantage to manufa^ures i from the 
iSeceitful qonclufions mentioned above. 
M. Vangt^eilk obferves,. that " The em->» 
ployment of mtn is augmented by coni- 
fumption ; confumption by a good mar- 
l^et, which depends upon the price of 
\vork; which likewife follows the price of 
^p neceflsries of life *." ^ And another re^ 

♦ Avantages (^ Drfavanta^ef de la Franci ^ Grandi 
Mj^iitdgmi. p. 293. ; ^ . . ; 

^ ; , . inarksi 

♦ t- 4 

C ^» 1 

^marks, tliat '? The natural plenty or 
fcarcity of the prod a As of the eartfa> ne- 
ceflary for the fiiftenance of life, deter«> 
mines the price of proviiions, and the 
price of provifioji3 determines the price of 
labour in every bufineis and occupatioi| 
whatfoeverrl*/ Some of thefe writers, 
however, fall into palpable contradidtions 
whenever they extend their combinations. 
^* Whatever raifes the necefiaries of life^ 
I'aifes labour, and confequently every thing 
that is produced by labour §," fays one 
of them } and yet prefently after remarks, 
when fpeaking of pariihes being obliged to 

keep their own poor " So that ivben 

frovijwm are cheapo they won't work 
above half the week, but fot or idle away 
half their time J/* It would puzzle any 
pne who advances thefe opinions to account 
how any circumflance which caufed fuch 
idlenefs ihould lower the price of manur 
faftures ; And it is very cAfervable, that 
the authors above quoted, do not enter in* 
to an examination of the principle they 

^ Lawt and PoHcy^ |>« 1 3* 

5 mp^ «« the Cau/is of ^e Decline of Fortign Trade^ 
«• 6. 

' ' P 4 advance, 

f 40 ] 

(i^vance, but take the flatter upon tru4 
and of cojurfe ; the laft fpeaks of it in dif- 
ferent lights, and the lieaft ex^minatioi) 
involves him in a contr^diaion from hav- 
ing adopted a general opinion, without a 
previous and attentive confider^tipn, 

Thofe who have taken the contrary fide 
of the queftion, ufe arguments of a differ 
xcnt nature, founded in fails and univer- 
sal experience; for, befides the authors I 
have already quoted, others muft not be 
forgot* One, fpeaking of Birmingham^ 
pbferves, ^f In that town great numbers of 
women, jchildren> and infirm perfons, even 
moft of thpfe in the pariQi workhoufe, 
having h^tn engaged in the manufaftures, 
ihe undertakers have reduced to a furpriz- 
ing degree the price of every article they 
have taken in hand. The people of Ge^ 
nevay one of the cbeapeft and moji indujirious 
places in Europe, were beat by them out of 
the manufafture of enanielled toys, which 
they had for a long time monopolized 5 the 
founding, gilding, and l^queping ornamen- 
tal articles in metal, have been carried by 
them over all other places in a moft extra- 
ordinary manner*." Now the price qf 

• Mufeum I^iffiicHmj Vol. vi. p* 95. 

I » ■ • ( - .- » ; • 1.S • • , < » 

f . 41 ] 

provifions at Birmingham^ if we will be^i 
^lieve the difeontented authors, has beeij 
jnuch higher than abroad, from whence, 
according to. their cpnclufipns, Genevtf 
fhould Jiave gained the fuperiority, the 
contrary of which 13 the truth. Sir William 
^empU likewife, forming a cprnpariforj 
between Holland and Ireland^ fays -f*^ ** For 
if we talk of induftry, we are ftill as much 
to fcek, what it is that makes people in- 
duftrious in one country, and idle in an-r 
pther. I con/ceive fhe true original anij 
grounds of trade to be, great njultitude of 
people crouded into fmall compafs of land^ 
iwberehy all things necejfary to life become dear^ 
and all men who have poffeffions, are in- 
duced toparfimpnyj but thofe, whohavQ 
none, are forceid to induftry and labour, or 
/elfe to want."— — For a proof that land and 
maint^inance, being cheap in America^ 
gnd labour at the fame time dear, fee the 
Obfervatiofis concerning the increafe ofman^ 
kind^ peopling of countries y &c. Philadelphia, 
J 751. annexed to the Jntereji of G. Briy 
tdiny with regard to her Colonies^ p. 50, 5I1 
^2, ^c. all contrary to the common npt 

i- H^arkft Vol. i, p. 6.Q. /«/. tdiu 


[ 42 ] . 

tions of frovifions ckap^ mapufoBurn 

ibe fame. 

From the foregoing fa^s and remarks, 
may we not juftly draw fome very import 
tant conclufions ? Does it not appear, Pirft^ 
That agriculture is the true foundation of 
all the wealth which can flow into this 
nation— r-whether it be immediately from 
commerce or manufa£lureis ? Secondly^ 
That we have vaft trafts of uncultivate4 
land, and much cultivated in an incom«- 
plete manner; and that our firft, and 
moft important bufinefs ought to be tq 
advance the culture of the whole to the 
highefl perfcftion. ^hirdfy^ That this 
great improvement fhould take place 
before any encouragement is given to 
increafe the number of manufafturers, it 
being proved, that, until fuch cultivation is 
complete, the generality of them are a pre- 
judice to the ftate, in that circumftance of 
not being employed about the moji impor- 
tant concern of it. Fourthly^ That it is in 
the higheft meafure impolitic, in any degree 
or manner, to obftruft the free fale of the 
earth's produ6lions, on a fuppofition that 
fuch a conduft will be of advantage to ma- 
nufacturers,— —-or on any fuppofitjon 
6 what- 

! 43-! 

whatever s fince fuch inanageti^nt is proved 
very bad, fjrpm all experience* 

Thefe are the plain corollaries which ap-P 
pear to me naturally arifing fpopi a fa\r 
^ate of the foregoing cqfe : I hope I . have 
fufficiently proved the trqth qf ip<?ft pf 
the faits, and the grqat probability of t^? 

reil, from which J have drawn the ab9¥^ 



I 44 3 


HAVING, as I think, my beloved 
countrymen, proved the vaft and 
fuperiof advantages of agriculture, I fhall 
next examine fome peculiar and flriking 
methods of encouraging it, — r— and inquire 
into its prefent date. In this letter, I ihall 
confine myfelf to that great foundation of 
4iverfity of opinion^ the Exportation of 

In all fuch matters as thefe, it is much 
the moft fatisfa6tory method of treating 
them, to difplay, firft, the fafts (and luck^ 
ily this fubjc6l will afford me many very 
remarkable ones j) and fecondly, draw fuch 
conclufions from them, as readily arife 
from their nature. 

The exportation of corn firft received a 
jbounty jn the year 1689; and, as it has 
by many been fhought to advance the price 
of wheat at hopie, by that means ftarving 
our own manufafturers to enable foreign 
pnes to work cheap, it is, in the firft place, 
jieceflary to inquire into this fuppofition,for 
fpmmpn t^lk, pf news-paper declamation, is 

[ 45 ] 

of no authority when arguing againft fa6t 
The prices, &c. of corn I know have been 
publiftied often before, but it is abfolute- 
ly neceffary to infert them here ; I fhall be 
as fhort in my abridgements as poflible; 
but fuch fafts are the foundation of every 
]ufl argument that can be urged for or 
againft any meafure. 

The following table, (hewing the mean 
price of wheat at Wind for market at feve- 
ral periods, for one hundred and fixty- 
Tiine years, is what I (hall firft offer to the 

. Years 1. s. d. Years 1. s. d* 
From 1594 to 1612 19 2 25 

1613 to 1637 25 2 7 4 }• 69 2 8 5i, 
1638 to 1662 25 2 15 

1663 to i6^7 25 2 5 3i 2j 2 5 3i 

1688 to 1712 25 2 8 

1713 to 1737 25 2 o 7i J» 75 ^ * 5i 

1738 to 1762 25 I 18 

By this it is evident, that whe^t has 
been cheaper the laft j^ years, fmce the 
bounty comrbenced, than it was for nine- 
ty-four years before. It is farther obferv- 
able, that for the firft (ixty-nirie years, the 
price of wheat was continually rifing, and 


fiflce the bounty was given^ it has b6ert 
cotttirttiiilly finking ; whidi feems to be ar 
jdain proof that this finking of th6 piice 
WiStwing to the bounty, t^he twenty- 
five years froiii 1663 i^o ii5S7 are ftated 
^]pal'ately ; becaufe in that period a duty , 
N*as filfft laid on the importation ot corn ^ 
Which, with two additional dutie§ after- 
wards, amounted almoft to a prohibitiofi ^ 
tht confequence of whith is here vifible 
tti the price, for wheat, which for many 
yeSr^ before Was rifing, did at this time 
Ifii^k wore thaii ten fliillings a quarter *. 

Notwithftanding the plain evidence of 
thefe fafts, yet a late writer has ventured 
ill a very fiafdy manfifel- to call fuppofi- 
tions of the bounty reducing the price at* 
home, vulgar erttrSi and to detiy the truth 
rf it f rfema thefe vety tables 1 his reafon is^* 
** That wheat was 1 7 s. 9 d* ^ per quarter 
dearer during the firft ten years after the 
bounty took place, than it was during the 
teJi years f^'eceding itf /*. — -In the firft 


* See B. S/s Tcr^ fenfiUe letter, M^eum RvJKcufity 
fol. vi. p. 22. 

. j-Thi Otdf/fQnirfiitJbiafmp rfPrMfidm^ fy a Mit- 


t 47 ] 
j[)kcef, the aflertion is falfe, for the averagfcf 
price from the year 1679 inclufive to 168^ 
inclufive, is 2!* 3s, id. and from 1689 to 
1698 (and not throwing out the year 
1690, as tie author does for no reafon, 
but its being accidentally a low onfe) is 
2I. i2s. I id. the difference is only 9s. lod. 
which is little more than half wbat he 
fays; and even if the year 1690, is thrown 
out, the difference is only 13s. 3d. fo that 
•accuracy is none of our author's perfefti- 
CHS. In the next place the preceding ten 
years happen to be part of the twenty-five 
throvm by themfelves in the above table, 
on account of a duty being then firft laid ' 
on imported corn, which, as I have ob- 
ferved before, had a vifible confequence in 
. linking wheat more than los. a quarter. 
There could not therefore be a more mif- 
taken way of dating the effefts of bounty, 
which certainly deferves to be confidered as 
it appears in the variation of prices exhi- 
bited in that table. 

It is impofljble that a ftronger proof 
than this (hould be advanced, of the cer- 
tainty of the aflertion I made before, viz. 
the exportation of corn gives plenty, and 


[ 48, ] 

tonfeqiiehtly cheapnefs at home 5 ^rid now 
t may add, that preventing our receiving 
any from abroad is attended with the fame 

Thefe fa6ls bear fo much the appear- 
ance of paradoxes, that I have heard nunt- 
bers laugh in ridicule at the very mention 
of them : and the poor of this country 
treat them with a fcorn which fometimes 
breaks into riots. Yet ftrange as the 
mere affertion may found, the proofs of 
the truth of it are fo clear and felf- 
evident, that the wonder is it fliould 

ever be thought paradoxical. But 



i 49 ] 

Tle/a|U'teeabigheftg^n|]4^)'i T^^ fourteen higheft prkc?' 
prices^ of whe3tbefore the I Jiaa the bounty. , 

Bounty was given, are 

1. 9. 


,4 5 
V ' *4 ' ^ 

• 3 ^ 








' > 

3 ** 

• ' I' 8 8 

. 3: 4" « 

■./. ? ° 

: .;- 49I J4 


Aver. .3.11 

1. s. 

3 7 

3 4 

3 i^ 

3 o 

3 : 8 

3 4 

3. J8 

3 . o 

i 13 

2 14 

2 14 

i II 









10 ' 8 

43 '4 

■ I ' ti 


,(L.wr. 3 ,a s 

/^ I 


Laft period cbeape) I *» • « 
. ^ thinthcfirftby J o " 7 

^his ihferioritj^ of prke is a fufficieht 
anfwer to thofe Who ' affert, that fuch a 
jprbdigidtis ciportdtion' as we Ibmctimes 
tarry on. whfen .the crop abroad fails, 
raifes the price in fome particular years to 
a height unknown before the bounty, and 
intolerable to our own poor. 
, But there is another circurhftaricc not to 

E 'be 

t 50 ]: 

be forgotten^ which is clear^ flriking, and 
(fccifivc : Ae price of al!'<«befthihg;^'B ad- 
vanced a fourtl) part within tHe^ pund^^d 
years ; owijig^ in (onhe meafure, to a vail 
extenfipn ojF cotnmerce, whiidh has tender- 
ed money (o niucb mc^re plentiful tl^an be* 
fore; butprcfcably ip a mbch greater de- 
gree, to the infinity ofj our paper ci^rrency. 
Therefore the iforegoing pribes do not dif- 
cover the rM^ finking of . thaj of J.wheat, 
unlefs we deduct from every year t|bc pro- 
portioiji of the rife of the price cf other 
things.: this will difplay th« va|b p^nty of 
corn> wfaidi the exportation has ^ven to 
the nation^ for nothjng but fUch 4 plenty 
coukl be attended with a conftapt Ipj^ering 
of the price. 

This faft is fo very clear andJevident, 
and th^ conclufion^ tbat it is aU owing to 
the exportation, fo Very natural, that the 
reader is deiired never to forget the xcr- 
painty of it,; nor, whatever feeining con- 
tradictions tl^re may appear Jbet^een the 
quatuity exported* and the greatne|s 6f the 
(0e£l^ ever tp doubt of this firlt. ifafl ana 
foundation of all pur reafomngrjt h (6 
very fure that he needs not be apprelicnfiv? 
of giving total credit to it. . . 


t: 5f 1. 

As the exportation has been of this great 
tei vantage to' the d^e, let us next enquire 
into the immediate profit of it, arifing 
from the fale of the corn. Of this it will 
not be at aU difficult to^ lay before the rea*- 
dcrs of tbefeJetters^ a very; dear, faliisfac* 
tory,; aijdj authentic afc'count The regi-r 
fiers of* the q^antity^ exported, which 
were laid before the parliath^nt, extend no 
further back than 1 697 ; I (hall therefore 
infert the ^xtra^s I haye copied from that 

Account oi Corn 

1697 to 

Prom i6g7 to i; 

Cfrai^* Qgarte.n« B. 

Barley 25i',M9 7 

Malt 623,345 4 
Oatmeal 2*015 4 
Rye 238,985 7 
Wheat 552*867 2 

Exported (rom 
706, 9 Years. 


207,644 an 

374,007 6 Of 

M94- 3 7 
288,777 3 

1,002,0.71 17 9 


£. 1,874,994 10 6 


^ See Thru TraSii m the Corn Trade and Com Laws^ 

t It wiis an OfniflioQ iQ the firft edition oF thefe Let* 
tcrS| not to add an explanation of the price here changed 

£ % for 

[ st't ] 

*■ % * ' 

ill . ;;.,..: 

t'rpi^ ^fQ6,ito i7a6> sjolfeai^^i 

, .••• •! j»/ t". '■♦ w«'' ' *«t ••'if* 

Grain, Quartos. B. Value^ , ^ 

Birlcy ; 433.^37 ^ . .404,354 *ij '.^'; 

Malt ' 4^3^1,265 if628,723 o d 

Qatme^l 1 19922 , :.o , . . i6»6(^ 19 6... 

Rye . 789,618^ ^ 6 93^*092. 2 2 . 

Wheat i,ii8,ii3 4 4,44S»843 17 6 

/ ■ Ml ; II I Ki I Ml I HI i> ■ i ' .^i^ i. ' .^ ,ai< t u *m.Jki mtW 

. . ; 8»,i34t«96. S, X- '8,4*9^04 14 o 

Frorii 1 726 to 1 746, id iTeaft. 














523,696 13 

3^323ij793 i<> 
61,051 15 

* 517*853 19 
69654,828 8 


ft ' 





I^^d8o,2l4 '7 


for ^alt^ which I (hall copy from the failie au- 
thor, page 115. where ** The price 6f barley isfaid to 
bft the fame a$ that of malt, deducting 3$. 7d. fet' 
(quarter for makii)g : which is however to be under- 
fiood of that diade for home confumption only ; for, 
by Haiute 3 G\ 2. c. 7. feS. 14 and 15, ihree quarters 
dCiaalt is to be allowed for every two quarters barley, 
when malted for exportation, and the bounty is paid 
accordingly. Now two quarters of barley having btfea 
worth, on the average, only 36 s. we ought not tp fup^^ 
pofe three quarters of the malt fet down in the faid ac- 
count as isxported, worth more> /• ^. 12/. pir qu^r* 

1 From 

[ 53 ] 
• ' Frdm 1 746 ' to 1 ^'5, i ^ Yeart.- 

Barley i,a«8,e8irv i \ '" ^.Tsy.rjo 8 3^ 

Malt 4»77Zi303; i.-f ... .2^866^332 59 

Qatmeal 67,186 4 .91*821 11 p 

Jtyc' ' ■ 939»S^o f ' '990.474 i<5 n? 

yfbeat t 6t8oo,tri7. ; I uio,?i66,693 i;S 7 

• "^ • • :i3.8^2,i7^ ' '3 ' ■ . i5.872iS«* ^6 9 

; ;<. ■:■;,■ I ViMiiil -"til. ■ . -.1. ' . f ' 1 11 S i u I J 

• • • , . . . ■ ■ ■ ■ • ' r 


Years. Qaarters. B. • ,. . .,,V^Ioc. 

9 1^68,904. p ^ * 1,87^,994. 10 ^ 

io' 8,134,196- 5 ' "^ 8,419,704 14 o 

»o J9*4Mij03^:r - 101^80,234 7. 3 

?9.. i3t?Sa>?76 3 ,. . i;t872,50^ ^^ 9 


68 :33fM3»98* 7 )C- 3^57^426 8 6 

. ^ If thcfe tota^ are net fiifHciint taopen 
the eyes of every pcrfon pJHJjiidiecd agaittft 
the exportation of corn, I i-hbw hot what 
will. Think of the vaft number of hands 
the raifing thefe thirty *thrca tnillions of 
quarters empiloyed ! Thinfkf of tfte number 
of Tailors the- (hipping (i^rb^^^^ own) em- 
filoyed, which (»rried ©ut this corn ! The 
very freight df! which ambontcrf to aboW 
: three niillions fterling, TKinfc, therefore, 
- my totintrymen, of one brahch of our ex- 
poitfi, biinging in j^Or vitHims iktrVm^\ 
This forty, as I have elfewhere obferved, S$ 

E 3 pf 

of an ^qp^l valse wifh.<?«$ ifff^danJ 
twenty mwfns worth <pf m^mfaffurif e^- 
ffort^J^ if wrought from fnreipi matmnk. 
Thefe iire feds wWich^ :^^^ Ijl^c '^ 
trfimpet in flavour of fhis^^iio'^e andUA^Iy 
beneficial meafure^ wliich^is the' fotmB^sl* 
tibn of our natpnal w|arfl^ pp^^^ in the 
mere amount, however.- considerable, but 
in an infinite variety of intcrefts afFe£led 
by it,-^and the myft certain refource we 
can ever 'di^pcnd upon. 
\ It 15 6^edy remarked ^l>y thpfe vi^ 
will not ^aliow that the rex^tation '^i 
k comMaSty incicifes ^it^ifhat it^ls 
knpolSl^frjfoi. iiamen^ «: .qiu^ntity as 
.tlihty-th^e milH<H»S;%3uWj;t^aiV« befn: ex- 
'portcd,. ana,j[e^.t^ qtwi^jty at hoj^ Ww 

nian4 aii4 qWf H f^e pcgwjfge th$;fi«iil4v*T 

tor- to pcocef^i^ ^.^.^:^M''}i^'^UH fpifitand 

alacrity.} neyvtjgrouod is jpfqjseupj andl^e 

. plough ;^iunipbts I ' Bap ,4^ tjiefe s|flei;ti<msi 

do not iatisfy<prejudice4 B^ple, wKo are 

.. alarmed at,;thp largen^s of the ^ek'^ 

[ I (hall here iheyv^ thein how i^iaU a Pf o- 

portion the ^portatiloq b«iMt$< ^ tjpie woole 


The Jhgehious* author of tfie EJays on 
B^/ia^^ reckohtf tlie arabfe^ land of the 
kingdom at "^fifte^ri millioois' of acfesi 
« From thcfe fifteen millions/' he goes onj 
« we^ Wai dicfea a third fs^ttlfbr fallow^ 
land each year, (Note : we arefenfibk this 
fiifo'tdance is tphgr^at infupy But it is liBai 
m%ht to be in all ewntrifs where bujbandry is 
figbtiy mdytaged) ^nd thifttMibre will bfe 
eft ti?n millions; of arable wfxt^idejam^ 
Fromithefei ten^ miltiohs let U9 Aibftra^b one 
io\itt\i^^^ for feeding 

and. fattenii^ ca^le, occ. (ccMnprehending 
^liat is dcftroyed by birds, inlcfts, and 
theVik|;).a)^d ia^ottiieivfburth pairt for m^lt*^ 
ing, Aftilling) mid feed-corn*, and then 
th^fefi'^uB will be five 
hread, -.Qt ..raiQng leguminous crops like 
fehi pfeafe, or cultivating field potatoes, 
ht^ which fypply the ;pla<ie of bread. FiVe 
imliions of acres of wheat, barley, rye, will 
at fiiV averaige of iWee quarters ;)>^r acre, 
vpivKluee^fifteeni millions df quaf ters -f^/' 
". '■•. ■•.■■■-■ . ■ By 

* I have no conccpiloo that the confumption caufed 
fircdttl^^qualsthcle articles. 

f: EJf6$i »ti Hufifbuiryj p«-85« Thifrmbft accurate and 
Ingenious author, appears to fall into foipe^ odSflake at^i, in faying that ** England in a fruitful harveft 

% 4 <^w 

By tlvSjafC!wnt4„ltbft (^mtl^-^f bte^d^ 
corn is feffetn.myijpi^pfjij%?rtfrf«.,b\^jbji 

the followii^. it ianiou9^f.iP% tfl..a,bout 
nioe raillipm and; aft h§i^i::hpv((C^H;,,fifld 
p?4fe , and . potatoes . ^rg figLJncbffi^d., . . 

can produce corq eDOugbf upoq fuppoGtlod th^t npoe w^ 
fen t into foreign Countries) fo'tiipport its irifiabltantl 
torfrur yc*ri." Bnt being lft<*»6 km€ paragraph 'witll 
a fta^c of cxpoclljioa takf n ^fryji Mj;. Dan^^jlU^ .1 ap^ 
prehend.this llkewife is advairccd oti iiis authon^, but 
mo'dekieai forlic afftrls,-^-!'* Thatf^r^fiw^i'fiticefhi 
iias macje C(>rti.4n ob^iS piji^ftwnfc^: ha9/^ttglHWte4 
^er culture to fucb a degiee. t^at one gppd cmp,wHl 
y^eld the DoiSrIfllitteni: 6f /i;/yeM/'^!^^«/i h'D'ffa^ 
i)(tnt. de la France t3f:de laG Bi. pi^.Thc ThreeTpaiii 
^ufilciently prqve the iippofTibiUtyTpt this; ^ T^eaptKQfr 
repniarking on his preceding papers, obferyes — ^* jFrom 
them' it appears we depend ta^tViininediately thati mod 
jBien in^ag^ne for oar dally ()re|i;}f9p {H;oyi4?9(n'4 ^^ 
.gifts are fo equally and regukrlv dealt oi^t, th^jjt very 
irarely happens,' hotwiih^ftandrng the uncertatbtj bf the 
feafons, on ^ which the Mi^bole ^nrappesiran^e fomucli' 
depends, that t^e ^pnual. prodpce pf the earth |$; npc 
equal to the neceflary fgppoVt and Wnts of man, pro- 
vided hfe is n6t Anting qn Ms paft'to endeavour to otr- 
taio it l^ a,due apf>ncation 'to that labour to v^hich^be 
was at firft dondemned, and ffoqa which he nev^r can 
be difpenftd Vrth r for let hirfi exert all his (iili an'd 
abilities to the otniofti it feems* impoffible for faioi'^ 
Q})tain fo great a furplus, as to have it in his power to 
forbear to till the ground, even for one year ; fince^hf 
muft be thirty^four years Coring it up in common crpps : 
he n^uft therefore thrbughodt his life fubfift by a coq- 
tinual labour and condanf dependance on Him, who 
- bath promiifed, that feed-tin^ iiadliarveft f)o^lvlfiy%x 
fail." p. aojfr.. :, • .1.' -.,: .. :.: 

f 5^ \ 

G?nera^ accqUntfr pf C9RN cpnftHBed, fcc. 

Growtlf. ConfuiM]]. Export. Import. 

Eai-1^ ■ 4.^o3-.i72 4»'433'"S t ''7'.'»sV '.106 
Oatt.'lr :4.i4*9*7 4;»Si'7»r-i ' 3.?37 iS.'s'5 

Vkeat ' 4;d46,6b3 . 3,840,000 - 210,771 4.168 

_ - J" ' [ I " _j ' i - •■- " 

, 13.954.47+. ' ' ■ . .. . .,i ;■ 

s*«it> ■ 1.495.4+7 ■■'■'," ■ , " ; , 

j ; .-^^ i i ii l .JA .■ 11 — ».i— J— 

'4i*.^5* . ,l)'7»8 

f it 15 ncceiJary here "to remarkj that thistkbieis 

notbecaufe there is anyVcrtaiDty ot its being ^^tely 
exaA : the ingeoious author framed U with as much 
«r!! ai)4 9 'ny.fJW, 'but 

JothJe of h doubt;^ -foe 

i*nftancc, \ )fi .q£ towijbjr 

_ idgs, he • fat tfu^, I 

fappolff til is: extcemeljr 

jhort of I M; fatted OQ 

corn afom s, oc iixtev 

fcnfhcls; apd.aporlcer that 'y/eighs eight, mae,',or tea 
AoDC (ulb.} w^ll (eidom b&j'ai: with lefs tbaa^ quar- 
ter, aD(f ofteif ted bulhels; b^fi(}es which circudUtaDcei, 
we (hoiild remeinber that ti)^' a'kflillery is miich lefs ex- 
teolivethaDLit w^, and that ,hog^ fo fatted] ^iog all 
pi tbeih large, cat probably i^o^'e tbaa ttf(> buOMlls 
each, for Few difttllers depend Cntireiy upon their walh, 
purchaliDg large quantities cf cora for their hogs. 
How therefore it is poflible to reduce the iqeaa price 
10 two biifiiels, , I have Dp. conception : I vcature this 
remark, the rather to (hew that this, author is vore ua- 
dir than 'avtr the truth wheiji he ftates the coDlJiQipiioqt 
and coDfeqnentl^ the export^iiQii IjeArs the left pro- 
portion to the whole quantity. ,^ . ' ; 
'■ X The feed it called etu ttuli. 


' -My tfiiif 'Motive Tor inftftlftg ttiis ic- 
coiint is to (hey the reader tfic proportion 
|)etweeft the different ^juantides^; as this^ts 
at |)Oint , of very great ' importance to njiy 

The export is bare one tUttyr^fifond fmH 
ef the co nfumpti o n $ yne-^rty^rbtrd part 
of the Jgro wih. cycliifi vc ^^ tfae> ^d i ow 
thirty 'fixtb part of the growth incliidipg 
the-Kied ; and npt^eaVf^^ ir^iff^^f ^he i««d 

itfelf^ ^/fii^qf)idi*^#;^ m tmh of' the 

i*the next yt^ir'^S // f>'d. JoJii&%t price filVs 
iil^ hoMfe in pi^pbrBoii fo (he quaotity'ei^kted; 4^ 
fpflll^pl^rbyihcibll,oVitijgt4J)lcj '' ' 

' i^it!5l 2^*5*66 J' r6 o ^ 

'••^VS^ '. ' '^i^*o$ t"' 'il . 6 

<Miri(i^'Difen>(int. p. 92, From thiiJfttlCjflictchy let 
«*» fcnfcmlis'of the bbtttjty cry otit, that We give a pre- 
odufii ott^ Brelgn Adtibfaftares, by feedmb 7i6V/r worls!- 
kaeri^ tand ftarfing oui- own, which, ate'', tne.cbnipoo 
cant phf lifts ; and a^ ccfhtrary t6 faft as,f]gbti$ to 
d*I&4<-ft'» which is foil jr proved bV t)xii ta^le : Wherc'^ 
in "Wt'^fitki the price ^t home, falling in proportion to 
the iqtiantity expoftM, until that (quantity, became 1q 
immenfe, that the very bdonty afmouhted, to abovb 
300,000 /. when the pnte^was^t^^loMv^f^c^ zl\. 

[ 59 1 

If we fuppofe the four millions of 
quarters of wh^t, the prodmt of one 
fiftiUioa^ (w horidiied thduiknd aict«s» whteh 
is two iqimrtets fdur btiikih^r xre (»ear 
iii>^ieve khe mVdkim) then the ^itport wiH 
xdAy Zftktixint to ' ^^A^ iu^l per < arr^, of 
v^^lU F^tftt) this retniai-kable fa^t^ Irt 
t^ enepnrts^f the bounty^determifK the 
ttpottati^n to -be the caufe of the higll 
|»:ic0 of torn! Thtey- ttiay come to this 
'dtteiinination if they^pteafe**-4)ut it muft 
be ^hile^they are blinded with prejudice, 
s— wCohverfb with the moft fenfible cukF- 
'vat^jra in cyfery cotinty of the kiti^doni, 
and learn of theiB^ whether they thifik k 
'bujfhel /#racre any materiial deficiency of 
xrop-^— ^they will anfw^r TSfc; that they 
[hould never complain of any crop that fell only 
dhijhepjhort of tbeir expeBation. That a 
deficiency in the crop infinitely oftener 
extencfed to a qua^rter and a half or twoi 
quarters. See therefore how much more 
likjely it is^ that a light crop ihould raiia 
the pnc^ than the exportation : in fadVj^ 
^Qm bei|i^ at ^ ||gh price in^ Eingiandy \% 

7 nevet 

I 6a I 

never owing to the exportation, but to q 
dtfijciericy of crop *• , 

;^o .far in(}€€d has the bounty been from 
raifing the price of (:prn at home, tbat^^as 
I hav§ before proved, it. hi^ cpBilantly 
:lowered it ; and here lies a vaft fa^ng to 
the nation, which i3 not confidered by 
ti|of9 who plead againft the oxeafure^ Smce 
the bounty, wheat .on an a v^wge, has 
Jbeeji nine ftiillings and three pence ^ 
q^aarter cheaper than before, : if reckoncjl at 
tlje, mean finenefs of quality, , and the 
Wiri(h(fier^ meafure in quantity J. Now 
the favingof this fingle article in 68yeai'8 
{during v/hich time accounts have been 
laid before padi^raenit) amounts to up- 
wards of 6m hundred millions, JlerUng* The 
gain thereof to the nation arifing from the 

f The quantity exported from England is faqt a.fmj^I 
part of the general demand ; for a modern author 
/obferves,— ** That Poland feUs 7 or 8,000,000 tlf 
bufliels to one million of England's : if Poland Md a oa« 
vigation proper for the bufinefs, and open all the year, it 
IS probable that Englandv/ould fell none at all." Pfindpa 
£t Obfirvations Oeconomiquis^ tome 2, p, 1S5. ij6y.. . If 
the cafe was fo» we Jhould find a yet higher bounty 
neceflary, or feel millions of J|||L confequences ; (6c 
from the time of our being beflpl of thecxportatiofis 
we (hould want a fufficiency at home. 

t Three Tra^Sy p. 43, 


t 6i ]• 

bounty, imotints clearly to one hundred 
ahd forty millions ! without reckoning the 
infinite variety of hands employed by fuch 
additional cultivation. 

But let us for a moment examine the 
arguments comniorily ufed againft the 
bounty; and for this purpofe I (hall extracl 
the moft ftriking fentiments which I have 
met with j and oppofe to them fuch fafts, 
as I think' will beft prove their miftaken 
principles. . ^ 

I find the following paflage in a well 
kiiowJa traft* — i-" The laws which give 
a bounty 6n exported coFn; fifh, and flefh,' 
are very pre]udicial to our mannfaftories 5 
for wages depending on the Ifigb or low price^ 
corn, fifh, arid flefli bear j^ the bounties oH 
their exportation, ferve only to 'feed 
foreigners cheaper than our own people y to 
^ttff away with our trade:' the pretence of 
encouraging tillage, by a bounty on corn, 
tan have ho weight now, fince our great 
improvements inhufbandry, much kfs iftve 
treSted magazines of cor A in every county 
againft times ■ of fcarcity 5 foreigners never 
huy provisions till they w^t them, and then 

• An Effay onjhe Caufes of. the Dtdine 9/ f^Tiig^ 
Tradcy 1744. p. 30* 

• ^ , they 

kpow of bringing on a dearth'*: nAy/ 
fupJ)ofing the care of national rriagazinesf 
was* committed to the mariagefrierit oF thd 
ihoft fenfible and beft principled men th^i^ 
cair be found, yet how few woulci engage 
in fiich ah undertakings— wjjhout 'propof- 
!ng to thenifelves foijie (brf of ' recb AipenccJ 
for theif.trouble? il^nd of courfe thdjoeco- 
noniy of: a private merchant muff riot be 
e^pefled froni public undertakers, .or at^ 
leaft from their fucceflbrs +."-^Thus much 
upon the ahfurdity of the plan,*' . provided 
it vidiS.praSlicable i but I ihall in ' the* next 
place introduce thp tentiment? of aliothef 
writer to proVe it totally impraBlcaBle. The 
fenfible writer in the . Mufeum Rujticum^ 
who ligns himfelf E. S. has given a Vej-y 
juft and fatisfaclory eftimate of the prime 
coft and expences oi ere6ling granaries 
fufficient for three, years confumption of 
wheat, which is' the loweft that can be 
fuppofed. The buildings, wheat, and con- 
fumption in buying amount alone . to 
24,128,250/. and tlic annual expense of 

♦ La Crainte dc toaHgttcrdes graincs, & les precau- 
tions qui refultimv-'inCfalacut dans I'^coeil que Toa 
vcui <vitcr/ - i - P9Uce des Graints^ p. ajw 

t Page 116* 


[ 65 3 

intereft, attendance, &c. to 2,500,000 /• 
iThe profit upon the wheat fold, and the 
bounty together, will fcarce pay half this 
expence */* This is an irrefragable anfwer 
to the fcheme of granary building : if any 
further one was neceflary, the circumftance ^ 
of being an hundred and two years in 
faving the quantity, by means of the fur- 
plus of our crops, would, I apprehend, 
fully fuffice. 4thly. Foreigners, when they 
nvant provifionsy muji have them whether we 
give bounties or no. This, furely, is the 
weakeft argument that ever could fall from 
a man of fenfe. This writer is very fan- 
guine for our affording our manufadurcs 
cheap to foreigners : Whyfo? fince by a 
parity of reafoning they muft have them, 
when they wanted them, whether oiir care 
was great or little; than which nothing can 
be more fallacious. When they want corn, 
they muft have it J but does it therefore 
•follow that they muft have it from us f 
Whoever will afford it cheapeft, will com- 
mand the market; and if the fale is a 
public benefit, public money ftiould be 
ufed to beat out competition. Fadts fpeak 

• Vol. a, p. 409, 

F clearer 

[66 ] 

clearer th^n any ^rgpments ; w« all knOW* 
that thQ Swedes purchafed very confid^rable 
(jMantities pf corn of us, till fomc ywrs 
9gQi 9 Erqhibition on exportation ftp|)p^4 
our fv»p.plying them in a tirrjc of nepcj, 
which WS5 attended with fa |jre^t an ^fFe^, 
thst fropi (hat tip^ they fet ahowt th? 
bufineft qf cultivation with fuqh vigour, 
that ever iipce they have fupplied thero- 
fclves, and e>(pprted ^ ftnall quantity. 7?^ 
iniagine that toreigpcrj, when th?y 3re m 
want, mvji buy of us^ is a (nerc idle notiqn ; 
^t is calculated, that Poland alone, ei{pprt§ 
feyep times as mqch a^ we (T?"^ pf^e 6qj) 
hefides which, Barbarf zxi^ Sicily fqnci 
forth vaft quantities; not to mention^ 
France^ whoJe expo^-tation fmce 1764 has 
b.e?n confiderahle. The fertility of tl^ff? 
countries is much |;re.atef than that of BrU 
tain; what therefore fhould give us the 
market, but the fkilfui application of 4 
bounty I te.t u? di/continue it, and wc 
ihalJl foon find, th;^t foreigners will feed as 
well wit^CUt us, as with us^ 5thly. Tg 
feed tJje French cheaper thqu our own p^^l^\ 
to run awayy not only, 'with our "woollen^ hit 
aljb our Jilky linen^ ancf iron manuJaSiures. 
The comparifon of Birmingbam and 


f 67 } '^ 

Geneva^ already quoted, \s a capital an- 
fWcf td this objeftion. Our finen raanu- 
jfeiSory has bteen coiiftarifly, to this day, 
on the itxcretffe. We purchafe raw filk in 
Italjy and re-export it thither again, ma- 
nufedtdred into ffockings, even to com- 
manding the market ; and as to the wool- 
len manufadture, the French cut us otf 
from fupplying them, even before Xh0 
bounty was given in England^ and their 
gaining upon us in the Spanijh market has 
ever beien palpably more owing to the con- 
nefilion of the courts, by having a French 
family on the throne of Spainj than to 
tmderfelting us ^ for quality confidered as 
Wei! as nominal cheapnefs, our woollen 
cloths are fold all over the world cheaper 
than the French. But whatever inaccuracy 
there may be fuppofed in thefe circum- 
ftances, it teatters but little, in anCwer to 
this paflage ; • becaufe the bounty has been 
fo far from feeding the French cheaper 
than our own people, that it h^s funk the 
price fo greatly at home, as to reduce it 
lower, taking a number of years together, 
than in any of the manufa6turing coun- 
tries bf Europe. Holland^ the principal of 
all, eats her bread a third dearer than 

F a England. 

[ 68 } 

England^ Suppofe the bounty had fuch 
an efFe6):, it could amount to no more 
than itfelf, or 5 j. a quarter; whereas, it; 
has funk the price at home gs. yd. which 
is 4s: yd. cheaper, with the additional 
difference of the amount of the freight 
and charges to foreigners. In whatever 
light, therefore, we view the objeftions to 
the bounty, brought by Sir Matthew Decker 
in this paifage, they will be found evident 

The author of The Prefent State of Great 
Britain and North America^ advances opi- 
nions that have as little foundation in 

truth: he /ays " The greater cheapnefs 

of Corn proceeds from the many im- 
provements in agriculture fince the bounty 
was granted, particularly in the fowing 
grafs-feeds and turnips, with the great 
improvements that have been made in 
ploughing, marling, liming, and other- 
wife manuring of lands; by which twice 
as much land is rendered fit to bear corn, 
and particularly wheat, as was before; or 
as we fhould now" have without thefe me- 
thods of cultivating and manuring^ which 
were not known in former times. Thefe are 
owing to the improvements made in all 


• 4 

Other arts and fciences, and not to the 
bounty on corn 5 however, that might 
have encouraged the farmers to fet about 
thefe improvements when they come- tq be 
known.— —We fhould not therefore de* 
ceive ourfelves with the notion of render^ 
ing corn cheap, by fupplying our neigbbcurs 
cheaper than ourfelves. Was Britain to cori'- 
vert her com to her own ufe^ and to promote 
her trade and manufadures by the plenty 
which the land affords, // would be much more 
for her benefit^ than to ftrengthen her enemies 
and rivals by thefe her own refources* 
This would be a much greater encourage-^ 
ment to the landed intereft than all the 
corn that is exported. Trade and manu^ 
fadqres raife the value of lands much more 
than the exportation of corn. And the power 
of the nation would be enlarged with its 
trade and navigation, and a much better 
fecurity obtained for lands and every thing 
elfc. ' Was this nation to convert her na- 
tural plenty to her own ufe 5 (he need not 
be in daily fear of being infulted by her 
enemies, whom fhe fupports. Agricukpf;^, 
it is true, is the firft thing to be considered, 
^nd encouraged by all nations; but it fhould 
1^ t<^ maintain our own people^ and not our 

F 3 mmiMl 

C 70 ] 

enemies : if a bounty is neceflary for that 
purpofe, // Jhould be given to our owny an4 
not to foreign workmen; or at leaft w^ 
ihould put them upon a level, and give a 
bounty upon the one, as well as the othen 
The bounty on corn is only intended to 
encourage the growing of it j and that is 
much more promoted by our own people 
than by foreigners*." 

I have gone through the difagreeablc 
talk of tranfcribing tHis long-vvinded paC- 
fage, which contains fo little meaning, that 
that little might have fair play: it is a 
mere firing of vulgar prejudices, which 
one would apprehend were picked up in 
the workfhop of a manufa6iurer.-T— -But 
to the anfwer:— ifl:. T'beje methods of cuU 
irvating and manuring^ which were not'known 
in former times. The dogmatical alTer- 
tions of fuch an author as this, who, in 
another part of his book, talks of the im- 
provement of fowing beansi in a poor foil, 
in the fame .breath with buck-wheat, arc 
not to be liftened to in oppofition to the 
well founded knowledge, of a Mr. Harte^ 
who fufficicntly proves, th^t, inftead of 


• Pslge 6a. 


C 7' 1 

thtffe methods bfelfag owing to the ihprove^ 
menu ih ail arts and JcimcieSy fhey ^ttt 
Kftowrl loiig dgo, and wftny of them 
iharfe jita6lifed thin at prefent. See hi^ 
^jj^j on Bujbandry*. Not* ought Wtf to 


* The pafla^e i^ too much to the purpofe to be 
omitted. " Ifliall next obferve, by way of cautioa to 
tlie reiacfer, that We are too srpt to gi\re^ the fiatne of niio. 
(fern imprtrveofeots, to afiCiett praAices of hulbaAdryy 
upon their being revived amongft us ; for many ufefol 
inventions have been (in a great part at leaft) loft, or 
forgotten unaccountably, defidia rerufh^internkione mi* 
ittTria ihduSfie ; and hence it wilt appear to all per(bn9 
convprfant in books of agriculture, that neither we 
ikot out heig^boafs in fcfreign countries, hat^ ^^de fo 
manj dtfcoveries and improvemettts, for a cenfbry paft^ 
as one is apt to imagine at firft fight. It is therefore 
iXi€ fru/inefs of a candid writer to bey&y? ta the prefent 
i§d, a6d riot injiijl to pretdding aiges. — Tull has nd 
right, 6r even preten'fion, 6f lay'tng claim to the drill- 
plough, which had been ufed in feveral European coun- 
tfitti aUooft half a century before he fet pen to paper, 
— ^-'Nor owe we the field -turnips to TuU^ but th^ 
Flemings \ and that as Jong ago, as in the middle of the 
faft century. — The nature ofall foftis of manures, was, at 
ftee tiree, perftaiy well tfide*ftood,— Folding ftieepand 
wheel-ploughs w^re thoroughly knawfi in Engfand d\irr 
irtg the reign of Henry Vill, Nay, irf here and there 
an inftance, our induftry l^as beeni^fcrior to that of pur 
predeceffors ; or, at leaft*, it may be obfervecj* Pr^po- 
rkm aui cur a ftrtilior aut indujlna felictor fuiU We 
f)l6t!gli^ lefs, and fow later than they did. Marie (the 
liiotf Lifting and cheap of all manures, which may be 
fbuDf} in nXunberlefs parifhes throughout this kingdom) 

^siQwn and ufed much leTs at pref<^nt, than in the 
• . ' . F ^ tWQ 

C 7* ] 

forget the reproaches which Fitzberiert 
(whofe book was printed, if I rccoUefl: 
right, in 1540) caft on his • countrymen 
for feeing fuch numbers of marie pits ufed 
in ancient time^ but then difcontinued. 
Turnips are very unluckily coupled with 
the manures, for they are not by any 
means an improvement which advances 
the culture of bread corn, but the con- 
trary 5 they are ufed to prepare the land 
for fpring-corn alone; and when culti- 
vated in rich foils, prevent the fowing. 
wheat; for the fallow year which ufed al- 
ways tc^ be followed by wheat, is cpuyerted 
into a iSurnip-crop, which is fcarce everiuc* 
ceeded t^y that grain. From all which 
circumftahces it is extremely evident that 
hufbandry is not indebted for its prefent 
ftate to the improvements oiuirtsandfciencesy 
fmce all the great improvements in it were 

known and pra6lifed centuries ago but 

the exportation of corn did not then give 
them their prefent vigour j the knowledge 

two preceding centuries. In a word, few manures of ' 
much confequcnc^ have been lately difcovered, except 
peat^flies; the fowing of which is confined within a 
circle of 20 miles diameter, though peat (of more or 
lefs valuable kinds) \i to be found in moA counties of 
6ur three kingdoms.' t. 19O1 191, 192. 

C 73 1 
and pra£lice were in the nation^ IjUt it was 
the bounty on exported corn which ren- 
dered them fo general, and animated all 
men to fuch a degree of fpirit in breaking 
yp uncultivated lands* If that meafure 
had not been attended with fuch an effect; 
it would have been a moft adonifhing 

Poffibly it will be faid. How can the 
bounty have proved an encouragement to 
agriculture, if it has really lowered the 
price of corn to us ? fince high prices arc 
the greateft encouragers. In anfwer to 
this, it is to be obferved* that high prices 
in feme particular years are of no compa- 
rable advantage to regularity of prices. 
Notwithftanding corn was lb much dearer 
before ih^n Jince the bounty, yet prices 
have not experienced fuch vaft fluduations 
as formerly j for inftance, to be 4 /. and 
^ /. 5 J. per quarter, and to drop foon to 
iLbs. and then prefently to rife again to 
3 /. 55. and 3 /. 6 J. But even ^ppofing 
fuch fiufluations had been experienced lat* 
terly, it would prove nothing againft the 
prefent argument, becaufe prices were for- 
merly conftituted as much by the corn /V»- 
torted^ as by ^zXgr(mn\ fo that in years^ 
^ ' when 

• J 

[ 74 .] 

when the fir met ought td hkrt had a 
great prkcj he had wtty pdfflbly d frhall 
one, cti accouilt ef fortigttCrs reaping bet- 
ter crops. A very low year (and (omt Were; 
fo low as I A 5 J. d quarter) difcour^ged 
them from fowing, which raifed the pi^icfe 
again^ and then foftigners poured in their 
corn to the ruin of our own^cuhirators,. 
Atid it is obfervaMe, that if accounts fur- 
ther back than I59j dre confuhed, the 
fla£ltiatians are pfodigioufly greater. 

2dly# Suf plying cur neighbours cbeap& tbaH 

eurfelvis-'^-^to maintain our iwn people^ not 

&ur emmies-^^hunty to our own workmen^ not to 

foreign ones. If the remainder of the *paf-' 

iage contains any fDeailing, it may be dif- 

cemed in thefe touches 5 but what 1 have 

repeated fo oft^ri, is a Very clear ahfwer ; 

that the whofe is a falfhood ; for fo fSr has 

<hc bdanty been from caufittg fuch efFe6ls, 

that it has lowered the price of corn at 

borne very cofifiderably ) fa much, that 

the gteateft manufa'^uring nations ift 

Europe^ eat deafe* bread than th^ 'Englijhy 

txA thofe who parchafe the corn oil: which 

' the bounty is given, pay dearer for it, by 

nearly the aftiounfr of the bounty, thafi v^ e 

ihou^ld eat it at home, had no bounty been 

7 given ^ 

[ 7$ 1 

given; and wkhout fuppofing wheat to 
have ToSt in price pjtoportionably with 
other commodities, whkh is a fuppofition 
there is no reaibn to make. 

3dly» fFas Britain to ctmmrt ber ci^n t6 
ker (mn uje^ it weuldie much More fi^ ttt 
ber^fit. I ihould d%rtt entirtiy with Chii 
author^ couJd the thing be done ; but cati 
any one fuppofe that were the exportation 
of corn pi'ohibitedy the fame quantity 
would be grown ? And mannfiaf^Qred and 
population encreai^ in proportion to tht 
former furplus \ Nothing farther itcftn th6 
truth. PkmiM years would con^e^ and 
the furplus fk^diag no vent abroad^ would 
regorge upon the markets at home, and 
fink the price ib mucfa^ that manufacturers 
and all kinds of workmen would fpend 
half their ticoe at ale^hou&s, and in idle* 
nefs» the farmers would not be able to 
afford to . fow^ and then exceiiive high 
prices would comei which fluftuationy 
with its confequ^ncte^ would ruin manu^ 
fa&ures^ as well as agncultute, ark), ifat 
truth of the ma2:im £> often fcipeated, 
proved a^ ckarly as it at prefent i« in {brtkt 
other countries, that they moho gfow H$t a 
JurflMf ca/inot grow a^j^iency. But tki& 


[. 76 ] 
author, in the point now under coniidera^^ 
lion, contradids himfelf as palpably as 
Sir Matthew Decker did on the fame fubv 
je£l; for/ but the page before, he fays, 
•* Among the other advantages of the trade 
and e:sportation of corn, the gjrcateft per- 
haps is, that it ferves the nation for a 
public granary ; // is only the bounty and ex-* 
fortation that encourages the farmer to grow 
more corn than is confumed ; and thereby t^ 
provide the nation with fuch a fiore^ which 
Jupplies it in time of want. Thus the expor- 
tation is a granary which fupplies the na- 
tion in time of fcarcity, and for that rea«- 
fon, Jbould be carefully hufbanded andpreferved 
in times of plenty. And as an article of 
trade, corn is, perhaps, more valuable 
than any one in the kingdom."— —Can any 
one believe that thefe fentiments, which 
are fo extremely juft, are but two pages off 
the preceding quotation, in which it is 
aflerted ; Was Britain to convert her com to 
her own ufcy it would be much more for her 
benefit. Does (he not, according to the au- 
thor's own fentiments,* in the other paffage^ 
convert it to the moft beneficial ufe ? 

As to the fcheme of giviirg a bounty to 
our own workmen;, which he enlarges 


[ 17 fP 
.u{)on in various parts of his work, it 
would be totally impracticable, infinitely 
expcnfive, and open in the execution to 
numherlefs frauds and abufes 5 and were 
all thofe objections got over, and the plan 
executed, it would do more mifchief than 
good : for it would be aXure means of en- 
couraging idlenefs, with all the concomi- 
tant ill tStdi^^ fet forth between the 33d 
and 42d pages of thefe Letters. 

Some writers go even further than thofe 
I have quoted, and aflert — " By draining 
the kingdom of this moft eflential produc- 
tion of the earth, the price of corn h 
greatly enhanced to our own people *." But 
this being nothing but a mere aflertion, 
de/erves uo particular anfwer. In another 
paflage he ufes fomething like an argu- 
ment, and therefore deferves more atten- 
tion. " But if the bounty is the caufe of 

our growing greater quantities of corn, I 
Ihall be glad to learn from the advocates 
for this meafure, how it happens that all 
parts of the kingdom do not grow greater 
quantities of corn ? that one county in 

, ♦ Tfc Caufts of thi Dearnefs ef Provljions affigned. 
Glouc£ST£R, 1766. p. 24. 



7» I 

particiidvy^Mhat nont of tho larg^ 
\i9$ fi>ingJ|^^exported nine parts out of 
t«n|.9J^^Pthe barley tj»t has been i&ipped 
foF ,.#]reign m«rkat9, tJ&sCigii alt JComgiH 
t^s a?Q entitled alike to thk iumniy i U 
they anfwcr» tbe knds of this coimiy aM 
b€;tter than thofe «f any othor^ tkea thfi 
goodnefs of the land9> and not the bounty^ 
95 the cwk of their* growing greater quan^ 
titles of coro;. If the; fay> the fituation of 
that county \s more cotavenieot for expor- 
tatioi^ then the fitua£iion» aisd not the 
bounty,, is the eaafe, &e. (3c'' 

Nsr/olk^ I atpprehencl^ is the county her^ 
ipeant ; but a$ to the mere afievtion of its. 
exporting mm parts odi of ten ot ike 
tQtal> it is* too extravagant tao gain CFedit ? 
the author foi^g^tsi the exportation from 
HuJli, but if it amounts ta an hali^ a thir^ 
or a fauithi or whatever pi'oportion is 
fixed upon^i I have little doubt b^it thaC 
county wiU be found to yield nearly* a 
fpoportioml quantity ^ for there are many 
five counties which do. not prodnee foi 
waok hvkxkyt as Narjolk ; it is. therefore a«nar 
tural confequence, that the quantity exported^ 
£h[oul^ be in proportion to the qu antity raijed. 
But whether the fuperiority of Norfolk be 


pwing to f^iiwd fituation or r>ot, it either 
W^y pro<^s nothing ?igainft the boun 

li^epaqfe thofe circuoiftanc^s m^jftgO^ii^ 
gxifl;ed equally ftron^JaefcM^P^^unty, 
^nd yet they were far enoughfrom caufing 
that increafe of tillage which has enfued 
fince. The boqpty a€ls by enabling E/tg^ 
Uni tp (ell as cheap as other countries^ 

:orn^eri(!^d Bar^ 

i^ary and England have it to len : of what 
account i$ the foil and iituatlon of par 
cylar counties in the latter, if there i« the 
leaft degree of fupprior cheapneis in the 
prgduft of the former; or if they arc 

upon a par ? but then copies the bounty, 

aud turns the fcale at once. If an expor*» 
tation of corn was only allowed, and 
without a bounty, Norfolk would, never^ 
thelef§ (whenever any was exported) pofleis 
the faujQ fuperiority : if ijone was exported, 
the cafe would be the fame: does this 
Igcal variation of foil, and other circum- 
ftances, prove any thing agcnnft the expe- 
diency of fo general ^/meafure as the 
bounty? The argument is nothing but 
q^uibbling upon words. 

But to proceed to another paflage, writ- 
ten in the fame fpirit. ^^ Would gentle- 




C 80 I 

ihcrt have a bounty given when corn is 
▼cry dear, or when it is very cheap? It 
certainly ought not to be given when corn 
is very dear^-becaufe it will enhance the 
price of what is confumed at home, and 
bring on a fcarcity or famine. It is unne- 
ceffary to grant it when corn is very cheap, 
becaufe the lownefs of the price will be a 
fufEcient mducement for foreigners to 

purchafe it." But fuppofe com in other 

exporting countries, is as cheap or cheaper 
than in England, how is, the furplus of ^ 
plentiful years then to be fold ? Not at all. 
It would remain at home, and be attended 
with all the fatal confequences fo often 
motioned. Thofe countries which export, 
have an equal chance with us, for crops 
above the common produce j and to ima- 
gine that we have a monopoly of corn, or 
can for one moment command the market, 
while others fell one farthiijg cheaper, is 
an abfurdity too ridiculous to deferve sfti 
anfwer. Corn may eafily be too cheap at 
home, for the profperity of our manufac- 
tures i but can never be made too cheap to 
foreigners ; becaufe, the cheaper we fell, 
the more certain we are of the market; 
aiid I am very clear in my private opinion, 


[ St ] 

that, fuj^fing we lower the price fo much 
to foreign manufadlurcrs, as many of 
thefe authors affert, the effeft is of no good 
cbnfequences to them, fince a low pritc, 
which is not perfedly r^ular, and none 
that depends on importation can be abfo- 
luteiy fo, only «icourages idlenefs. Manu- 
fa6lures flouriih no where fo well as in 
Holland I where living is dearer than in 
any country in Europe^ but then it is re- 
gularly fo : however, I advance this as art 
opifiim^ but do not venture it by any means 
as an ajfertioft* 

Sir James Steuarfj in his celebrated 
work lately publilhed, has the following 

remark, " The population of the jBr/- 

tijb ifles is not ftopt for want of food; 
becaufe, one fixth part of the crop is 
annually exported. I anfwer, that it is 
ftill ftopt for want of food, for the expor* 
tation only marks, that the.home-demand 
iS' latisfied ,- but this does not prove, that 
the inhabitants are full fed, although they 
can buy no more at the exportation price. 
Thofe who cannot buy, are exaftly thofe 
who, I fay, die for want of fubfiftence r 
could they buy, they would live and-mul- 
tiply, and no grain, perhaps, woiild be 

G ex- 

[ 82 ] ' 

exported*." There is a capital miftakt 
in this pafTage ; inflead of the exportation 
amounting to a fixth of the crop, it fcarcely 
rifes to a thirty- third part; which is fo 
prodigious a difference, that I queftion, 
whether the author would have drawn his 
conclufion, had his fafts been fo Very diffe- 
rent : however, I Ihall fuppofe the cafe as 
it is here ftated ; and venture to afTert, 
that none can die for want of fubfiftence, 
who have any induftry to keep themfelves 
alive: nay, if they are totally without in- 
duftry, and corn at twice the exportation 
price ; our Poor-laws are fo extremely 
faulty, that they would neverthelefs be 
fed: but of this, more hereafter. As to all 
that purfue any employment, of whatever 
kind it is, they moft undoubtedly may be 
fed} and that well too, at the higheft 
prices wheat has been at of late years 5 
and in cafe their families are very large, 
their parochial affiflance is by many de- 
grees too confiderable, to fuffer a lingle 
perfon in the whole kingdom to ftarve* 
And let any one acquainted with the poor 
of this kingdom, confider, if thofe who 

• jfn Inquiry into the Principles of PtUtical Oiconomy^ 
Vol. I. p. 100.. 


t 83 ] 

expend Aich confiderable fums in tea and 
fugar, can live in a country, where the 
neceflaries of life are too dear. Indeed, 
this argument of Sir James's, by proving 
too much, may poflibly be found to prove 
nothing : for if corn ought to be fo low 
that all can buy, it muft be fo low that all 
may have it for next to nothing; which is 
impoffible: other wife, according to his own 
conclufion, they perifli ; for if they are 
indolent enough not to work above one day 
in fix, corn muft be cheap indeed, to be 
cheap enough for them ! And there can 
be no doubt, but if it was at a certain 
price, their idlenefs would extend even to 
that degree, and what then would become 
of manufactures. I leave any one to judge^ 
—Wages, however, would rife greatly; 
for the men would be to be iriied to do 


common work. All, therefore, that Sir 
James can mean to prove, is, tbaf the idle 
part of the poor may perifti, from not being 
able to buy corn at the exportation price, 
if the public does not buy it for them. — —I 
will gratit this axiom freely ; but very 
little reflection will prevent any one from 
believing the indujirious poor will ever be i^ 
the fame predicamenL 

G 2 As 

[ 84 ) 

As blind as fomc, in this country^ may 
be to fuch immenfe advantages, foreigners 
s^re not* : the late proceedings of the Prencb 
ought to create in us an horror at the 



* M. ^ BoubinvUliin remarks with great judnefs, 
after fpeaking of the excellency of marling Si ott 

'^remoatc i la premiere caufe detcttc BonreUe m€thode 
4|ui a augmeme en general les produflions de la terre 
en Angleterre, on la trouve dans la fage politique 
d'une gratification etablic en idSg^ par aAe da parle^ 
meat, poar I'cxportation de fes propres grains* An 
Ilea que, dans les autres etats, les particuhers payoient 
au gouvef nement pour kur foriie, celul-ci au cootraire) 
|>aya les particatiers. * ■ Toqs les mojeosordiflaire^^ 
praf\iques jufqu* alors poar augmenter les produ£lions 
de la terre, avoient ete fuperflus, oit au moins, petl 
tittles.' Avantcette 6poqae Tagrkulnire d'Adgfe* 

H^rre etdit ftu rang des mediocres de TEurope.^-Tant 
quecette monarchic ne penfa qu'a fa pro^refufofiftance, 
elle fe trouva prefque toajours audeflbas de fes befoinai 
}e plus fouvent obligee d'avoir recours a T^tranger 
pour completer ceux de la nation; mais lorfqa'elle 
fit de ion agriculture un objet de commerce, h culture 
de fes terres devidt une des plus abonds^Qtes de {'Entope* 
^ ■ ■ Sans ce coup d'Etat, le mieux combine de tpu$ ^ 
ceux qui ont encore paru dans la politique moderne^ 
rAngletcrre n'auroit jamais feme que pour elle-mtme ; 

^ car 5}u>uroit*elle fait da furplus de fes grains ? La 
graiification feule pouvoit lui en aflurer la vente dans 
les pays etrangers ; & par-la, etre la fource unique de 
1*augmentation de fes recoltesi i O n objeda contre 
jce fyfteme (car it y a Uujours Jans lis etats des gens qui m * 
vo^ent que le mauvaii cote des reglemens) que donner une 
'igratiiicatioa pour Texportation des grains, c*^toit tenir 

f 85 3 

idea of ohjtru&ing fuch a prodigioufly valu- 
able trade. Popular clamours, raifed by 

en Aogleter re kdi* prix plus haut qti'il ne ftroit fai^s 
£ela^ & le dopner a TetraDger auHde(rou3 piecDe du prifc 
de fes propres inarches ; ce qui diminueroit le prix de 
fa lAain d'oeuvre des autres nations, 8t augm'enteroii 

celai de la fisooe. il a ete/uffi&axmefirprouv^ 

par la comparalfon du prix des grains, avaot la ^r^- 
ficatiOQ, avec celui d'apres que le bled n'a'p^oint aug- 
meDte en Angleterre. — ^Mais quand ce!a cik reellecient 
fortte i|0 ioconvenieot \ de quel poid poti¥Qk-il ctrf 
-mis dans la balance des avantages ? Cooime, par exem^ 
pie, celA d'empechcr qne Tagricultare de ics voifins 
Be devtnl floriflanre redoire la plupart de lem-s terra? 
enfricb^ ; diouquer la clafle de leurs labo^reurs ; en na 
iPQt, faire lomber leurs gouvernemens d^ns un etat 
precalre, efl lear otant fcs wioycns de fobfifter par eu»- 

DCH^mc&r* ^ — Qh'ou coo&blne tous les vdss^^% quf 

cette monarcVie a mis en ufage, depuis ub fiecle, pou^ 
former fa puiflance, & on'trouvera que c' eft a cdtii-d 

quVJte.doiicpartkiiliercmcot foii elevsation-r-i Xm 

;ayaut?ges qii'elle a recu de f^ gratification nepeaycnt 
fe diflSmpler 5 la face de TAngleterre en a ete entierc- 
meat changee. Ceo'eft quedepvh c€tte*epoque qy^eUe a 
joue ttii pj-emier role & qu'e^e a Agnne ayec les piusgraa* 
des puiflances de TEurope. — fera qu*en adoptauX 
foifi fyfteme degratifications,qtie notre agricoltare potrrra 
jamais ^igiver a cote dc ia fienne. — Nou feiolf men^ I'augt 
meota(ipo de no^ richeifes ledemande; maif nQtrefyfr 
teme politique lul-memeTexige. — Ij n'ell pas bien aife de 
d^tcraiiner le point £x€, chiez nous, de cette grati^a-^ 
tion. ■ Les Inter eU de la France Mai EnUndm. V^L i ^ 
/• 163* I (hoiild not have introduced fo long a quo- 
tation fc a foreign language, but it is fo remarkably 
apptioibie io ^he pajfagp iia. tfie ie?ct, apd fo very com 
fonanc to the late and prefent ideas of the French mini- 
firy, that the linportance of it muft ptead the excufe^ 

^ ' G 3 inte- 

[ 86 ] 

intcreiied people, ought never to be hear^ 
kened to : 'tis to fafts alone we (hould at* 
tend ; and fadts will ever difplay in th? 
ftrongeft manner, the miferable politics of 
letting a /fet of idle, debauched, and info- 
lent manufafturers carry us by riot 

into meafurcs pernicious to the well-being 
of the Jcingdom. 

Thi? flight mention of riots, gives 
me an opportunity of remarking, that it 
js never the induftrious workmen of any 
fort, that join and form mobs ! It is only 
the idle, drunk, and diforderly ones that 
are ready to take a part in fuch mif* 
chievous doings. This, I believe, will be 
found univerfally the cafe : I have expe- 
rienced the truth of it myfelf 5 and I might 
add, that the more they earn, the more 
likely they are to riot, of which I found 
fome pregnant inilances in a late journey 
I took through fcveral parts of the king- 
dom s and which I fliall fully explain to 
the public in the minutes I took upon the 
road, and which I purpofe laying before 

In "July 1 764, the French King, in the 
moft folemn form, iflued out a perpetual 
and irrevocable edift, to authorize and en* 


r 87 ] 

cowage the exportation of coro: atid 
nearly at the fam6 time another, allowing 
all perfons to trade in corn, and to circu- 
late it fr^ly throughout the whole king'- 
dom -f*. This wife and truly political con* 
duft fliould'nmke us eagle-eyed, to the 
prefervation of fuch a glorious commerce. 
If we are fo infatuated as to tawipy * with 

t Thefe remarkable ediAs were gained (as I haw 
been informed, on good authority) through the appli- 
cation of M. Pattullo^ a Scotch gentleman, author of 
the Treatife entitled Effai fur rAmelitration des Tirres^ 

♦ A late writer fpcaks of the French exportation in 
a manner which ought to fill us with fears. *^ We 
reckon the annual exportation, fays he, of three mil- 
lions of bufhels, to make about 1800 or 200b voy- 
ages; and employ, four or five hundred (hips : but it 
is doubtful if we have added that number to our for- 
mer one. — Nevcrthelefs, in the years 1764. and 1765, 

. circumftances were very favourable to our exportation ; 
the defe£b in the Sicilian crops (bowed itfelf at the end 
of the autumn of 17635 the firfl: fuccours, and the 
moft prompt, were thofeof France. In 1765, Pcrtugal^ 
Spain, . Italy ^ and Enghnd imported corn from us ; the 
granaries of the l^orth were empty, and the crop very 
moderate : notwithftanding all this, it is evident, that 
in the courfe of thefe two years we have not exported 

more than three millions of buihels. Our proximity 

to the confuming countries, is the reafon that we have 
broke in upon the exportation of England, more than 

.that oi Poland.*' Oijirvationi Oe^nomiqueSy torn. 2. 
p. 224. 1767. 

G 4 . 'the 


[ 88 ] 

the bounty which has gained us &ch 
wealth, viQ may expert that our indefitti* 
gable neighbours will take advantage . of 
fuch a conduct— —and meet us as compe*- 
titors in every marJcet. This has been too 
often the cafe in other branches of trade; 
heaven forbid it ihould come to pafs in this ! 
In all affairs relativ^ to agriculture, we 
ought ever to regard a guinea raifed by 
cultivation, as materially different in value 
to us from a guinea raifed by any 
other trade, profefiion, or bufineis: in- 
deed its value fo procured is infinitely 
gieater, confidered as a real fource of na- 
tional wealth. But never let my country- 
men compare the plunder gained fiom a 
conquered enemy, or any immenfe private 
fortunes fuddenly acquired, as of compa- 
rable value to the flate with the fmall, but 
immenfely valuable ones made by agricul- 
ture. Bravery and condudl: exerted in 
the public fcrvice, defcrvc great reward 

— but fuch fortunes , increafin^ 

that inequality among mankind which 
is of no influence to hufbandry, ought 
never to be regarded as a public .benefit. A 
true politician ^11 fee at one glance, the 
difFerenfce to tie ftate of ten thoufand 
•*' pounds 

[ 89 ]. 

pounds gained at once by plunder, and the 
fame fum acquired by a diligent and induf- 
trious cultivator! Great and material is the 

If a lively cultivation is of fuch vaft con- 
fequence, furely every one muft allow that 
the true political knowledge is that of thq 
aftual ftate of the kingdom, in relpeft of 
cultivated and barren land. Amongft the 
variety of the furveys of counties, and the 
infinity of maps which are perpetually 
publifhed, I fhould be rejoiced to fee one 
which diftinguiflied the nature of the foil, 
by different colours j from exceeding rich, 
to wafte and uncultivated : if fiich furveys 
were repeated now and then, they would 
form the mofl: certain fcale, whereby to 
judge of the adminiflration of the public 
aflFairs in any age. 

Having In this manner given my fenti- 
ments, on the benefits arifing from a 
bounty on exported corn, and I hope 
proved their juftnefs ; I fhall in the next 
letter confider fome material points in 
the immediate praftice of rural oeconoray, 
which arc at prefent general topics of con- 
verfation, and deferve the clofefl: attention 
pf alHrue patriots. 

D 90 ] 


HA VING in my two preceding letters 
proved the great and real importance 
of agriculture to this kingdom; and (hewed 
that it is the great foundation of all our 
wealth I I (hall, now proceed to inquire 
into the merits of feveral praflices at pre- 
fent common in our rural politicks, and 
ftate as accurately as I am able, the good 
or ill confequences refulting from them* 

I might enter into a long difcullion of 
enclofures, was it not a fubjeft abfolutely 
exhaufted by preceding writers ; and here 
I fhall refer the reader particularly to the 
Memoires of the Berne Society^ in whofe 
valuable volumes much important know- 
ledge of this fubjeft may be gained. The 
vniverfal benefit refulting from inclofures, 
I confider as fully proved; indeed fo clearly, 
as to admit no longer of any doubt, 
amongft fenfible and unprejudiced people: 
thofc who argue now againft it are merely 
contemptible cavillers. 

Their benefit confifts in, i* The vaft 
increafe of the earth's produ^s. 2. That 


I 91 1 

of the employment of the poor, and cgtn- 
fequently their number. But fome will yet 
urge the advantages of a poor man keep- 
ing a cow 5 they forget, however, that the 
neighbouring farmers have a right of com^ 
monage'as well as the cottager ; and they 
take efpecial care by means of their flocks, 
to ftarve every animal the poor people can 
think of keeping. 


The different circumflances attending 
large and fmall farms, are matters now of 
the moft ferious attention. Complaints 
are every where made pf engroffing farms, 

as it is called and the cry againfl: the 

praflice is refounded from one fide of the 
kingdom to the other, with every circum- 
ftance that can aggravate the ill confequen- 
ces which attend it. I (hall enter into a 
cool and difpaffionate inquiry, into the 
real ftate of this celebrated cafe : I have 
long confidered it with the utmoft atten- 
tion, and will impart to the reader the 
reafons of the fentiments I have adopted, 
Jbr and againft it, on the moft attentive 
examination. The four heads, under 


'[ 9« 1 

which farms in general are naturally to be 
confidered, are, 

Firft, The quantity of produce ; and the 
value of it to the farmer and the public. 

Secondly,The number of people eniploycd. 

Thirdly, The different value to the State 
of the hands employed in each. 

Fourthly, Of the difference of advan-< 
tage to the landlord. 

And Fifthly, make a few remarks on 
the number of horfes kept. 

Firft, Of the quantity of the produce, 
and the value of it to the farmer. It muft 
appear very clear to every one, who is tlie 
leaft converfant in hufbandry, that farms 
muft vary in the produce according to the 
proportion between the fubftance of the 
farmer, and the quantity of the land he 
occupies* The material inquiry to be made 
here, is. Whether a great farmer culti- 
vates his land in a more perfeft manner 
than a little one ? In conlidering this ques- 
tion, I muft make a diftinftion between a 
rich and a poor foil ; for whatever doubt 
there may be of the fuperior advantage 
attending either great or fmall farms in 
general — -there can be none about them 

ifvheil confifting of poor land. 


[ 93 ] 

Farms on fuch a foil have generally a 
Iheep-walk, and in the prefent mode of cul-- 
ture cannot be managed to the greateft 
advantage, without keeping a flock large 
enough for a fold. Now fuch a flock 
requires a much larger capital than any little 
farmer can poflefs j for did he poflefs it, 
we may naturally fuppofe he would no lon- 
ger be a littJe farmer : and yet a late writer 
has blundered fo egregioufly^ ^as to call the 
fmall farmers the breeders of our Jheep* 
*^ The fmall farmers, the breeders, and 
nurfers of our Iheep and horned cattle ; 
the raifers of our bacon, butter, cheefe, 
poultry, &c. are baniftied from their native 
foil, Gfr.*" This language of declamation 
and nonfenfe, has not one f aft out of fifty 
millions to fupport it, even in pretence: 
he muft be a novice, . indeed, in rural 
oeconomy, , who does not know that the 
fmall farmers keep no flieep; feldom any 

cows, and yet fewer hogs As to thQ ar* 

tide of poultry, I have nothing to fay to 
it 5 becaufe its being either cheap or dear^ 
is a matter of perfefl: indifference to the 

* The accafion of the dearmfs ofprwifiom^ hy a manu* 
fia£imrfrf pw 28. 


[ 94 ] 

good of the public. Thefe writers, whole 
only merit is that of caviling at the time 
prefent, contradi6l in one pafTage, what 

they huzza for in another they would 

have little farms in one page — and argue for 
plenty of (heep in another ! — Another cir- 
cumftance to be confidered, is, the courfe 
of hufbandry fuch light foils are generally 
thrown into, which confift very much of 
turnips and ray-grafs with clover^ thefe 
crops require, if well managed, more cattle 
to confume them than the flock, and thefe 
are generally either a dairy of cows, or a 
flock of other horned cattle. All this whole 
c<)urfe of hufbandry, is fuperior to a fmall 
capital. It is generally reckoned, that the 
bufinefs of folding goes off very flowly with 
lefs than four hundred fheep : I know of 
no flock that confifls of lefs. Thefe, at ten 
fhillings a fheep, alone amount to two 
hundred pounds j one fourth of which 
fingle fum is fufficient to flock a little farm« 
Again: a light foil, generally fpeaking, 
has under it a bed of marie or clay, 
which is the common manure ufed for it 
——and I may add, is ufed for it by ail 
good farmers on fuch a foiL To marie or 
clay an acre of poor land^ cannot be done 


C 95 ] 

under three pounds, if cfFeftually per- 
formed. Indeed, when the manure is 
ihell marie, called in Suffolk craggy 
much fewer loads are fufficient; but, 
as all I have feen lies deeper than# marlc 
or clay, the expence of getting at it 
is the heavier. Three pounds per acre, iis 
an expence infinitely too gi;eat for any little 
farmer* I could offer other reafons to 
prove that it would be a ridiculous prac- 
tice to parcel out a poor country into 
fmall farms—— that it would never tend to 

the improvement of the foil and that it 

would generally be attended with the ruin 
of the farmers, who were fo imprudent 
as to rent fuch farms : nor fhould we for- 
get that chafes, forefts, and other wafte 
lands, are in general of the poorer caft 
——The cafe of rich lands, however, ad-» 
mits of more doubt. 

Farms may be divided into fuch as em- 
ploy one plough— e—two—lai'ge farms- 
very large ones, and grazing farms.— ^ 
But it is neceflary to explain the original 
of my ideas of thefe diftindions. I am 
pretty well acquainted with the hulbandry 
of fever al counties, but know little con- 
cerning thofe farms, in fome which are 



C 96 ] 

entirely cultivated by oxen. Thus I am 
' not able to point out the fize of thofe in the 
oxen-counties, which anfwer to one or two, 
©"r.horfe ploughs. What I mean by a plough, 
is one man ^nd two horfes, no driven 

If we examine the generality of little 
farms, we fhall find thefe circumftances 
attend moft of them. The land iett at a 
much higher rent, than the neighbouring 

middling and large farms cultivated 

with one plough one cart kept, which, 

with the addition of ladders, ferves by 
way of waggon for the carriage of corn, 
hay, &c. On fome, however, a waggon is 
kept, and then a tumbril befides.— — The 
cows, if any, of a poor and ftinted kind 
—-no flieep kept. Thefe are generally the 
chief circumftances relative to the flock. 

Such a farm as this, being the firft ftep 
which thofe labourers, fervants, or others 
in general take, when poflcffed of money 
enough to begin bufinefs, it is of courfc 
entered upon the moment they have 
wherewithal to flock it. — The horfes that 
are bought are fcarce ever flrong and able 
to endure hard work, as there is a material 
difference between the price of flout horfes, 
and what we ufually fee in a little farmer's 

8 flablc. 

[ ^ r 

liable. This lingle article is attended with nb 
inconfiderable lofs to the fanner j for it is 
a matter of faft which needs no illujftra- 
tiwi, that weak horfes will hot perform the 
buiinefs of a farm fo cffeftually as ftyong 
onesj and thence refults a conftant balance 
againft him, when comjpared v<^ith a far^ 
menable to take a larger tra£l of landr Thd 
keepftng only two horfes, entirely" Id ebars 
sllpurchafing of riianureSj (unltfs they are 
of :ib expenfive a nature, as to be of very 
little bulk ; and fucb are fcarce ever bought 
by. any but rich farmers) which arc of vaft 
confequence to thofc lands fituated within 
9eacl;i o£ towns. It is farprizing what 
great benefit coal-afhcs and mortar rubbiih 
arex>f to ftiff landsr*— befides the great 
quantities, of horfe, hog, and cow- dung 
that: are to. be procured in that manner. 
• ;Air the reft of fuch a little farmer's 
tackle is weak and infufficient for th6 
due culture of his fields; and it may ealily 
be conceived in idea, . as well as verified by 
jBxperience, that there! is a conftant lofk 
jDwing to fuch deficiency of ftrength in the 
cattle and impilements : this lofs leaves thd 
farmer the lefs able (in i6// opinion) to reft 
ills land^ at proper periods fot falloW years 

[ 98 T 

>or to be content with fowing crops by 
way of fallow^ which do not draw much 
nouriihment from the ground; as thefe 
crops are not of fuch ready fale as corn> 
but generally require cattle to be bought 
to eat them 6fF. Thefe little farmers arQ 
equally deficient, in keeping their fences in 
firong and impenetrable order i deepening 
their ditches, and hollow-draining their 
wet fields — all points of no inconfiderable 
importance. Laftly, (as the general con- 
fequence of all I have advanced) I muft 
add, that from the moft attentive obierva- 
tion, I have great reafcm to believe, that 
the crops ratfed by thefe little farmers, are 
icarcely ever ^ual to thofe of their more 
fubftantial neighbours. )it is therefore very 
clear, from thefe circumilances, that the 
quantity and yalue of the produce of little 
&rms are the lefs, on account c^ their 
being fo fmall ; and of courie the occupier 
and public both fufFer^. 

As to the next divifion of farms, th<^ 
which are .Cultivated with two ploughs and 
four horfes; a very great part of th« 

* The ffludl farmers coltWate com with moqh left 
cecooomy than large oaes. Obfervatmi Oaonomiquih 
torn. 2. p* 7 !• 

z objec- 

I 99 ] 

(blbjefijidns te the firft, are in thefc removed. 
If there is a fufficient quantity of graft* 
land in the firm, and the farmer's flock iu 
general equals bis numberoi horfe^, we may 
&ppofe the four hories a« fouir ftout^nes, 
ifuUy anCwerabk to their work: in this cafe 
*the bufine^fe of ploughing and hirfowing 
Vnay be duly performed, and four horfes 
^re fufiicient fot* the bringihg purchafed 
kianiircs on turnpikes; but this ciirumftance 
does not extend to other roads. Fouf horfb 
yiM lik^wife do for employing two tum- 
Wils at carting day, chialk, earth, or other 
Ibil mi«d in cotnpoft dung^'^l^lls, to ad<» 
Vaifta^ t which vrork (if ever done) goes 
^ venjr flowly with the little farmer. In 
the next place, the rtnts of thofe farms, 
wfoieh Require four horfes^ are feldom fo 
feigh ias the others ^ and the farmer is 
nece^rily a richer man, and cohfcquently 
more able to improve his land by the pur- 
thaling fbme manures, and faifing more 
from cattle properly kept at home. 

It is very clear, therefore, that the land 
occupied by a tenant who keeps four 
horfes, muft be much better cultivated 
than when farmed by the man who keeps 
but two; or, in other words, the quantity 

H 2 and 

[' lOO ] 

and value of produce may be infinitely 
greater, both to the cultivator and the 

The next fcale of farms I I'ank under the 
title pf large onesy viz. thofe that are tilled 
ty fix to a dozen horfes, or nearly thofe 
numbers. It is only men of confider- 
able fubftance that can matter, in a proper 
manner y t^efe farms. I fliall only obfervc 
in general, that thefe men are yet more 
able than the latter clafs to put all the 
fprings of a perfe6l cuhure in motion. . The 
article of purchafing nianures is (on turn- 
pike-roads) within the power of four 
horfes, byt the farmers who keep only 
that number fcarce ever do it. It is the 
clafs now before me, who improve -their 
fields in . that manner, and in any .fitua-* 
tion, as to roads, unlefs* they are fo ex- 
tremely bad, as to render the. work too 
expenfive to anfwer. All kinds of huf- 
bandry-improvements are executed with 
fpirit by thefe men : advantage is taken by 
them of all occafional and accidental ma- 
nures : They drain all their wet lands 

—keep their fences in admirable repair — 
plough and harrow their lands thoroughly : 

and above all^ are rich enough at any 


^^ ' -^-^ ^.^ 

[ 1:01 ] 

time, to purchafe a fufficient ftock of cattle 
, for confuming all fodder, turnips, &c. on 
the premifes, and thus are never induced 
to pafs by the JalJowcrop, becaufe unaWe 
to command the ftock neceflary to eat it 
off. Thefe are generally turnips and clo- 
' ver ; and there is a great difference between 
felling the turnips, and letting them be 
carried off the farm , or feeding fheep or 
black cattle with them on the pafture fields : 
— and between making hay of the clover, 
and feeding cattle with it in the winter ; 
or feeding it *, 


* The efFefts of a vigorons culture, fuch an one as the 
great farmer is here fuppofed to praftife, are finely 
painted by the admirable author of the EJJays on Huf- 
handry.' ** The more aii hujfbandman gains, the 

more, generally fpeakiog, he becomes vigilant, frugal, 
and induftrious. In proportion^ as the farmer thrives^ 
the land improves : and this is the meaning of the French 
proverb, Ttf«^ vaut Thomme, tant vaut la terre. Such 
a man being once placed above the- reach of want, has 
the Q^eaos of hiring better fervants, and maintaining a 
larger (lock of cattle $ making or purchasing manures ; 
trying experiments,. oi< devifing improvements. In 
proportion as be cultitiaies more land^ he acquires more 
knowledge, and gaind greater profit; tillat length he 
begins to love hu^andry, aind values himfelf on a 
profefGpn which incseafes his liule ftore, and gratifies 
his vanity into tbe^ bargain. Under fuch a cultivator, 
you fee, in one place, waftelaads rendered arable, or 

H 3 coo* 

[ 102 ] 

In thcfe, and every other Inftjtncc thaf 
ean be named) this clafs has the adyantagq 
over the laft, and of courfe, infiqiteJlY ove^ 
the firft. The hece(fd^y conf^uenipe is, 
that the quantity and value of the produce 
of the land in theiF occtipation, exceed, 
.both to themfelvcf ^nd the public, thq 
quantity and value of that in lefs; Sarins. 

The fourth clafs confifts of thpfc farm$ 
' which require, and are cultivated vjrith a 
larger number of horfes ; ft cm twelve tq 
twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, and evert tc{ 
an hundred. I fhall not detain the rejider^ 
with dwelling on many particulars, rela- 
tive to thefe very large fai ms : I (hail only 
dbferve, that there may be many, which, a'^ 

converted into ^ atti^ctal paAares : this is a true con- 
queft ; an acqulfition and appropriation Mvhich en- 
riches his landlord and htrnfelf, bnt injures no mad ! 
In another place he fertiHces a parched foil by float- 
ing of it, or bringing littfe Areams to rnn through it, 
feed, and cloatb it with wbofefome Tcrdare ; or elf^ 
drains mbraiTes, where abQm|aDCe of the fiube water i$ 
a nuiiaiiGe. and decorates tlic ^ with rich crops of 
ufeful vegetables, as flax, ^P*» ^^9 rslpe, &c. in- 
flead of flags, mofr, rAfiies,aiidt brambles— Soc^ a 
tenant' ought to be patronised and not difeoiirtged.'^, 
Pa^t 202. $ut one would think fr^m reading m iU 
foanded^, and.bafty prodoAioos of the preft, at pre« 
feht, ibat thciegrait farnicrs who work facfa imprbve*^ 
meois wercihc jpefts of fociety ! 


t 103 1 

I remarked at firft, are fituated on an ex* 
treme poor foU, with a large (heep-walk 
belonging tp them, which cannot be occu- 
pied on any fmall,. or even middling fcale: 
but thefe I mentioned before as exceptions, 
and mean the repetition now as fucb* In 
rich ibils^ or in fucb as let for ieven (hil- 
lings an acre and upwards, I am clearly q£ 
opinion, the farmer who keeps; from fix to 
twelve hor&s, may cultivate his land as 
well, with as much profit to himfelf and 
the public, as the occupier who keeps any 

larger number and much better than 

thofe who cultivate ixcejfpoe largfe farms ; 
becaufe the farmer then has more ground 
and buiine/s than he can properly overiee. 
The confequences to be drawn, there- 
fore, from this review of the feveral dafles 
of farms, with refpefl to quantity and va- 
lue of produce to the farmer and the pub- 
lic, are as follows j viz. In thtjirji clafs, 
the produce is the mod inconfiderable of 
any. In xhtj^cond^ it is much faperior to 
that in the firft, but not equal to what the 
land is capable of. In the thirds the farm 
is peifeftly cultivated, and yields as great 
and valuable a produce, as it can do in 
^ny. In the fourth, it does not yield more 

H 4 confidcr- 

[ 104 1 

ponfiderably than in the third and wheif^ 

the fize o? thefe rife towards the height, 
their produce is notyj great as in thfe third 

clafs. 1 fbould come now to ihe laflr 

clafs, of grazing farms \ but here lomit 
them, to fpeak of them hereafter by them- 

And here I muft caution the reader, not 
to conclude, when I {^.y fuch a farm fields 
Jb and fo, that farms fo circumftanced al- 
Ways do yield in that manner : I only mean 
that the generality of fuch farms produce, 
as I have faid : but vaft numbers of cir- 
cumftances .may caufe exceptions to be 
made to every rule ; and particularly the 
lands being occupied by injudicious or 
flovenly tenants. It is impoffible ever to 
advance any maxim in fo comprehcnfive ^ 
ftile as to exclude all exceptions : candid 
Readers will take a general idea of each 
dafs, without defcending into circum- 
ftances which caufe exceptions, with inten- 
tion to overturn the clafles themfelves; I 
fhall by and by examine fome particulars 
ihyfelf, which have a near conne£lion\with 
thefe exceptions. 

* . ^ 




[ 105 1 

The fecond head, under which farm^ 
in general are to be confidefed, is, the num^^ 
ber ^f people employed in them. And in con- 
fideririg this point, I fhall preferve the 
iame'divifion of them into claffes as be* 


The firfl: clafs of farms, thofe which are 
cultivated with one plough, are generally 
panaged by the farmer alone: if any ad- 
ditional help is called in, it never confifts 
of more than a labourer, now and then at a 
great pinch y as they call it, fuch as thrafhing 
but their little all of corn, the moment it 
is in the barn : but fonie of them hire a 
lad for a yearly fervant, if their farm i§ 
not of the loweft quantity of land which 
two horfes can cultivate \ in this, cafe they 
never hire any labourer. From the rainu- 
teft obfervation I can make, this is nearly 
the number of hands employed by the far- 
mers of the firfl: clafs. 

Tbofq of the fecond univerfally (unlels 
they are remarkable hard working mei^ 
themfelves, or have fons grown to man- 
hood) keep a fervdnt, who has the care of 
the horfes, and ploughs with a pair of 
them: befides this man, they in gmeraf 
k^ep one labourer regularly, to plough 
' witii 

[ io6 ] 

with the other pair, and many of them a 
boy for attending the^cattle, harrowing^ 
and other flight works of a farm. At 
harveft or the beginning of the thrafliing 
feafon, they may hire a labourer extraor- 

Thus fuppofing twenty acres of land 
the farm which employs two horfes, ( I am 
only forming a fuppofition at prcfent, as I 
fhall fpeak of the quantity marc particu- 
larly by and by) and forty for four horfcsj 
in this cafe, the firft maintains the farmer^ 
a fervant boy, and accidentally a labourer 
for a very Ihort time: the fecond^ tho 
farmer, a fervant, a labourer, and gene* 
rally a fei ving boy befides, with an addif 
tional labourer at bufy times : thus the 
four-horfe farm employs moft hands $ in a 
good meafure owing to the faimer being 
rich enough not to depend totally on him"? 
felf for one plough. 

The third clafs, thofe from fix horfes 
to twelve, vary greatly in the number of 
hands they employ ; for many farmers ia 
this clafs are rich enough to perfefit im- 
provements of fundry kinds, above the 
purfes of the two. former clafles : and in fo 
doing employ a great number of people. 


^he fpint with ?vhich they carry on their 
J>.ufineft, greatly promotes the employment 
of lajboiirerss — injdeed chiefly con fifts in it 
I*— and it is further to be confidered, that 
jhe (landing workmen pf their farms (or 
feryants) are, one to eyefy plough they 
keep *. Befides, the men employed in cart- 
ing clay, chalk, earth, &c, for the irar 
prbvement pf the land, muft greatly ex- 
jceed thofe employed in lefs farms : and in 
harveft,a large fa jrmer always allots one man 
to every twenty acres of corn, of whatever 
fort, fuppoling a common mixture of win- 
ter and fpring-corn. From thefe fever^ 
circumflances, I am inclined to believe, 
that a givcA number of acres portioned into 
farms of this clafs, maintain more hands 
in general, than either of the two former. 
A,s to the fourth clafs, I am very much 
in doubt concerning it. When I before 
fpokeofit, I mentioned the difficulty of 
pne farmer's overfeeing and properly ma- 

* It (hould be obferved, that by a plough is menntt 
the man neceflary to one that works with bne pair .of 
iliories a day, eight hours ; if a change of horfes and 
neu is tifed, ^s (ome farmers pradife^ fo as to keep the 
plough going in fatnmer fixteen hours, the cafe is dif« 
ferent, though the fame as to horfes and men. 


[ io8 j 

paging fo large an extent of giound 2i%Ji)m 
occupy who are ranked in this clafs. Now 
fuch difficulty ever introduces fome con- 
f ufion, and a confufed management of a 
farm, as conftantly tends to the ruinous 
praftice of fufFering feveral hands in an 
irregular manner to perforrh what might 
l)e done by one. I never failed on fuch, 
occafions to make this remark. Whether 
this circumftance anfwers in point of the 
number of people employed, to others 
■which may be brought on the contrary fide 
of the queftion, I am a little in doubt : 
the chief of thefe is the differentyim^rj', 
which might be fixed in the tra6l of land 
* which one occupies j for as to the number 
of labourers or fervants, I cannot help 
reckoning them nearly the fame. . However, 
another point fhould not be forgotten ; 
which is, that the probability of high im^ 
provements which employ a great number 
of hands, lies moft in favour of the moft 
fubftantial man, or in other words, the 
greateft farmer* Neverthelefs, I own my 
private opinion tends towards the third 
jdafs, in this refpe6l of population'; but not 
without doubts, which I take all poffijblc? 
care of removing. 


C '09 ] . 

, One circumftance, however, fliould al- 
ways tc remembered, which is, that the 
farms of this dafs are generally fituated on 
a very poor foil ; no one ought therefore 
to conclude, that the trafts of land for occu- 
pied, would maintain a vaft number of 
hands, if cut into fmall farms ; meerly 
becaufp it is obferved in common, that a 
country is populous which abounds with 
fuch. This frequently made, 
without atteftying to' ihtfoil: and that 
fingle circumftance can alone prove the 
comparative population. I know many 
very large farms which could not be culti- 
vated in par celsT^T^W/ as 560 acres. Ex- 
amine the fandy*^'parts of Suffolk'^ take a 
vie w'of thefarm zVCapel, St. Andreii/s, of 
near 4000 acres of fend. But thefe are only 
conje6lures. By makinghiumerous inqui- 
ries, I am able to lay before the reader, 
fomething of better authority than any 
rcffeftions : It is the number of hands con- 
ftantly employed by four and twenty diffe- 
rent farmers, of the firft, fecond, and 
third clailcs. I have not beeti able to gaia 
thefe particulars of (o many very large 
farms 5 nor are the few I have got, re- 
fpefting thofe on a poor foil, which is 



t 116 1 

Ail exception to every thing reliti^e id 
population. The number of acres are thii 
arable ones on each farmi had I been 
guided by the total number^ the fcate 
would have been ufeleisi as population 
would> in ally have been detertiiined by 
the greater or lefe quantity of fuch, with** 
out depending in any degree on the fiat^ 
of the farms in generals 

C L A S S' 1. 

Acris. lian^t 

No. I -^— 17 — * *— t 
i — 13 — ^— » 

4 j; «* ^ I 

5 26 -- ^-^ t 

6 — — 26 ^-* ^^ t 

7 ■ . ■ 22 ^-^ "Sp^ I 

8 '■ - ■" 30 *-* --^ d 



All thefe, except the laft, are cultivated 
by the farmers themfelves.* 


I Itl ] 


« -^ 43 — — 3 

3 50 — — 3 

jj. II II 80 —^ *"-• 4- 

5 -*-— 50 — — 3 

6 ■ 56 — — i 3 

7. .j6 — ■— 3 

8 55 — — 3 


445 25 


No. 1 — 110 — — 8 

2 — . 150 — —-9 

3 97 _ *— 5 

4 — ^ 88 — . — 4 

5 -^ i6o — — 9 

6 —— 240 -^ — 17 

7 .a<-. 200 — — lO 
• 8 — — 100 — — 8 

"45 70 

In the 'firft clafs, there is one perfon t* 

<very 18 acres. 

Inthefecond, onp to 17. 

In the third, one to 15. 


[, 112 ]■ 

And it {hould be further fenjarked, that 
the extraordinary hands employed at cer- 
tain times of the year, of whichnoacqoupt 
is taken in thefe iables, are jxuidi nio^*e 
proportionally confiderable withJthe|hird 
clafs, than the fecond^ and with^lhe fe- 
cond^ than tbe firft.:. which incre^ff the 
fuperiority ofthetwaformei:. .. _„ 

Thus, in regard, to the ;iumbfir of peo- 
ple employed, on the land, whether , it be 
divided ^into farms of the &*ft, fecond, 
third, or fourth claffes i the following con- 
clufions are to be drawn fioxn the .fore- 
going remarks, viz. That the fecond clafs 
employs more hanji.s.than the ^rflL— j— the* 
thirds than the fecpud — and it iiiwagincd, 
the fourth may employ foinething more 
than the third ; buttljenit is fuppofgd inore 
than to lofe fuch a fuperiprity^^in. having 
only one farmer on a large traft of land, 
inftead.of feveral. Qr in one wprd^. the 
third elafs is moft advantageous to. popu-* 

And here being on the fubjeft of popu-' 
lation, I think it may not be amifs; to re- 
mark, Tliat a late political author, fpeak-^ 
ing of the connexion between the foil, and 
the increafe of the people on it, falls into,- 


t "i .1 

what appears to me, a contradiction ; fbf 
he fays,*^^-^" Tfce more free and fimple thd 
manners of a coimtry are, cateris paribus^ 
the fewer inhabitants will be found in it *.'* 
But in another place he aflcrts,-^—— ** The 
more frugal a people are, and the more 
they feed upon the plentiful productions of 
the earth, the more they triay increafe in 
numbers •f." Nov/ i( frugality of living, he 
not the fame thing as^^^ and fimple manners j 
or in other words, if a people that live 
frugally, have not neceffarily fimple man- 
ners, I am greatly miftakeii. Population 
depends upon the perfection of cultiva^*^ 
tion, and this again, reciprocally upon po- 
pulation; and fimplicity of mannersi as 
oppo/ed to exceflive luxury, is greatly 
favourable; but that fimplicity of manners , 
which is not attended with frugality of 
ii^ingj is of a veiy equivocal generation^ 


The third head under which 1 obferved 
. farms in general fhould be ranked, is the 

• tnfuify into tht PrineipUs tf Pilidcal Ottimmy, 
Vol. I . p. 36. 
tP. 117. 

I tialui 

"oahie to th State of the hands imfi/i^jed S^ 
them. Atid here I muft apprehsad, that 
the little farmer and the Bay^aibourex ar^ 
tp be confidercd in the Ikroe degree of pulx 
lit utility, if we are Jo confider tbeif vakie^ 
in proportion to their fubftance^ ^t tUs^m 
will admit of fome doi4)t. However, a^ ta 
the flrft elafs of farnte^ in wh.atcver 'iflaijaw 
fuch a cafe is^ detef mined^ ftiU the Uttjfi 
farmer and the day-labourer ajca vijj^pf^ 
ral upon a par. Prom all th^ cl^^^z!|^v» 
I have made, I am coavinoed that t\!\t J^tr 
ter, wlicn on an equality with the foiaaaer 
in refpe&^of childreu, . \^ a5 wjelL ^4i W 
wen cloathed, and foinetimes a^ Mfctt lp4g* 
cd as he would be, was he fixed i» k^ of 
thefe little farms; with this diSftrqwe-''^ 
that lie does not wbrJi near fo . ^<(V.. ^^^ 
deed I regard thefe fmali occup^e^ ag a ^ 
of veiy miferaj2^1e men. They fwejfxtreiner 
ly hard— — work widibut intermiffion like 
a horfe— — and pratlife every leflbn of 
diligence and fiugality, without being able 
tofoften their prefentlpt — '•^-^U.tli^ 03m* 
fort they have,' which tiie labovire? does 
not poflefs, lies in the hope of increafing. 
their little flocJ^- jenq^g'b tp tak« «.lai<|^er 

farm ;^ 


farttj } tmt this is not cffefted fo often, as 
many people niay imagine ♦. 

Now if the value of people to the State, 
iiepends in any nieafure on their well^ 
being or labour, I fee no reafon to rahk- 
the little farmer above the day-labourer : 
and the eirdumftance of having a family, 
belongs equally to both. 

There iis one point which is even unfa-* 
yourable to them, that of not anfwering 
the calls' of the government, when men 
for the public fervice ai'e much wanted. In 
fuch times many labourers enter volunta- 
rily into the fervice ; but no little farmers^ 
Now this circumftance may, or may not 
be of any confeqoence ; but the faft is truie* 
Indeed jt would be attended with a good 
tonfequence, if, m fuch' a cafcj all the 
trien wanted w?re taken from among the 
manufaflurers: becaufe * the more littfe 
farmers, tjic fewer labourers^ 'i * 

♦^* I am here fpeaferng chiefly of the loweftclali of 
Imf&Qdffiai $ tl|e iittie farriers yfh9 >^^Dt ^ L qr\^tiA^ 
|i jfar : fucb a ip^ap, worKs and fares harder, and is {Q 
cffefl: poorer than the day-labbui^r he employr. Aa 
huibandmati thtis circumAanced, is foeyood difpuil^ft 
:(rorti)y obj^ of: ^r co]ffipii%atiQa ^{ul fiSiD^no^f^ 
£^p on Hu^andry^ p. 205. 

1 % in 

t ii6 ] 

In fliort, wc muft conclude^ that in re^ 
fpetl of population, comfortable livings 
and labour, there is no difference to the 
State, between a, little farmer and a day- 

As to the farms of the (econd clafs ; their 
occupiers are far happier in their circum- 
flances, and of more real fubftance than 
thofe of the firft. Thefe men I condder 
as very valuable to the State; as the beft 
nurfery of occupiers for the third clafs ; 
and who, as being removed from the very 
drudgery of their bufinefs, are enabled to 
pay and maintain fome of that valuable fct 
of men to the State, the day-labourers ; 
thofe hardy robuft people who are fo able 
to bear great fatigues. Thefe farmers, 
and their warm comfortable families, are 
of great confeqaence to the well-being of 
agriculture itfelf> if confidered as the firft 
ftcp to perfedt cultivation: the man pof- 
feffed of wealth enough to ftock a farm of 
this clafs, fets out advantageoufly to him- 
fclf and the community : in one of thefe 
^f^rms, he may, in a term of years, fave 
n^ney enough to advance into the third 
clafs ; whereas, if there was nothing bat 
-farms of that rank, it would be a matter 



[ "7 ] 

of too much difficulty among country peo-^ 
pie to get at them. The little farmer is 
always conlidercd as the chief tiller of his 
land, and therefore his Jarm does not, pro- 
perly fpeaking, . maintain him, but his 
laiour : now the fet of men I am at prefent 
fpeaking of, are in a good degree indepen- 
dent of barj, labour, and may therefore 
be reckoned as maintained by their fdrms, 
lefidcs finding eniplbyment fo day-labour- 
ers. Confequently, in refpeft to the vilue 
of the hands (employed by this clafs of 
farms, I niuft conclude, that they are not 
only more numerous, than the firft clafs, 
but more valuable. 

. The third clafs .of farms, viz. thofe 
which require, from fix to twelve horfes to 
cultivate them, has , hitherto * appeared 
the moft beneficial, both to the farmer and 
the public. In refpefl: to the value of the 
hands, employed, I muft obferve that thefe 
farmers themfelves are men of the greateft 
confequcnce to the nation ; of more than 
any I have mentioned yet ;. for it muft be 
very evident, that great public benefit muft 
refult from the care, attention, and fpirit 
with which thefe njen expend confiderable 
fums of money, in the moft advantageous 

I 3 manner 

[ ?'8 1 

mmntf pofliblc to the nation. They ^(^ 
aifo highly valuable in forming a defiralbU 
clafs of people between the two firft (ets bi 
farmers, and the men of fmall eftates and 
others, who cultivate fmall farms of theii: 
pwnt It is like wife to this let of idultiva^ 
tors, that a fteady and beneficial employ- 
ment of the poor is moft owiiig. The 
otner hands employed by thefe men ar^ 
ichiefly day-labourers; I have already fpor 
ken of their value, which is great; novv 
ihis clafs employs more of them in propor- 
tion than the former, as eveiyfarmer with 
foiir hof fes hires one man-fcrvaht (always 
fmgle) arid others who keep ten or twelve 
^orfes have but two; fome I have known 
with only one and a boy, the chief of all 
jtheir work lying on their labourers; which 
;ipracltce fhcy find more convenient in 
countries whfere cottages are tolerably plen^ 
iiful. Now the employment of labonrers. 
Who are generally married men, is more 
advantageous than houfe fervants, who arc 
iingle: nor fliould wp forget that this^m-^ 
ployment is regular i they have a conftant 
jdependance on their work; whereias, ' th6 
jlower'cfaffes employ them by fits ahd'ilarts, 
only at bufy times* From thefe confide- 
'•':'' ' -. : . j-ations 

t »*9 1 

rtlietis I am eleady of opinion, thit the 
Jiandfe employed by this dafs of farms arc 
idf gK^tcf value to the State than thofc 
employed by the former. 
• The next dafs, or very large fa:rms, I 
Aave tK) reafon to feppafe fo beneficial to 
the |)Ublic, in tfee point we are now confi- 
4ering, as the hO: treated of. For thofc 
oCircumi!an6es which raife the latter above 
the fecond clafs, do not rife in proportion 
to thefe : as the third fet are of fubftance 
fuffident for a perfefl: cultivation. Now, 
thefe extreme large farms are oftener fitu- 
ated on ^ poor foil than a rich one, and 
confequently cottages are fcarcer, and fur- 
ther removed from the farm-houfes; the 
farmer therefore neceffarily depends chiefjy 
on iir^d Jirvants^ of which he keeps a 
numbed IbflScient for working all his 
ploughs, Thi6 is a great prejudice to po- 
pulatiofi) and did not immediately arife in 
the fubjegt befoi'e. In the. next place, 
fima <tf thefe very larse trafts of land 
iji^mild admit of being oivided into feveral 
fartsie of the third ckfs, which J think I 
hive prdved to be the moft beneficial in 
^vcry ligkt : by which means the popula- 
tion might be increafed ; but the value of 

I 4 popu- 


[ xao ] 

population certainly would, in the addi« 
tional farmers and their families. This is 
fo extremely clear, that it will not iadmit 
pf a doubt. 

I therefore, under this head, of the value 
to the State of the people employed by tbefooer * 
ral cla/fes of farms ^ draw the following con- 
dufions, mx. That \htfirft clafs is the leafl: 
valuable in this refpedl of any; that the 
Jecond is of great value, but much inferior 
to the thirds which is fuperior to thcfourth, 
and confequently the mod: beneficial in thiff 
j'efpcfl to the State. 

My fourth general divifion of the fub- 
]t6k is, the different advantage to the landlord 
pf thefe feveral clafles of farms. Or if the 
c^fe is put by way of queftion, I might fay. 
Whether it is mofl: advantageous to a land- 
lord to portion out an eftate into fmall, 
it)iddling, or large farms, in the proper- 
tions I have dated in the clafles? And 
whether any particular clafs is of any fuch 
fuperior advantage as to induce a landlord, 
with propriety, to alter an old arrangc-i 
Iftent qn that account ? 

t I" I 

- As to the firft clafs, that of little farms, 
there are two circumftances to be confix 
dered ; the largenefs of rent in their fa- 
vour 5 and the repairs of buildings againft 
them. Much has been faid concerning 
the breaking of tenants; but from the moft 
aH:entive obfervation I have made, and the 
beft intelligence I could gain, I have rea- 
fon to believe this matter nearly on a ba- 
lance between different fized farms j if a 
large farmer fails, the landlord, it Is true, 
lofes moft ; but then for one large farmer 
in fuch a circumftance there will be 
many fmail ones— fuppofing, I mean, 
that both are chofen with the fame care 
by the landlord. 

The greatnefs of the rent of a little farm,, 
is, beyond all doubt, an object of no 
trifling confidei'ation : and as one can only 
fpeak, in this refpeft, of things as they are, 
and hot as they might be, were fmall 
farms more common ; it may be found in 
value more than equal to the difference of 
repairs, when the buildings are properly 

In countries where the generality of 
land in middling and large farms lets at^ 
^om twelve to fourteen (hillings an acre, I 


f "8 ) 

pave obferyed that thefe littk farms carry 

twenty fhillings— a guinea and ibm^? 

limes rnore^ an acre. However, a great 
feipericrity of rent is always to be obferved. 
Now what a vaft^ increafe this is, muft be 
Apparent to every one — indeed a much 
greater advance, than can bfi made by any 
other means whatever. 

The account between this advance and 
the expence of repairs in Jome farms may, 
I believe, be equal; but this mufi 
eyer be owing to a ridiculous quantity 
of building: I hayp pftpn feen barns, 
houfe, (j^c. large enough for an hundred a 
^ear, on a farm of nojt twjpnty. It may 
therefore be eftabliflied as a maxim, that 
the gain by rent is often loft in repairs in 
thefe very fmall farms. 

But on the other hand, I muft obfervc, 
that a great number of them, which carry 
d vaft advance of rent beyond the medium 
of the neighbourhood, have no bpiidings; 
that can in the repairs balance that advan* 
tage. i have feen many of thefe with an 
cjcceeding fmall houfe, which might be 

built new for forty pounds a very little 

barn containing a thraOiing floor, and 4 

ih[>all bay f for receiving iJhe corn which ij? 
immediately to he thraftied s and a flack-- 
fjoor for the produce in general. At one 
end a flable for two horfes, and at the. 
Other a houfe for two cows : the whole 
huilding fo exceedingly fmall, that is, fo 
proportioned to the land, that one fixth 
part of the anijual advance of rent is fuffi- 
cient to keep it in repair. Therefore, 
when landlords aft jhus rationally, in re- 
gard to the buildings, I am fully perfuaded 
that theii: profit from them would be 
greater ih^n ffom large ones. It requires 
fo fmall a fum of money to raife the build- 
ings complete fof a farm of twenty pounds 
ier tfWHttWi that I am of opinion, where 
'land lets for ten or twelve fhillings an acre, 
the advance bn parcelling it out into little 
farms,* would more than pay the intereft of 
the fuins expended at firft on buildings—— 
pay the repairs—— and leave a furplus at 
|aft for the landlord.— ^But the very con- 
trary of all this is the cafe, when ftich 
fmall farms have more buildings than are 

♦ All die diviCohs oF^ bard, cXcej>t the porthes and 
f&t-aihiDg- Adors^ are callcci >roYiiicially iapi l kao^kr 
if^ what i9vm lu fi^lffii to give tt^ia^ 

t \H J 

ncceflary. — ^^Thefe circumftanccs. coniider-. 
ed, I am much furprized at the praftice of 
throwing Tittle farms into great ones, un- 
lefs the occupiers of the laft agree, through 
a greedy defire of more land, to pay the 
fape rent for them as the little farmers did. 
In that cafe there can be no doubt > but I 
fhould apprehend it would fcarce ever 

. The fecond clafs, thofe which are cul- 
tivated with four horfes, feldom let at fo 
high a rent as the firft* But tenants being 
very readily to be had for therh, I believe 
they generally pay more per acre than for 
larger farms. What I obferved in the laft 
article concerning the buildings, is in a 
good meafure applicable to thefe : the pro- 
fit of them, compared with larger or fmal- 
ler farms, depends in a good meafure on 
the repairs if there are no more build- 
ings then ncceflary, I apprehend thisclafs 
to yidd more profit to a landlord than any 
.larger farms. 

The third and fourth dalles, confiding 
of large farms, and very large ones, are by no 
means let with that quick facility as the for* 
roer ones : there* are not nearfo many iiien 
whofe pockets they fuit, and this neceflfa- 


t "5 } 

rtly occaiions the land thus divided not to 
let fb well, as when in fmaller portions* 
But then, there is another circumftance 
to be confidered, ' which regards improve- 
ment; if a landlord's eftate requires it, 
thefc are the men alone who can effect tnat 
——the former clafles are quite incapable* 
of it: and that is more particularly the 
cafe'witJi extenfive farms oh a poor foil 
ivhich requires marling, claying, chalking, 
or any other cxpeniive and lafting improve- 
ment. In thefe cafes, the large farms are 
undoubtedly the moft profitable. But if 
the land of an eftate is already at its higheA 
degree of goodnefs, or nearly fo, then 
fmall farms anfwer in the manner I before 

There is yet another view in which 
farms ftiould be confidered, that is, fifthly^ 
The number of horfes kept upon them : 
and this circuaiftance is fo exceedingly im- 
jportant, that too much attention cannot 
be given to it. 

The farms of the firft clafs cannot be 
managed without a pair of horfes \ be they 



6f the very finallcft Rtt : cWn five acres 
arable land muft cither have two of thef<^ 
aevouring bcafts kept for their culture ; or 
depend for corn mon tillage; and even ha/-, 
veflr work, on the accidental Jeifuie o( 
Neighbours- This is toie ftrong reafgn o^ 
fmall farms being attended vvitb fo Kttfe 
profit ; for it is anrazing that a m^n Cah' 
keep two horfes and live upoifi a farm of 
fifteen or twenty acres of arable land: he 
muft inevita[bly be poor at leaft. This i^ 
his own concern j but what are the* con- 
fequences to the nation at large f Inftead 
of fmall farmrs increafing the people, they 
ftarve them to feed horfes j for it will b^ 
very eafy to prove, that the horfes kept by 
large farmers, bear no proportion to thofe 
of the fmall ones. Let any one view af 
♦ariety of little farms, and note the diffi- 
culties the occupiers are perpetually l^rug- 
gling with, in finding food for tlieir horfes 

■ let him obferve the proportions of 

whole farms tha^: are fet afide for horfe-*^ 
food alone j and he will find the quantity 
of land fo appropriated prodigious; 

The fecond clafs of farms have, in thi^ 
refpecl, the advantage of the firft; fot 
they cultivate a larger quantity of land in? 

a better 

c i^i I 

a tetter matotier, and wkh fewer horfeS; 
The reafon of this, m a great meafurc, b 
their fyperior ftibfta-nce, which enables 
them to keep their horfes almoft conftant- 
_ ly aft work % for. not being equally obliged 
-^Dvith the Kttlc farmer to let them fland 
t idk, white ^ther work is going forward, 
,*heyx?^ndu<^ two parts of their btifinefs a« 
once-^r- in one field they may be hcieing, 
mowkig, C^€. &c. and at the fame time in 
another hav« theii' labourers or fervants 
at work with their herfes. By means of 
managing a little in this ftile, a few horft^ 
4o the wopk of a great many. 

This clafe of farmers fows mLUch 
mor« ckwer tl^an the ferft; which not 
©nJy ppepai^s admirably for a crop of 
wheat o@ one ploughing, but refts a part 
of their farm every year, and confe^uently 
renders the few^r horfes ncceflary. 

Suppefe a field Town with barley; let ns^ 
calculate the difference between throwing 
. in clover with it, as a middling farmer 
would probaflbJy do^ and fowing it a fecoiid 
lime with <:orn. ' The clover is certainly 
©ne year upon tlie ground, very often twb^ 
jtod foinetimes three : Wheat is then fown 
lipoii ©ae plougjiing t from the time there- 
^ 6 fore 

^ [ 128 1 

fore of mowing the barley, the land 
requires but one ftirring in two years- 

The little farmer fows his barley with* 
out clover, next he fows oats on two 
ploughings; and after them, he in all 
probability fallows for wheat, ftirring his 
field three times at leaft, but commonly 
four. But as fuch a one's fields are not^ 
generally tilled in great perfeflion, I will 
iky only three : in two years he therefore 
ploughs five times, but the other only 
once : this is a prodigious difference, and 
all refults from omitting the clover; a 
crop which by no means fuits the little 
farmer, as he cannot afford the feeding 
off even the firft crop. This contraft fuf- 
ficiently explains the reafbn of a middling 
farmer not keeping a proportional num« 
ber of horfes with a little one. 

All thefe points of fuperiority are yet 
ftronger with the farmers of the third 
clafs. Thefe men are rich enough to keep 
their horfes at work the whole year, which 
makes an amazing difference : even in hay- 
time and harveft they will have men for 
ploughing as well as other work, to appear* 
ance, more critical and requifite : no bufi« 
nefs which requires men alone, flops their 

I borfest 

hories for any confiderable time; as thc^ 
can J)erfe6l:ly well afford a fufficient niim^ 
ber fgr all kinds of work^ which is not the 
cafe with either 4;>f the former ckfies; and 
in refpe£t to artificial grafies they fow them 
in much greater abundance. - 

Very large farms,:!: apprehend, keep yei 
fewer hories; , moft cqtainly on^or foils^ 
for ray-grafs mixed with clover, being the 
graffes they generally fow, and thefe al- 
ways remaiqing much longer in the 
ground than dover jalone, caufe a material 
difference. Sainfoin, which lafls from ten 
to twenty yeafs, is likewife chiefly fown by 
thefe farnoiers : nor fliould we forget. the 
eafe of ploughing in very light poor foils j 
the diiference. between thefe and the com- 
monly heavy ones, being at leaft half. 

I apprehend the following table of the 
horfes kept by the four and twenty farmers, 
named elfewhere, will give more fetisfac* 
tioit than .dny reflexions. v. 

Farmers. Acreh Uorfeu 

No. I . ^ - ;7 . * . 2 

2. - - -• .13 - -^ - 2 

3 - -• - 16 «ii * . 2 


Carry over 46 ' 6 . 

K Farm- 

t • 



tbver :4V . 








- - 1.7 . 

- ■ 






- - 26 - 






- . !sr6 - 






4 • *• 










, 167 






Nine acres to each horfe. 











- - 55 - 






- ^ .43 - 






- - 50 - 






. - 80 - 






- - 50 - 





# _ 

- - 56 - 






- . 56 - 






- - 55 - 





445 ■ 38 • 

Eleven acres and half to each Hbrfe; 

t'ni i 


» • 

G L'A 5 S Wti -'-'-'■•i--. 


. f:-^^^** < ''t ^^iir,,, 

ISTo. I - 

- - IM j¥/,':k; i}f\\'S .:>, f 

.' .a - 

-H "-.15&. '4 '.'^^r: •r'tr8,'l 

-.'3 ^ - 

- - ,9*r ■'^r- ••»; -<;' i6 ; I0 

..,••• 4 ' * 

^ -. * g 8 A ^ &• : 6^ '-rx 

■ ■■• ."5:'. * 

T - ^j6d>- ^ /^ -'.•*.iO . 

6 - 

-/ -,::E40> * .4. > 12- .. .i 

J^ • 

- ; - ,2bO •* - ' - 6 \ ' 


■ * • ' •' » t 


1 145 ' 166 

SeVfeiiteeri acits tb eSeh llbrfe. 

Thii table h k ftronger cc/ntittaitiah t)f 

ihe foregoing reafoniilg, thdh ktly thltig 
elfe I could offer; But before I quit the 
fub}e6t, I fiiould add one remark j Which i§y 
that in part of Bampfiire, ff^ittjbirey and 

in O;^fordjhire ; in (jkucejl&fhiri^ Mohntoutt^ 
Jhirei Ohmorgarijhin, &c. '&c. 1 fduild upf- 
dn Iftqttiry, in a kte journey, that fcarcfe 
a plough moved without four hbrfes to 
WmriU gcner^aHy flyd, and- f r felt) uiehtly fix: 
vit^ iHialF^rihi *rt of coui^fe^' V6iy (ditte, 
for none can exift without ft^liorfes; or 

K a four 


[ '3a 1 

four and two oxen $ or fix or eight oxen 
without horfes. In thofe p^rts of the 
kingdom^ the number of draught cattle, 
on fmaU farms^ muft be proportionally 
larger than elfewhere. 

Having gone thro' my five general heads 
of treating farms of every fize, and given 
my fentiments concerning them, I hope to 
the fatisfa^lion of the reader ; I fliall now 
fpeak of grazing farms, which, a$ they 
vary pretty much, in moft particulars, 
from other farms, are beft ranked by them- 
felves. I (hall confider them under the five 
heads of comparifon I have already ufed. 

Fuft, the quantity of the produce^ and the 
value of it to the farmer and the public. And 
here the mod fenfible author of the Effi^s on 
. Hujbandry f urnifhes me with an indifputable 
maxim, which I adopt on his authority-— 
namely, That in any country where there is full 
confumption at home^ or commerce for export a^ 
tion^ the befi ufe the land can be put tOy iV to 
cultivate that crop^ whatever it be, which 
produces the great e/l profit valued in 


Let us therefore compare the difference 
between the proft^ valued in, money of gra|s 
♦ Page 38. . . 


[ J33 1 

farms, or common arable ones, with a 
porticm of pafture belonging to them.— — 
And I (hall begin with little farms j not 
that J defign to proceed regularly, as be- 
fore, according tp their fize, but there ai c 
fome oblervations to be made on tbefe par- 

I before remarked, that the little farmer 
works harder, and is to all intents and 
purpofes as low in the comforts of life, as . 
the day-labourer. But this wretchedriefs 
is totally owing t© his occupying ' arable 
inftead of grafs-land* The plough moves 
at-a vaft expence in wear and tear, keeping 
of horles and labour: an expence far 
beyond the ability of men whofe fubftance 
is fo fmall ; and requires a greater vigour 
in the culture than they can poflibly give. 
Beiides^, the uncertainty of arablcrcrops is 
very great, which is a terrible affait to the- 
little farmer, who has not a variety, that 
if one thing fails^ another may make 
amends. Now all thefe circumfl^ances are 
totally changed with grafs-farms.' They 
are managed at a fmall expence— there is 
fcarce any wear and tear— the certainty of 
the produce is infinitely beyond that of ' 
arable land»^— ~and in fine, one horfe is 

K 3 fufficient 

[ H^ ] 

tity generally is, the greateft part.^,ab^ 
^^n^mmkl' %i?n*,4a .for W tq^lipg 

Ii\^^^.Pq> j^^!^.-f^»mflP«YW 5. the other. 
^,Q}^^'tf\e '.^-^ble , i^nd .faf ai,. and ^y. th«i' 

el^jgefi^ep, pf, the firrt.'y€;aij wfii^d ;bw.. f^Uy : 

fu^9i^^t-ioj\9c,l^ the,g^^fs^c«i?-wii;^^4a^ry: 
'°6°^^'-i^^ f few hciigsj -pr ifjhexq was 

' ipigp~4^/Wtly \yjiK\i;uch cat:ijle„ ^t 

J j^vtySJe bf iqg a, goinj: of <;oi^fiJc|qra,Ws : 
im^9Ji^aQ(j?,,rQq^ke5,forqe(;hing i?jj:f ^tjtijai^ f 
^ !^%e,|fl^rtipni^ iw.ti'f; grais,«j^rm^,caQr. 
li^t^'be '3^',j^9jfijy^, ftqcW.afi ^ahlf f|^^- 
liM ap. eyicjqpt rWpnior th?Jr npfbpii^.jiph 
j[^p[XPQcaii f J, :|ball.. jtbprffpreL ijnfext a. fifjw< 

* 6)rtoaei3X-, i£ any contrivance of making hirtiiJraw 

calculations to prove that this is not the cafe. 
TRe niean niShibef' bf^raW acres in the 
eight little fermsi inentioned'page-rio, is 
20 ; ' I fliall therefore ftate the flock of 
fuch an one^^ fiippofihg the quantity or 
grafs commonly annexed- to be five acres. 

Stock necejfary for an arable farm of the 

- Jirft^ClaJs. - : • 

Rent, ty the, and town-charges, 

25 aci;es at 25i. - - 31 5 o 
Houfliold furniture, -. * - 12 o o 
A cart with ladders *, - - /ib b o 
WO horfes, - ^ - io o o 
Cart-Karndjs i^r ditto, - 390 

Plough-harnefs for ditto, - i 8 o 
A plough complete *, - - i 10 o 
A paif of ^harrbws> - - i lo o 
A rowl, - - - 0150 

Sieves, fcreen, bufhel, fan, (ho- 
vels, pick-ax, forks, rakesj ' 
^c. &c. &c. -• - ^400 

Carry over 75 ^7 ^ 

^'Thcfe prices are thofe of conntrie? a^ a dtftanqe 
from iron mines and coals. In part pf Ghucefttrjhire^ 
in Minmiuthfiire and Glamorganfiire^ a waggon cofts 
not 8 /• and ^ploogfa but *] $;bd. 

K 4 Wear 

» • • > 

Brought over 75 17 

^e^randtear, and fhopii)g» a 

year, .. • r ,j» |o 

jKr^eping two horics frou^Jli/r 
^ cbaelmas (the time. I fuppof^ 
thp farmer to enter) to May 
day, at 3 j. a week, - 47 

Seed for ^fteen acres, the quan- 
tity I fuppofe him him to fpw 
every year, at (^s. an acre 
on a medium, - - - 6 15 

l^abour in feed time and har* 
V^ftj a bo^ at 3 J. a week, 10 






, * 



* iC 90 9 9 

Jlent, tythe, and town-ch^rgec, 

25 acres, - - - 3^ 5 ^ 

Jioyfljojd furniture, -« -1200 


parry over 43 5 o 

* I reckoa nothing for keeping the farmer apd hi$ 
fimlyf if he has any that year, as fuch a calculadoa 
can be fonnded on no authority, and the proportipfi 
Will be fccn, as I ihall reckon neither. 

t n? 1 

Brought over 43 5 o 

Pairy fijrnitare, ^ - - a o 
A cart with ladders; a very 

flight one is fufficieiit, ^ 600 

Cart*harnefs» -• - • I 9 o 
One hprfe, not wanted till fum* 

mer; To no l^eeping, ^ 500 

Porks^ ley the, 4nd rakes, ^a o 10 o 

Wear, tear, and /hoeing^ • 0x8 <S 

Seven cows at 4 /• each ^, «- 28 o o 

Onefow, - -. • o 15 a 

I^i^bow 'm hay-jtinaej a l)oy, 090 

j i' i II I 

jC 88 6 o 

wiim^m^mmwmmm^an'^f . 

This fketch fliows that the Utter farm 
can be ftbcked for as low. a fupi as the for* 
mer : but I am not Iblicitous to bring them^ 
to an equality 5 for fuppofing the grafs to 
require ten or fifteen jpounds more, than 
the arable, or the arable as nmch more 
than the grafs, fuch an excefs is not of 
great confeqnence : It appears plain ^ough 

* Some years this is a low price, bat Qot at a pie- 
ilixim : laft fpriog, even good cows were fold, 80 miles 


f >3* V 
ftwi ihcA particulars that the difFerence 
oSilqck i^ ; vecyctrU^i^'^- and that, when 
cwATS (jarei. to be pufchaied. If the ^ grafts 
ihould be veiyjr. goody the-cakulft^ioA Is^ldvi^ 
enough t6 admit 5 4* ^/*- acre ib9K'45fc&nt. 
olf.the I farmer is-fituated naar- a mar- 
ket town, on ifl' he> has- no* wile; hfty-^ 
aod joining -the 9^tHcrop may^ anfwer 
U^ttee than cows y ia^ tvkkh ca^ \tfte ^Mdt- 
rcqujffitecwill be 9^1eafti23 /. or 'a'^/.cleis: 
asd «veti if it v(a$I|^ze4 by^ heifers^, a^ 
Icfs ffiisi <wouW do. - - ' 

^ Tbus ct appQ2(C8J A^it^^ttoiW^iifi^fetrm^ 

ce any thing in wear and tear 
Uh& fairer bimfelf would be highly 
Jfafficicnt to perform the labour of it, with 
eaie and pleafure. , He w^^ul^ find either 
ftbm^ do^kl hay- ' oif g^/azirtg,^ a ifar, greater 
profiNhan in the common tnethdd; and in 
eSfijofia* tfad- year,' '^6 yt^;^;' when; 
. Bib retwn came iii^^i hafv^e to pa^half of it 
irtr^ hiy 'Mttckfttilthy vJfteelWrifeht,: ^ and . aA 
^Ifthhe H^anety nf StpiiMx Vvhith^ thp 
jJbu^ <aufes," '" "^ V . ' ^\ \ . 
* TM!I flbtai iniev li Vm iwafe, will meet 
with great ojppofition.fro^n. the vjjara^,^- 
yoff^X^ ^j5t>f : H^^'i^:, ] tl>^:^:ar«: rmtky 
/uch, who w ill .iifiwaH^W that grazing i^ 


t *39 13 

f q^^ly p«)6j:Q})k, The .pra(9ticai^ expcti; 

fjpcij^ qMi iiQwey«f, I am wry clear, :will 

Jbe of ^ iyfmion^ I cptojd inibrt.tiwfltyi 

aciQoqpta qC the pro4utfr and expences ol 

JjiQtha but J 'Wn fcfwful oi^ feeing tedious i^ 

from t^ i})«^ 9CcufaAe that can be iQ^de/ 

' th0 ge^fe; 1%d4 i$ fojiaod: to, be. infinitely thq 

woft. proQcaiste^ 1^ common anfvrer ifi^ 

tj^ augw^en^. i$ tbeiurgmg the univ^rf^ 

pra4tii»' ©f : <;©8wnpn f arnters to break ujj 

»?tiaiteY8r J gm& iidds 'i:b«r landbids will 

prmiti biifi lhis:i£ BOv ^^ that aral49 

fesd is moft' profitablcmwr-it poroves? , only 

th^l: th^jeeiiid-ft gr^at prdfi)tix>n the^;£f^ ^rai* 

11^ «^i id ^raf$. land^ i ; and: this it ts' which 

i[n<^^ plQU]^h fiiefli land, 4!o ^ 

esrt^fi iofs jiaidci or a doEcn yeaist^-^^tliof 

p«)fit;/flr;a £bcrfttimof,I-Well therefor^ 

Blight Mi Sii^e/qw, fayw**— ^" Si ron ontre 

dans qtwlque detail fujr ce fpjet, on fe con* 

yaincra bieitii&t qu'une ^trop grande' qnan^ 

* Blytf^e was grf f^ly miftafkeB in the fojlowing pafr 
fege, or tMngs are' much* ^'itcred' fince the "middle of 
tbp ^(l Qq$tMry,; ** Tilj4gc, fa30he;,yb,ldcth: the-gwa; 
teft profit to landlord or occupier ; ftudy efpecially th« 
good huftand to convert the land to the beft pr^^t^ 
and that is- helif and mimtaJ^idi^by all men to be by til- 
Jage, elfe M*y do men gite dotfbfe rents to till an J 
plough above -what' they 'do- to graze?** Im^over 
fmpritvifl^ 1.652, ^ 34 04if. p.-l 46'; 

[ I40 ] 

tite dc tcrrcs labourees, relativement a nos 
prairies, e/i um des-frimiera fources de la 
pauweti du peuple dc certaines cbntrees *." 
And another author attributes half the 
^vils of the Vrencb agriculture to a want 
<^ grafs : " Pluficurs particuliers n'ont 
point de charrue, ils ont obliges d'attendre 
qii*il plaife a ceux qui en ont de cultiver 
leurs terres* Quand ils ont acheve leur 
propre ouvrage il eft deja tard, Ics mauyais 
tems furviennent, il faut femer bien ou 
mal avec precipitation. J^luiieurs ont nleme 
qqelqi^efois la doleur de fe voir reduits \ 
Udure neceffi^c de laifler en friche des ter« 
rte qui devqient foornir a leur fubfiftance. 
P'oQ vknnent tous ces maux ? De la dif-* 
proportion de nos terres labourees avec nos 
prairii^s -f /'•~^— I conclude therefore, that 
It is infinitely more . ^ofitable to a little 
farmer to occupy an entire farm of grafs, 
than have any thing to do with the 

The fame aflertion may likewife be ven*^ 
tufed in regard to thofe who ufually em* 

/' ^ Memoirfs 4e SQcleti di Bern0p 1763, premiere 
parttei. p« 3. ^nd for arfarther cpn^rpaatbo fee Principe^ 
it Otfgrvatwns Omnomjquis^ torn. i. p. 260. 

f Mem. df Soc'iiti df.Bern^y 17631 p. |0t 


ploy four or more horfes. The fame fum 
pecdlary to ftock one of their farms, would 
be highly fufficient for a grazing one; for 
two horfes are the utmoft they need keep 
in fuch a cafe ; and inflead of the heavr 
«xpepce of a man, and boy fcrvant and 
labourers, one boy would be fufficient—— 
with a dairy-maid, if cows were the objedt 

rand if fatting cattle, the farmer him- 

felf without any afliflance. fiut it is here 
peceflary, as before, to aim at a proof of 
the affeitioni^ that a grafs farm in this 
clafs, is likewife flocked as cheaply as an 
arable one. For this purpofe, the follow* 
ing calculation is fubmitted to the reader's 
candour. The mean number of arable 
acres in the eight farms of the fecond Cta(s» 
is fifty*£ive:. I ihall fuppofe the grafs to be 
.upon a medium fifteen. 

The fiock^fan iarabkfarm of the fecond Clafs^ 

/. s. d. 
Rent, tythci ahd- town*«harges 
of 70 acres, at zos. . , ... - 70 o . <^ 

Carry over 70 o ' o* 


Brought t>vtT 
HduflioM furnituir *, *< 

A waggon, 
A car t with ladders, 
A tumbril, - - 

AToil for broad lands 
tJittofof narrow, - -. 

Cart-hlarnefs for four horfes, 
Plough ditto, -^ 

Two ploughs, - . - 

A pair of harrow«> ' • j 
Screen, bufticl, fahs, ffeves, 

forks, rakes, ^r. &c. d^c. - 
Dairy furniture, - - 

Twenty facks, « 7--^ 

. Pour horfes, 
Wc?ar and tear, aftd (hoeing, a 

year, - • - - 13 -6 






































Can^^yes 2*5 13, a 

• this articlcfiwft'ltfeTwWi tlferf|ip|>jifcd fobfhndd 
Df the farmer : aotl the others wli^ch I calculate,bigher 
Aan for the little' one, I \iti^^nt**v/onti bt puirchafed 
ot a-Aer^-Aroiig and fubflantial kiod, than could be by 


©rdtl^t differ . 2*25^3 ^ 
'KiefSilg -fotfr "feiorfes fiwri 
Miihailmds to 'May'4ity,'2s. 

^FiVe feows, - *- 2^0 ' o tt 

'bile faw, - - fo 15 'o 

^ One 'fdrVaht^: year, -'fetoaVd and 

wagcsi - '- '- i^ o t> 

IAl kb^u^er a j^a#, - *• ^io "o a 

'Seed for 42 ^6cres, 'the qtian-- 
*fity he ' fows 'every -year, 
"•wheat, fpfittg-coifn -and do- 
^ver,at rii'r6W. onamediufti, 24 3 /o 
•'Labour in^ bar vtffi, '* - r id *a 


iCs^'^ " *> 

-It is 'neceflai7 here to i-etnatk/ that'fe^ 
•farmers on renting of a farm of 70 /. a 
'year,-have hear fuch a fum as this total* 

X This farmer's horfes doing infinitely more work 
than thofe belonging to a little one, muft be fed pro- 
'pOrtionally better. 

t Old female ibeep for faftiog. 


f »44 1 

If they ^ pofTefs a dear three htindttS 
, poundsy they will aim at one of an hun-' 
dred a year at lead, from a common no- 
tion that three rents will dock ; and b/ 
means of buying all implements at iecond 
hand, weak horfes, and poor cattle ; and 
with trailing even for a part of the firft 
yeai**s expences to the year's pro^tice, it 
mufl be confcfled they do get into larger 
farms with fuch a fum ; but then they 
moft afluredly fuffer> foq^ot htixig Jfronger 
than their farms ; wear and tear prefently 
runs up excefltvely high^ and the cattle are 
foon to be purchafed again, infomuchj^ 
that numerous are the farmers who rent 
i2o/. a year, and \u& manage to gain a 
living, who would have been worth money 
(to ufe a common phrafe) had they Began 
with 70 /. a year. In the whole fyftem of 
rural oeconomics, there is not a more fatal 
rock, than that of renting to the utmoft 
of what a man's fubflance will allow him. 
f^-^l fhall now calculate the ftock of 1 

grafs-farm of this clais^ 




r 145 




/. i. 


Rent, tythe^ and town-charges 


of 70 acres, at 25 x. 

. 87 ro 


^ 30 

Cart, ^ with laddersi 

* 12 

A grafs roll, 


Haimefs for two horfesj 

3 9 

Scythes, rakes, &c* 

I 10 

Dairy furniture. 

* la 

Two horfes, 

- 16 

Wear and tear, and (hoeingi 3 

Twenty cows. 

- 80 

Fifty fheep. 

« 14 

Three fows. 

2 5 

Labour in hay-^time. 


A boy a year board and 

wages-) 9 


jr. 279 14 o 


The larger the farms are, the greater 
difference will be found between flocking 
grafi and arable : this fum is fo much 
lower than that for the arable farm, that 
confiderable additions may be made to it, 
on a difierent principle of farming it ; for 
inftance, fuppole 25 or 30 cows kept, and 
but juft hay. enough made for calving-time, 

L and 


I »46 } 

ajKt ilrayr bought for them all the other 
part of the winter. This i$ emy vrjhece 
^adx0hk; fori never was in any fmrt of 
tbe kingdom, where barley and Q9t«-Araw 
(the onlyiiood forts for fpedihg)[ were notlb 
b9 pvuxWed and boiight in at ^ modinrttt 
price I and thi^metl^ of nMnagiaggrafiB.^ 
Und^ either for cows, or fatting cattk^ it 
of aU others the mod profitafakf kn: a 
large Aock of cattle is kept, and touch 
manure made. 

In very large farnis> I do xjet apprefaend 
il fo profitable, to have nothing hot gr^ik^ 
A faiall portion of ploughed grouod to 
wife turnips, carrots, and oats on, in di 
fpucie of hiiibandry« to have a crop of 
each ev:ei:y year» would be more advanta- 
geous^^ a«by thefe means the feeding of 
ca tt l e ixugiart be continued the whole year 
through, thus dividing the bufinefs, and 
havkig vrtntar-employment for the few 
hands i!ieceflary> if a dairy was not the^ 
obje^i but if it was, mone muft be kept 
— -^and aHb raifmg oats fbr four horfcs^. 
which is the utmoft msmister tiiiat can be 
lequired^ for, I may fay« the lurgifi of ^asi* 
wg fwtms I only esccpttng thofe wliieb 
^re tui'oed to the dairj**bufinefi,, in a. cpim^ 

1 try 

C W7 1 

(try Avbere tiie j^x^ds are very b'adi a^ flju^ 
AjRUinher would not then be fytQfiknt, to ' 
4:arryiiiU loads of ^tck^ and firkins of 


Jt is iherisfjore e^tr^mdy manifeft, t^at 
in all> foUi rkh emough tt> faeai* good gra&^ 
fttfb. £arms aire £ar mare ptx>fitable than 
arable ooes, let the ^antaty of land he 
^ what it tnaj: or ia othei* words, tibe ^ujZu<? 
of the earth's prodiiftions (all f xpenoes 
paid) ia nmcli ^^reaier in gv9& farnas than 
. araiib ones ; «iik& tbey ^re fitoated on a 
poor foil. 

Tiae fecotid hc^, Under ivhich I aifi to 
.confider grazusg£ai!in$i k thentank€rjffpc$^ 
pk employed. In iixis refpe^l^ the cafe is 
detennaooi in an inftant; it is, tillage 
which mauitmtM^ great numbers of men : 
indeed the vaflly fuperior profit .©f graf$- 
land, is in a good meafure owing to the 
£ew hands req^uired to maha|e it Mod 
authors have been fenfible of this j " Les 
pais, fays MmtefquieUy vde pr^turages font 
pen peuplls. Les terres a bled occupent 
plus d'JiQnames, & les vignobles infiniraent 
d'aviuettaget fjn Angleterre on s'eft fouvcnt 
plaint que Vaugmcntation des paturages 

L % dimi- 

C 148 ) 

diminuoit les habitans ^" But he foon 

after obferves- — " Enfin la terrc qui eft 
employed ailleurs a la houriiture des ani- 
mauXy y fert immediatement a la fubfif- 
tance des hommes; le travail que font 
ailleurs les animdux eft fait 1^ par les horn- 
mes» & la culture des terres devient pour 
les hommes une immenfe manufa6lure.'* 
•—And M. Carrard d)ferve$» ". Plus on 
a de terres labourables, plus audi la quan- 
tite de fubfiftance, le tommercej ks occu* 
pations oc par confequent la population 
augmentent dans un etat -f-." 

I fliall not take up the reader's time in 
dwelling on a point, the certainty of which 
is fo extremely evident, W2;. that grafs- 
farms, of whatever fize, are greatly infe* 
lior to arable ones in the employment of 
people 4;. 


* De VEJprit des Lolx^ tome L jp. 120. Liv. 23. 
chap. 14. 

t Bern. Mem* i y6$. Vol. 2. p. 242. 

X Notwithftandiog the maDttFaAure carried on ia 
confequeoce of them^ of leather aad wool : ia this ob« 
fervatioQ I think I am confiftent, as I before remarked 
the benefit to population artfing from breaking op 
fheep-walks. A late author calculates the pr$p§rthn oi ^ 

popqloufnefs betweeo gjrafs aad arable.—**^. The pro«t 





[^49 1 
' As to the third head^ concerning the, 
different value of theft hands to the ftate. 
It is nearly the fame in both arable and 
pafture-farms ; the difference only con-» 
lifts in the number j but if ibch diiierence 
ihould be found, I apprehend it is in fa^. 
vour of arable ones. 

Fourthly, in relpcft to the different va- ' 
lue to the landlord : That is certainly moft 
advantageous to him, which yields the 
beft rent, with the greateft probability of 
continuance* Now, whether he portions 

portion," fays he, ^^ of people employed, in agriculture, 
and upon the account of it in difFereot countries ia 
nearly in the ratio of the grofs produce of the land 
rent; or in other words, i6 the proportion of the con- 
fooiption made by the farmers, and of thofe employed 
nece/Ikrily by tbem, to the nett produce, which is the 
faifie thing. Now, as the confumption upon corn 
farms is |, and that upon pafture tt ; the proportion 
of thefe two fradions mufi mark the ratio between the 
populoufnefs 6f pafture-lands, and thofe in tillage; 
that is to fay, tillage-lands in England were in Dave' 
nant^s time peopled in proportion to pafture- lands, as 
84 to 45, or as 28 to 1 5." Inquiry into tbt Princ^Us of 
Political Oiccnemy^ Vol. i. p. 43. .This proportion, by 
the by, is nearly that of the two farms of 70 acres, cal- 
culated above : In the arable one, the farmer, a la* 
bourer, and a fervant, which are three : In the grafs ; 
the firmer and a boy ; and reckoning the bc^ at half 
the value of a man^ that is, li; three to 1 4 is as 28 
to 14, b$t then the 15 acres of grafs in the arable farm 
Slakes fome difference. 

L 3 out 

t MO ] 

out: his eftate in fmall, middtkig.: ok lavge 
farms, the grafs-cmes w31^ beyood all 
dQubt^ bring hiin moft rent, and that in 
m> trifling degree of fiip^riority. I think 
I have proved fuffieieiltlj, that they are by 
far the moft profitable to the tenant s it is 
therefore highly reafonaUe that; they fiiould 
be the fi^mt fco the kfidlordw In faSt^ good 
grafs-Iand gqnerally lets, better tfian good 
arable, unlefsit be immediately on the hreak*« 
ing up for the firft crope^ which is ap exeep^ 
tton tQ any general courie of farimng. The 
beft grafs always lets for more money than 
the very beft arabfor Attacker drcmnflanco 
of importance, is the article of baildiitgs : 
grafs-faro^ require few or none beiides the 
dv?eUing^hoarej a:nd this fating mrepMrs hi 
prodigioiis— rthat very article being rufficient, 
(as I befoiH? obierved) in finsiU farmss to 
balance fix or eight fhilfing an acre rent» 
^ buildings are cotJOtttotAy managed* It 
is foj^er to be remembered, that a ba^. 
tenant, under a negjligent^ or ighoraiit 
landlord, or one who refkks at ^ diflfance^ 
froo^ his eflate, cannot ruin a^ grafs-farn\' 
By continued cropping^), or very bad huf* 
bandry ih other particulars, as is too often 
the c^fe in arable oneSj, fo qrcumftancedi^ 


f »5i, J 
It cpay be faid^ that tenants are in general 
bound by their levies ta ab^ain from fucb 
pra^ice&; but oqnvmou obiervation may 
convin<;e us» -that leafes are far from being; 
Sufficient to prevenjt ifuch. evils, when tho 
foil h^9 the mosfortiine to be cultivated by 
flothful or ravenous occupiers^ But fup- 
pofing a tenant a^s according to his leafe, 
no leafes blncjhlm infuch a manner, as to 
be fbre of preierving the arable far^ns io 
as good condition as they mull the grais*- 
ones : for atthouji^ there is a vaft di^^ 
rence between the good and ill management 
of the latter, yet it Is far from b^g equal 
to the former i a^d we fhould confider^ 
that tenants will ever be ready enough 
to break up |^afs-land after any farmer 

'-^ but none can. be found that will lay 

down arable to grafs after a flovenly 

one^ for land that is exhaufted^ by 

cropping too often, and flovenly manager 
ment,> wi^ be a long time before it yields a 
goocj turf, 

\ Tbe advantages- attending pafture-farms, 
to a landlord^ are, indeed, fo foperior, that 
I know of no rural improvement greater, 
than when leales are out, to gi&t the arable 

lsmds,kM» fine order, to fay thein down ih 

L 4 good 

[ '5* ) 

good heart to gi^^ and dien to re-let the 
fame farms. The rife of rent will be very' 
confiderabk; far mope than ' fufficient to 
pay all the expences. And in this new ft^e» « 
the fields will remain permanently good, 
and not be liable to have their very heart 
ezhauiled again. 

In fine, from every confideration which 
occurs, there is the grcateft reafon to ad- 
vance as an undoubted faft, Tia/ grajs^ 
farms^ of whatever fize^ are by far the moft 
advantageous to landbrds *• 

Fifthly, as to the number of horfes 
kept upon them, it bears no proportion to 
the number of thoie maintained on arable 
farms. We find above that in 70 acres, 
the difference is two to one. In the fcale 
. of farms and horfes, at page 131, it ap* 
pears, that one horfe is kept to every 17 
acres: In one of 510 acres therefore, 30 
would be kept; whereas, if the 510 acres 
were grafs, four would be highly fufHci- 
ent: This difference is as fifteen to two; 
grafs and arable land, therefore, will bear 
no comparifon in this refpeft. 

* I before mentioned, oh a rich foil. As to (heep« 
walks, the cafe is different i which point, I think, I 
(ai&ciently explained in my parallel betweeq fiipli 
Ud^9 of bwd io their cpmQon and improved ftate. 


[ ^53 ] 

By way of concluiion to thcfc remarks, 
I ft all. draw fome coroilaries from them, 
^Jiiph will fet the fubjeA in a dear light. 
FiKST, That fmall farms are detriment, 
tal to the occupier and to the public, 
in the fmailntfs of their produce, and 
the number of horfes kept on them : 
rather injurious than otherwifc to 
population ; and very deficient in va- 
luable hands : but of fuperior advan«^ 
tage to landlordsf, when not incum- 
bered with unneceflary buildings. 
Secondly, That middling farms yield 
a fuperior (proportional) produce to 
the fmall ones^— — inaintain more 
people, and of a more public value ; 
keep fewer horfes, and are more ad-* 
vantageous to landlords, than any 
larger farms. 
Thirdly, That large farms, in i*efpe£): 
of produce, are more beneficial than 
any--^^more advantageous than any 
to population, in number, and the 
value of hands ; k^ep a lefs number 
of horfts than either fmall or middling 
ones, but are not of equal profit ta 
landlords with fuch, unlefs fityated 
pn a poor foil. 


[ 154 ] 

FouftTHLY^ That very large farms do 
not in general produce equal to the 
laft clafs,~-^iior maintaiu an equalily 
of hands eithei m number or ya-* 
lue ; hor are they of So great advan- 
tage to landlords, as the firft and 
iecond claiTe^ unkfs fituated on a 
poor foil s but keep fewer horfes than 
either of the preceding* 

Fifthly, That grafe-farms are, in re- 
fpe£k of produce, by far more bene- 
ficial than ars^e ones ; infinitely lefs 
advantageous to population, in point 
of number of people, but e<|oal in 
refpe^l of their valvie } require not a 
feventh part of the horfes, and are by 
far the mofl: benoficial to landlords.— 
Poor foils in every article excepted *• 

* I c;^ooot reconcile the feotimeots, hi the following 
pjtflkge of a well krioxra f^ti^cb author, •* La Aultipli- 
<iiliic$ Fcrmcs qalcbuss Ie» fttft fkhes dertenoent tous 
les jours moindrcs en pombre, ca proportion de I'af- 
ferme, par les rennions oue f(5ot les profh-ietaires pour 
diiniilM let fi^af9 f eXfioitfiriott : enforte qtitf mille 
KyF^ftedki^de ferin^»dio$ dcf terrcs raoiutaifes on 
ittediocres, feront fubfifter trente a quaraate menages 
d^labonretirs, Vsftdi^ qtre datn un p^ rithe efles en 
4p0 l ipyag » nt i potm Ax/' M. Dimgusilb'i jAmMigis fi 
pifavaniagis dela France^ &c. p* 376, 


C '55 ] 

matter myfelf that, thrfc maxims, if 
they have not tha^ perft:i^ accqracy I could 
wi/h, will at Icaft pive^ the Way for more 
fortunate inquirers,, to. give the public 9 
more determinate krrowkdfge of this im- 
portant fubjeft, than is- commow at pre-* 
fent; And now, havin^ftated the different 
public amrd private v^ue of the fcveraf 
kmds of fsrtns; as nearly as 1 am able; I 
fha/I proceed to fome general praflices in 
d^gricolture, camrabn in every dkk, and 
aim at pomtSft^ onr the tneans of advanc- 
ing its prefent flat 6 nearer to perfcftion. 
In treatrng of which -pbife, 1 fhafi hatti- 
rally inuftrdte fetreraf paflagesr of this let- 
ter, which to Tome riiay hot be fo cleAr as I 
coafd wifh it was x6 aft *; 

* The tetier, i hope,/ doe« i!Ot accufc mefof i»ad« 
vvrtcncjli' in cmnittgumuh/anks : ihej not bektg rctf 
common^ and their properties reVitive to my .four gene- 
ral beads apparent enopgh, / 'Of tlpiber I fhalifpeak 


[156 1 

■ * 


I • 

IT is a matter of infinite confequence to 
the nation^ that every huibandman ia 
it ihould cultivate his farm in a neat and 
mafterly manner; that no part of the foil 
may be exhaufled by noxious weeds, and 
prevented from yielding its full produce : 
or, in other words, that eveiy farmer may 
be enabled by his profit to proceed in his 
bufmefs with fpirit: for if he does not 
make a reafonable profit, the State muft 
fuffer. It is therefore highly important, 
that fudb courfes of agriculture be recom* 
mended to them» as will tend to advance 
the rural oeconomy of this country to the 
highefl; pitch : fuch courfes as are pradifed 
by the few who have a true idea of expe* 
ximental hulbandry. 

One of thefe chief points which tends to 
render hufbandry profitable to its pro- 
feffors, is a due proportion between the 
arable and pafturtf-lands <^ a farm. With<» 
out this advantageous proportion, there 
cannot be that general benefit, which 
arifes from a judicious arrangement of a 


r ^57 I 

farm. I have already proved tbe greadf 
fuperior profit of a grazing one ; and all 
the arguments which I then ufed, are of 
fcMxe mw^ in ihowing the benefits of any 
quantity of pafture. It is a miferable thing 
to have the farmer depend entirely on the 
plough for his AH s efpecially the little or 
imddling ones. By having a proper quan* 
tity of gra(S| his depend^cies are divided 
he is not fo liable to be totally difap* 
pointed in his crop**-*-*his immediate pro- 
,fit is much greater^ and his confequential 
benefit greater ftill. For it is hispaftures 
which maintain cattle*— *and it is on cattle 
he depends chiefly for a fufiicient quantity 
of manure. But when all^ or nearly all 
thit land of a farm is arable, it is twenty 
to one bi^t the foil^ is quite exhaufted in a 
term <^ years^ unlefs the management is 
very mafterly, and the furcbajed manures 

From the bed: obfervatioiis I have been 
able to make, I have great reafon to be- 
lieve, that half the lands of a farm^ but 
more particularly of a fmall on middling 
one, ought to be grafs. A multitude of 
advantages refult from fuch a divifioa; 
both arable and pafture then mutually 


M5« I 
attft i^ch other ^ f onmng ^ ^rent qotte^ 
tity of menaces, 'The »;able, in iliroiiiliiiig 
turnips for tAkt lAlnter^-fubfifteaoe pf the 
caritle, askd ilrav for them to make inCd 
jnanntt ; tlie^als^ ta anaimtakiing cattle in 
the femmcr ready far fpendingthe arable* 
produoe of fodder^ . ftraw, j^-c^ And s^khr 
out this divifion of a farm, (he pccufwr 
muft fuf&r. It ftioidd be /eoieimbef^ 
that clover, will not aofwer the purpofes ^ 
natural grafs ; for I knowof nocattk th«( 
can be fod to adrantage <m k ^Mt horfee^ 
iheep, and hogfi^«-*--~neither q9W6 «ior 
2iea$ cattle. .Bat tn this cafe, 4s before, I 
aliarays except farmc fituatedoa a poor foiL 
Thofe iinail farms whkh have two thirds^ 
or thr^e^ourthi of tlie land grs&y wotild 
be yet tnoie profitable to the o€C«pier«-^-^ 
but, as I befoM oblerved, Qot (b ad^ 
.vantageotts to population. < 

Another circumftance, whidh depends 
on the ^diner's managoment, and i^ of no 
imaU confeqoence, is the arranging bis 
lands properly for his crops. It is com- 
lEKm 10 fomc countdcs to few little befiides 

v^heat > 

\vlieat J hating nearfy one half of the'Iand 
«nder that cro^, arid the other half fallow, 
for the reception of the next year's. And 
m others, where this prailicc is varied, 
k differs chiefly in fijincttmes fowing oats— 
and in others, barley. However, the fewer 
llie divifions of the farm, the lefs in gene- 
ral the profit. 

It moft he obvious, that the fewer the 
divifions of a farm into different crops, the 
more horfes mnftbe kept for cultivating 
^em> becaufe the foufinefs of fowing 
comes too much together, and if a fuffi- 
cient ftrength of ploughing-cattle is not 
kept, the feafen will pafs without the feed 
being in the ground ; and the confequence 
of that, is the gland's being .fown at an 
improper time. Whereas, if a divifion of 
the farm is lAade into a variety of partSr 
for different crops, the feafons for fowing 
4hem being different, the fewer horfes will 
4o. For inftance : 

Suppofe one hundred acres of arable 
land bdonging to a farm, be divided into 
three portions of thirty-three acres each, 
one fown with wheat, one with fpring^ 
corn, and the other fallow 3 the horfes 
muft neceflarily, at «ny fc^^ing^:in;ie,.have 


that quantity of land to cultivate at a time i 
this is feldom done io common, with lefs 
than fix horfes> or three ploughs, and often 
V9ith four: and in tickliih feafons it will re<* 
quire thatnumben Let us now inquire what 
number will do if differently managed. 

One hundred acres of arable land might 
be cultivated with one plough and a p^ir 
of ftout horfes> by dividing them into 
eight portions : but as two horfes would 
be infuSicient for carrying out manures and 
other carting, not lefs than four would be 
entirely proper ; but that number would 
fully anfwer every purpofe. The land 
ihould be divided thus: of each 124- acres. 
I. Beans, fown in February^ z. Black 
oats, the latter end of February^ and the 
beginning of March. 3, Barley in ApriL 
4, Turnips in June and July. 5. Wheat in 
September. 6. Peafe in OSiober and Nwem^^ 
^er*. 7. A clover-lay, one year old. 8. Ditto, 
two years old. By means of fuch hufbandry, 
the land will always be kept clean, and in 
heart, becaufe the crops which impoverifli 
the earth, thofe of wheat, barley, and oats, 
are not out of proportion to the jreft. 

^ It 19 A common praftice in Sujffili and Effix^ to fow 
grey peafe as fooo as. wheat-fowipg is oven 

I leave 

I leave it to the readfer to judge what a 
fevihg it is to the farijier, inflead of fix or 
eight hoirfes, to keep Only four ; and to fat 
four heifers, or oxen, or keep four cows, 
in the room of the four ufelefs horfes. 
That fuch a faving would be very confide- 
rable, is apparent on the very firft view : 
and I am well fatisfied that the at- 
tentive obferver in moft countries will 
remark, as great a lofs as this I have ftated 
in the article of ufelefs horfes. 
' Horfes are kept at fuch a great expence, 
that it is to be .wondered hufbandmen in 
general, do not, in that refpe6l, better fee 
their own intereft r for they ought always 
t6 be employed, ' or thfey can never pay for 
their food ; and in the common manner of 
managing a farm,' they ftand' ftill a great 
part of the year, for hurrying on the bufi- 
nefs of a few weeks at the fowing-times j 
which' tends to the great impovcrilhment 
of the farmer. 

But he does not fiifFer only in the ufe-' 
led horfes he keeps, but in the hafte witH 
Whitli he ploughs and fows his land— - 
for having a great deal to do in a fhort 
time, moft of it muft be incompletely 
done, notw^thffanding the number of his 
- > M horfes J 


i «6a ] 

horfes ; and in tlxa articles of harrowrng 
and rolling, he is very deficient i whereas^ 
i( he was to vary his crops more^ he would 
of courfe have more time fos each^ and, all 
would be confequmtly better conda£ted^ 
There is not a more pemicioud piece bf 
ill management in hufbandryi than by di^ 
latorinefs^ or other means to be ftraitetied 
for want of time $ the work is never Wdl 
done*--the land is ploughed wet — >-4)ar-' 
rowing is omitted, and the foil^ inftead of 
yielding a beneficial crop^ is filled with 
trumpery and weeds for years to oomtf^ 
Whenever a farmer is in fuch a fitttaticm^ 
. he had infinitely better let alone fowing the 
field, though it be for a year« In all the 
extent of hufbandry, there is not a more 
important truth than tbisi nor is any 
thing more common than fuch bad ma- 
nagement, in barley feed-^time particularly : 
heavy rains are then frequent, and lafid 
which has been carefully ploughed, har* 
rowed, and laid dry ready for the barley- 
feed, is prepared at fuch an expence, that 
few farmers can perfuade themfelves to 
forbear fowing. But I have often obiiei'ved, 
and experienced it in my own pra6lice^ 
that one very heavy (how^r <rf rain^ 


cbmisg juft upon a harrowingi or WkHe the 
^dd ie ploaghing) and the feed ^(Sbly 
ibwQ, has deftroyed the crop; infon)ach» 
that land whkh ought to have yielded four* 
quarters ^ir aere, has not produud one. 
In lands, whofe furfisKe bake with a hot 
gleam of fun, after mach rain, t^$ is 
univerfally tl^ eafe $ and f requentljr with 
ali foils inclinable to wetnefi, though they 
have not that quality. When rain coines 
in this manner, the farmer goes home 
wkh his team^ and kaves the 6eld until 
it is dry encngh to proceed, and then the 
fowing bufkiefe goes fbrwacd^ &)me Hight 
(hovers oDttiei it is late in the fced-tiilie, 
and fie tannot regard thefe; the ieaibii, 
upon the whdle, is very wet ; btit the 
ground is feedttd and left to its chance* A 
very poor crop is the in£aUiblc confe- 
qucnce ; tf the farmer gets one quarter, 
where he had reafbn in a dry tin^ to 
€xpe6t four, he is vi^l off. 

I mufl IntQ beg leave to nemark, that 
the cafe I hav« been ftating is by tio 
means an uncommon one: iaft barley ibtd- 
time excepted, there has not hem a fsrotiir^ 
able one to (oils wet, or inclinable to 
inoiflurtf^ A^k fix years ^ for of a variety 

M 2 of 

A * 

4^ fields, I have carefully rem^rked^ bot|i 
9t feed-time and harveft, I remember not 
one capital crop of barley raifed in any 
one that was. not feeded quite diy, and a 
week at leaft, or ten days dry weather after 
the fowing. All the good crops of. this 
grajn in bad' years, on clays, or heavy 
loams, or binding gravels, are thofe which 
were fown early, before the heavy fpring- 

The confequence, therefore, of not, vary- 
ing crops, is furely evident : inftead of 
fowing twenty acres of beans and peafe, 
and 20 of barley, the farmer fows 40 of 
the laft ; this hurries him at a time when 
every moment is precious; ifardiriyfea- 
fon comes on, this crop is loft. It matters 
not having ploughed his land for a twelve- 
month pafl, made it clear of all weeds, 
and garden fine j one week -pf very wet 
"weather at feed-time would ruin the crop 
upon a fallow of feven years. 

But if the crops are varied, yet -fome 
land muft be left for barley ; and with many 
ploughs, and but little land tp fi?w, I have 
more than once- in wet fcafons loft uiy 
crop, and. found, many neighbours in tihe 
fame predicamci^t Whenever I arn ag^in 

• . i caught 

r ^^s 1 

caught in fach a wet feed- time, T fhajl 

certainly .leave the land for turnips or 

.wheat, even if the fallow is a year and a 

half old : I-would perfuade every one to 

do the fame, for the. benefit of the prac- 

-tice I am clear would be very great; nor 

:lhould the land's being fown, occafion a 

different condud; three bufhels of barley 

cannot be valued at more than js,6d. fup- 

pofe we fay four bufhels and los. this lofe 

is trifling in comparifon to that of fuffering 

half, or a quarter of acroip, to occupy land 

that is in excellent order, and which would 

certainly produce fine turnips or wjie^tf. 

But if the farmer cannot bring himfelf to 

pafs by a Ipring-fdwing; the great thing 

wanting in this part of hufbandry, is fome 

** crop that fuits moift and wet land, and that 

• will bear fowing fo late as the latter end of 

- May^ or beginning oijune :■ fuch a lucce- 

. daneum would be of incoqiparable value, 

when a wet feafon had rendered the barley- 

fowing dangerous, or deferred it till late, 

: which is the fame thing* Buck wheat is 

< ♦ Nothing of this cafe is appUca^le to the wheat feed 
time^ befides the feafon ot this climate is nine ye^rs 
out of ten mdre fettled than in the-fprfng. Our fum- 
ancrs now begin in J,u£fi/I qr September. 

i . M 3 pre- 

[ i66 ] 

precifily the crop on light landsi bdt mil 
not do on heavy ones; nor does the caufe 
operate in the manner above defcribed, 
on light folk, which will bear rain at any 
time fb much better than heavier ones* 
Oats, peaife, beans, and tares (houtd all 
be fown, even before barley.-—*—! beg 
leave to recommend the confideration of 
this defed in our agriculture, to the ex- 
cellent author of Tie Effayi on Hujbandry : 
He who has been do obferving on the cul- 
ture of almolS: all Europe, may poflibly have 
remarked feme crop that would aofwer our 

Horfefi are fo extremely cxpenfive in the 
food they require-'^^in the expence and 
wear of their harners*— in their fhoeing*— 
and above all, in the variety of diforders, 
lamenefleS) and deaths they are fubjeft to, 
that I think it is of vaft confequence both 
to the farmer and the public to extend the 
Ufe of oxen for all rural bufinefs. 

Oxen are kept infinitely cheapei- than 

horfes. Their harnefs and Oioeing coft 

lefs — they are not near fo fubjed to illnefs 

3 and 

i ^7 ] 
stnd being lame~-— ^nd if lamenefs does 
overtake them, or they grow^ t<w otd for 
work, they then remain fit and ready for 
ftMm^. Their ftimmer food, like that of 
horfee, ccmfifts of grafs but without any 
hay or oats : in winter, good ft raw and 
turnips, or carrots ; if no roots, then hay 
alone. In refpcft to attendance, the difFe-^ 
rence between horfes and oxen is very 
great; one ftout lad is fufficient in a con- 
venient ox-houfe, to take care of eight or 
ten oxen, they requiring no other atten- 
dance, than putting their fodder in their 
racks, and cleaning the houfe ^ no rubbing 
or currying or drefltng, which with Korfes 
takes one roan tq every four or five at 

The harnefs of qxen (that is their yokes, 
bows, and chains) coft: lefs by two* thirds 
than the harnefs of horfes, and what is as 
fnaterial, require fcarcely any repairs j 
whereas the horfc-harnefs, every pra6lical 
i^ufbandman knows, is a conftant rent- 
-charge ; every part of it conftantly going 
to pieces, and not mended under a great 
expence. The fhocing is equally in favour 
of the ox«n^ not cofting fo much as that of 
-hoilfes, and lafting longer. 

M 4 The 

i 168 I 

. The circunjftancc of fatting them whea 
paft work, is of moft material confe-. 
quence. It is well known how great a loisr 
a farmer fuffers that keeps many, horksg 
by their dying and becoming dif^Ued. la 
a large bufinefs this, in a term of twenty 
years, becomes an objeft of great impor- 
tance, . and were it divided, would make 
a confiderable annual charge. Now with 
oxen the cafe is totally different. If acci- 
dentally they get lame, to which, however, 
they are not fo fubjecSt as horfes, or when 
they abate of their vigour at work, the 
farmer fattens, and fells them as well, as 
the beft — and no beafts fat kindlier than 
thofe which have worked. 

It has been objefted, that oxen are not 
proper for all work ■ a nd in the horfe- 
counties there is quite an abhorrence 
againft their ufe : it is there aflerted, that 
they are by no means equal to horfes. But 
I have, myfelf, found the contrary, as 
well from my own experience, as the in- 
formation i have gained from the beft 
hands., A pair of ftout oxen will plough 
. as much as a pair of horfes, and, unlefs 
the horfes be ftrong and fteady ortes^ car^'y 
a deeper and truer furrow. But when we 



I 169 ] 

read in Lifle of eight and ten oJren to a 
plough, it raifes one's indignation. Eithet 
the ploughs, at that time in Hampjhtre^ 
inuft be of a ridiculous conftruction, or 
01C foil rock itfelf., I have, indeed, found 
in other parts of England^ that it is yet the 
praftice to plough with a great many oxen 
at a time : but, as I remarked before, I 
Jiave experienced in feveral foils, that where 
va pair of ftout horfes plough an acre a 
^ay, a yoke of oxen has always done the 

They are precifely as convenient and ef- 
fectual in all other rural bufinefs : in the 
waggon, in carts, and tumbrills, in rollers, 
&c. &c, &c. and ufed with as much eafe 
. and handinefs as any horfes. 

. One additional expence attending them, 
, it would, however, be unfair to fupprefs : 
a pair of horfes in a plough requires only 
the. ploughman, but a yoke of oxen muft 
have a boy alfo to drive them. In the ox- 
counties this expence amounts to a penny 
: ot three halfpence, I am told, per journey 
,, of eight hours : but where I have any 
knowledge could not be procured in the 
villages under two-pence or three-pence, 
and fometimes a groat : but clear I am, 


[ i7» 1 

that tfatt additiontl expence (when at 
plough) does by no means' reduce tbem to a 
par wkh hor&s i Bat if a great number of 
ox-ploughs w«re kspt m ibme places, I 
doubt wheCbw the (M-dcuring drmng^boys^ 
would not be a difficulty z and this cir« 
cumftance ought to induce (bme cukivator 
that works a great number* to try if they 
could not be guided by a line like horfes« 

I am the rather induced to hint this, as 
it is the adual method in ufe, in the pro^ 
vince of Poitou in France -^ where the 
ploughman not only holds the plough, 
but drives the oxen*. Such excellent cus- 
toms are of great value ; for favings of this 
fort, are matters of no flight coniequence, 
to a hard-working frugal cultivator ; be- 
fides, the teaching beafis fuch a docility, is 
a pleafmg paece of ingenuity, and I am 
perfuaded, is no difficult matter to. efieS:. 

Laftly, the public is nearly concerned : 
for among the many caufes that are daUy 
mentioned, to occafion a high price of 
butchers meat ; I have not heard the great 
number of horfes that are kept, affigned as 
one. I have rcafon to believe the number 

* Princ. it fibfervnt. ee^m^ come 1^^ p. 57. , 


[ 171 1 
of th^m increafes greatly in moft parts of 
the kih^dom : this is an immenfe lofs to 
the community, in the vaft quantities of 
horfe-tubat raifcd on land, where more 
valuable corn for exportation might be 
cultivated, were the work in general per- 
formed by oxen J and not only To, but the 
oxen therafejves would be perpetually com- 
ing to the (hambles, yielding thereby a 
great increafe of butchers meat y but this is 

never the cafe with horfes their carcaffes 

are configned only to the kennel 

A late author is of an opinion very 
contrary W all thefe fentiment^. The pat- 
fage is an anfwer to a fuppofed objection — 
« Obj. A multitude of fuperfluous horfes 
are kept ih Faris^ which confume what 
would feed many more inhabitants, AnC 
True ; but he who feeds the horfes, becaufe 
be thinks he has a ufe for them, would not 
feed thofe inhabitants ; becaufe be is Jure 
he has no ufe for them : and did he in 
complaifance for the public, difmifs his 
cattle, the farmer who furnifties the hay and 
oats, would lofe. a cuftonjer, and nobody 
would gain. .Thefe articles are produced 
becaufe they are demanded: when additional 
inhabitants are;, produced, who will demand 


t 172 ] 

and can pay, their demand will be an- 
fwered alfo, as long as there is an unim* 
ployed acre in Prance */* 

This reafoning is fallacious enough ; on 
one fide of a ftreet lives a cuftomer who 
buys oats for his horfes ; on the other hand 
a merchant who buys wheat for exporta- 
tion ; now if the demand for oats decreafes, 
the farmer fows more wheat, nor is he in 
danger of a want of a market, for expor- 
tation is almoft boundlefs. It is ridiculous 
to imagine, that if the confumption occa- 
iioned by horfes drops, the land which ufed 
to be applied to the raifing of oats would 
neceflarily remain ufelefs* Let us fup- 
pofe the inhabitants of Paris^ in the 
whirligig of faftiions, to adopt a whim 
of having their coaches drawn by oxen : 
The horfes are all turned off, and the 
demand for oats at an end : More profi- 
table grain would be fown inftead of them, 
and a vafl quantity of butchers meat would 
yearly come to the market, and if not eat at 
home, would be fold to foreigners. And fo 
far from no-body s being the better for the great 

• Inquiry into the Principki of Political Oeconomy^ 
Vol. i.,p. 145- 


C 173 1 

mans difmiffing, bis borfes^ the whole hatioi\ 
would be benefited ; more wheat would be; 
raifed, which being exported, would not 
only bring much money into the king- 
dpm, but enfure a plenty for the home 
confumption at all times. 

In the table of the growth, &c. of corn, 
p. ^y^ the confumption of oats amounts to 
upwards of four millions two hundred 
thoufand quarters, more than the growth 
of. wheat. Think what an immenfe fum 
is loft to the nation in the vaft quantity of 

. Jand. taken up to raife this grain. Much 
of it, I know, of a poor fort not fit for 

wheat — but infinite trads that are and 

, moft of it , proper for barley. I have 
already fhewn, that the nation has, in 
fa6t, profited by the annual exportation of 
rather more than four hundred and twenty 
thoufand quarters of corn of all" forts, 
abpve the fum oi one bimdred and Jorty miU 
lions /lerling m lefs than feventy years. 
Now compare this quantity of corn with 
pur confumption of oats, which amounts 
.to more, than ten times as much. Think 

.but of doubling that immenfe fum by only 
decreafing the land fown with oats (for 

^/^enty years) one tent k^ and inftead tliefeof, 


[ 174 ] 

fowing it with barley, rye, or wheat. But 
to talk of one-tenth is abfurd ; why may 
we not, in the next fcvcnty years, take a 
third from this monftrous tract of (I may 
fay) ufelefs land ? What a mine of weahh 
would it produce, if cultivated to the pur«- 
pofes of exportation ! 

This imnienfely important objcft: of pub- 
lic welfare can, in any degree, be effefted 
only by reducing the number of horfes 
ufed in hufbandry, and fubftituting oxen in 
their ftead. The infinite variety of bene- 
ficial effedls that would refult from this 
alteration are manifell: 9 and if the reduc- 
tion of the prices of provifions is an objeft 
of earneft attention, there is no method fo 
fure and eligible as increafing the. number 
of working oxen. A very fmall reduftioh 
of the number of horfes, and ufing oxen 
inftead of them, (for inftance, one tenth 
part) provided the land fown with oats 
to maintain them, was fown with wheat, 
rye, and barley for exportation, would not 
only giVe a great increafe of butchers 
meat, but alfo yield at the loweft, one 
million and a half annually clear profit to 
the nation. 


For wt fhouH confidtt that t vaf! pro- 
portion of the landi which bears this im- 
mcnfe quantity of oAts, being rich, and 
^kik to produce wheat— —a great deal of it 
propfer for barley, ^id nearly the pooreft 
of it fufficiently good for rye ; a propor- 
tion of it may certainly be deduced on 
paper withoot the imputation of arrange- 
ing lands for ^portable corn^ not good 
enough to bear it> I am alfo fenfible that 
it will be objected, to be impoflible always 
inftead of oats, to fow wheat, even on 
wheat^iand, becaufe oats are frequently 
town after wheat. But then it fhould be 
resnemfaered, that the farmer's keeping a 
number of horfes rcsrtders an oat -crop abfo^ 
lutely neceflary : in determining the courfe 
of his fields, he fixefc on a certain quantity 
of land for oats, which muft be raifed, or 
Thought, a thing few farmers like : and if 
he be a good ho&andman, he wiH abhor 
the practice of fowing To voracious a vege- 
table after wheat, but f©w them after a 
falfew or fome melioritiftg crops j ^ indeed 
oats, by a prudent neat farmer, are never, 
fown on land which would not produce 
cither wheat, barley, or rye. 


i '7^ J 

But fuppofing they are generally an af- 
ter-crop j there is an infinite difiierence to 
the public, as well as the cultivator, between 
fowing them, or beans, peafe, or turnips, 
becaufe, after a good crop, of peafe or 
beans, in rich lands, wheat is again fown^ 
and after turnips barley. But when oats 
come in between, the foil is thereby {o 
irapo verified, that a fallow muft enfue, 
before any exportable corn, can again be 

A flight calculation will manifcft the 
prodigious benefits arifing from converting 
apart of the oat -land to the growth of 
wheat. Upwards of 1,400,000 acres are 
fown every year with oats : . 

A third of the quantity is 
upwards of 470,000 acres, 
which fown with exporta- 
ble corn, ai\d yielding two 
quarters and half per acre, 
at 22 J.* is, 
■ Freight a^t 40 s. a ton, - 




£. 1,684,109 

* The average price of expOTtablei corn, for the^ 
68 years, is 1 1, 2 s. per quarter. 


[ ^77 1 

This is a flight Iketch, but the refult is 
of no little importance. We find that di- 
miniflaing tlie number of our horfcs only a 
thirds and fubftituting oxen in their room, 
would not only make a prodigious plenty 
of butcher's meit \ but bring above fixteen 
hundred thouiknd pounds a year, clear into 
the nation's pocket. 

From 9X\ the realbns that can be urged 
in any refpe£^, to this point, of the diffe- 
rence between keeping horfes or oxen for 
the bufineis of hulbandry, we have the 
greateft reafon to believe, that many very 
important' benefits would refult to the 
private occupier, and alfo to the public. 
I. The farmer would cultivate his land 
cheaper. 2. His fields would be much 
cleaner, and in better heart. 3. The 
price of butchers meat would be reduced 
to the public. 4. An immenfe profit would 
Ukewife accrue to it in a prodigious in- 
creafe of the exportation of com. 


i 178 ] 



IT is allowed by all politicians, that the 
prices of the neceliaries of life, oughts 
in well regulated countries, to continue 
evens be as little fubje£i: as poflible, to fud- 
den rifes and faUs; and. remain at fuch 
reafonable rates, that the lower clafles of 
indufirious confumers may conftaptly com- 
mand a fufiiciency without the producers 
being injured by a too great cheapnefs. It 
is of great confequence, that the working 
pait of a nation, employed in manufac- 
tures, trade, and navigation, be able to 
maintain themfelves by their induftry, at 
their ufual prices ; as an increafe of wages 
mud occafion an increafe of the prices of 
manufaftures ; and a probability neccfla- 
rily enfue, that foreign rivals may put an 
end to the ^dXt to foreigners. Thefe 
maxims are generally received without 
contradi6^ion ; but in the explanations 
which are given thpm, various different 
conftruftions are ufed, which appear, 
at firft fight, very fimple : Provifions, it is 
faid, (hould be ^i&M/;— — But what is being 

cheap ? 

t ^79 ] 

tlieap ? Is it that workman fiiould td 

able to live on the prodiidl of fix days 
hard work ? — On that ojf fix days ea/y work ? 
—On that of tive days and an half ?— ^ 
Or five? Is the produft of fix, or five, or 
four days to be allowed theiii; reckoning 
9, ID, II,. 12, or 16 hours to Uk day? 
Is cheapnefs of provifions the ability they 
have to live upon mutton, beef, ftrong 
hcer, and the beft whcaten bread? Or 
upon the beft bread, and cheefe and ale ? 
Or houfliold bread and cheefe, and ale ? 
Or is it in general, that their earnings be 
fufficient to keep them in full health and 
ftrength, by various fpecies of provifjons, 
according to th6 various prices in which 

they flufluafe; fo that in the deareft 

times, Jome articles may be cheap enough 

for their purfe ? Or is it that they may 

live as cheaply as foreign workmen ? — Or 
arc the prices of provifions dear or cheap, 
as they rife or fall, above or below the 
preceding prices of certain ageSj reigns, 

years, &c. Or Laftly, Is it when nlanu- 

fafturers riot ? 

I would not have it thought that I ftop 
thefe queries, becaufe I can advance no 
morci I could eafily multiply them to tb^ 

N a fiz6 

[ i8o ] 

fize of a volnmc j but thcfe are fufEcfent i 
all the anfwer which I can difcover 
among thofe, who are loudeft In their com- 
plaint, is, in one word; Provifions are 
much too deat^ and manufaBures are ruined. 
Various occafions for this dearnefs are 
alledged ^ and for the fake of perfpicuity^ 
1 fhall, for the prefent, without examina- 
tion, foppofe the fadt, and inquire into> 
thfe caufes commonly advanced 
I. The union of farms. 
It is needlefs to quote every author that 
has attributed the dearnefs of provifions to 
this caufe amongfl; others: one of the 

panjphlets on the occafion, fays ^^ The 

monopoly of farms produces, not only a 
ffardly of corn, but of moft other provi- 
ifions, as buttery cheefey eggs, poultry y psgSy 
t^c. &c, not to mention feveral other ne- 
teflaries depending on the breed of cattle, 
'viz. candles y Joapy leathery &c. " I take this 
pa0age particularly, becaufe the terms ufed 
in it, will fave my producing any other. 
. That the turning fmall farms into large 
ones, does not occafian a fcarcity of corn j. 
I flatter myfelf I have proved fufficiently 
elfewhere, in (hewing that their produce 
ia much lefs confiderable, acre for acre,, 


[ iSi ] 

than that of large ones^ But how^ in the 
name of goodnefs, can little farms give 
plenty of commodities, which they do not 
produce; fych as cattle ^ butter^ c&eefe^ md 
pork! fraall farms produce fcarce any of 
thefe: the Brft clafs none. The fecond 
very few compared with the large farms. 
Cattle arid their confequences, fuch 9S 
leather, butter, cheefe, &c. &c. are fcarce 
ever kept by little farmers. In cafe a cow 
is in the yard of fuch an one, (he is as cer- 
tainly a poor ftinted beaft. And as to 
fatting c2X\\t^ it is an ahfurdity to imagine 
they (tan keep any. Even the fecond clafs 
are greatly deficient in thefe articles : but the 
large farms, and very large ones, maintain 
great dairies, and numerous fatting beafts; 
and occafion the plenty pf all provil\ons, 
which depend upon cattkp If the whole 
kingdom was fplit into fmall farms of 20 A 
30/. and 40 /. a year; fo far from a greater 
plenty of thefe articles enfuing, we ihould 
have fearce any, vshile fuch farms were cuU 
Unjoted ^s they are at prejknt ; indeed the 
d^rheft which they would occafion, would 
^foon caufe an alteration.^ and landlords 
would find^ they muft either have entire 
iarms of grafs, or large ones* Compare 

N. 5 IS 

•[ i82 1 
1 5 or 20 cows in one yard, with as many 
in feven or ten yards; the former will 
give three times the quantity of milk. 

With regard to pork, this difference is 
yet more ftriking ; hogs can only be kept 
in any number, (whether by great or fmall 
farmers) where there are cows and chver % 
wliich articles are fcarce ever found 
in fmall farms : A farmer, of 200 /. a 
year, with a dairy of 30 or 40 cows, and 
40 or 50 acres of clover every year,' breeds 
and keeps ten times more hogs than ten 
farms, each of 20 /. This faft is fo felf-r 
evident, and fo univerfally true, that I am 
amazed any one who was ever within the 
walls of a farm-yard, can advance fuch 
fluff, as the above-quoted aflcrtions. 

But, fay they, no roafting pigs are 
brought to market by large farmers.— 
True 5 and if you would have plenty of 
pork, don't fuffer little farmers to carry the 
few they have thither. The latter flaugh-t 
ter the whole breed to fell at market, at 
half a crown and three fhillings a piece to 
fliop-keeper's wives and fuch people in 
towns : but the great farmers not wanting 
fuch fmall fupplies of money, keep them to- 
fheir full growth j and drivg them to mar-r 


i 183 ] 

l^^t, by 30 and 40 at a time : I (hould be glad 
to know which occafions the greateft plenty 
of pork. This I conceive, that were Bng^i 
land divided into farms of 30 /. each 5 in 
feven years common pickled pork woul4 
be 2 s. and 2^ pound. 

Laftly come the articles of eggs and 
poultry y which have been banded about, 
in, I believe, an hundred pamphlets, as 
argumients for fmall farms. And to grant 
all thefe authors can dejfire, let me afk 
them one plain queltion 5 Of what natio- 
nal good is the cheapnefs of poultry ? Is 
it of fix-pence confequence to the public, 
whether the confumers of poultry buy a 
turkey for 3 or for 1 3 i. ? Of what be-, 
nefit would it be to manufadlurers, and the 
labouring poor in general, to have 
chifckens fold at market 19 per cent, (the 
rife talked of in provifions) cheaper than 
they are at prefent ? Or would you have a 
poor man be able to biiy a fat fowl for 2^. 
as he might have done fome hundred year? 
ago ? If this is your opinion, do not ad-, 
vance any thing in favour of trade and mar 
nufadhires j for if provifions were fo cheap, 
(and there muft be a general level) adieu 
%o both I to poflfefs a flouriftiing comr 

N 4 ' mertje^ 

[ ^H r 

Mcrcc, iahd thriving inanufa<^ure9^ is as 
incompatible with fuch a cheapne(s» as the 
meridian fun with darknefs of the night. 
Nothing can be more truly the language oi 
prejudice^ than this haranguing upon the 
dearnefs of poultry, as a public misfor- 
tune ; all thofe who chufe to eat fuch food, 
muft take care that.they can afford it ; and 
if they go without, and eat mutton indead 
of it, I defire to know of what confequence 
it is to the public ? 

One author complaining of the price of 
poultry, brings in fiih *, which reminds me 
of the fums granted by parUament^ to the 
land-carriage fifh^fcheme, and the Society's 
adopting it : all this was much in the ilile 
of lowering the price of poultry. Of what 
good was the lowering the pi ice of fifh at 
London ? Did the SpittUjields manufa6hir-% 
ers eat one pound the more? No» but 
the nobility, gentry, merchants,- and 
tradefnien; and let nje add the country- 
gentlemen > who come to town to fpen4 
their rents, in the vain ffippfery of tlie ca-^ 
pital, purchafed it the cheaper : fuch was 
the purpofe for which money was rai(e4 

* Inquiry into the €aufes cf thi Itgh prices ofprovlfans^ 
8vo. 1767, p. i88.,^ 

[185 ] 

in Cuihhet'kndy Northumberland^ and 
Cornwall I or, in a wcwd, three or four 
hundred miles from London. Country 
farmers payed their fhares of grants, to 
enable their landlords to eat fifh cheap at 
the capital ; but at an expence of poffibly 
500 per cent, more than they could have it 
for, in m2tny^ inftances, on their- own 
eftates. And the Society for the Encouragef^ 
ment f^ Arts and ManufuSlures afted upon 

the fame plan. This is very much in the 

ftilc of clamouring, for lower prices of 
roaming figs and poultry ^ for the good of 
poor manufa^urers. 

11. The Exportation of Corn. 
I fhall not repeat here, what I have ad- 
vanced in another place; and therefore, 
can only remark, that the Exportation of 
corn has been fo far from occafioning a 
d^rnefs of bread, that it has regularly 
funk the price of wheat : and this being, 
of all other articles of provifion, the moft 
important, the fervice it has done the na- 
tion therein is the more to be obferved* 
But feveral late crops deficient, by a quar- 
ter, or a qtiiarter and half, pet acre, having 
occaiioned a dearnefs of corn ; it is all at-> 
tf ibuM to thfe exportation, which does not 


[ i86 ] 
amount to a bufhel. The abfurdity of 
attributing the dearnefs of provilions to 
this caufe, is too great to require a more 
minute anfwer : 1 therefore refer the rea- 
der to my fecond letter. 

III. Engroffing, &c. &c. 

Every thing we have heard about en- 
groffing, foreftalling, and regrating, in 
the ftile of attributing the dearnefs of pro- 
vifions to them ; is a colledlion of mere 
vulgar errors, and low prejudices. The 
laws againft buying live cattle, coming to 
fairs, and then felling them at the fairs, 
is not only well conceived, but very well 
executed ; and I fcarcely know another 
inflance, in which thefe crimes would be 
of bad confequence to us, in the degree to 
which there is any probability of their 
arifing. As to engroffing of corn, it is 
mere idle talk : the thing is impoffible to be 
done in any degree, that can raife or fjall 
the price one farthing a quarter: if any 
public confequences attend it, it muft be 
the lowering of prices, and not the raifing 
of them; for corn would be engrofled 
while cheap, to fell again when dear ; and 
of courfe the engroffers (I fpeak accord- 
ing to the ideas of the people I am anfwer*- 

3 H) 

[ i87 ] 

ing) woiald fave fo much corn from being 
exported, and have it ready when the peo- 
ple wanted it moft ; fo that much en- 
groffirig (hould lower prices in dear times, 
but all this is arrant ftufFj for geat 
farmers are the only people, who are, 
what are called engroflers; and fo much 
the better for the regularity of prices. Let 
farmers keep their corn as long as they 
pleafe ; depend on it they will keep it na 
longer than to their profit, and their bene- 
fit is that of the public : if they could lay 
by their crops for feven years, the cafe 
would be different ; but all engrofling to 
fuch, or any great degree, is impoffible. 

Thofe who clamour fo much againft en- 
groflers, would be very glad, I fuppofe, 
to fee private granaries now opening, with 
a million of quarters of wheat in them *. 


• The magazines which individuals form in good 
years, are a ready fupply in bad ones : when the price 
of the corn is not very low, the proprietors of it had 
rather fell at home than elfewherc, becaufe they efcape 
thereby the expences and rifi^ues of exportation. Thus, 
without being, in almoft perpetual want of public ma- 
gazines, which are ^n immenfe expence to the govern- 
ment ; and which in certain States are often fobjed to 
great inconveniencies, the people are otherwife relieved 
in cafes of unexpcfled want. But this benefit is loft, 
if the exterior commisrce of corn, and the magazines ot 


[ j88 ] 

Selling by famples^ has been made h 
part of tbefe crimes^ and much clamoured 
againfl: : one maxim ; viz. That the price 
(^a commodity (hould be in proportion to 
the fiontity offered to fak * ; has been found 
fofficient to form all the complaints againft 
lampk'felling ; and the clamours for a law^ 
to oblige all farmers to bring their whole 
crop to market. I never knew any of thefe 
fanguine waiters complain of the exporta* 
tton of corn in very cheap yearsy as much as 
they are againfl it in dear ones, and the 
bounty in any i they allow that exportation 

dividuals are coaftrained too much. Far fromreiider«» 
iDg labour by fuch means cheaper, and facilkatiog the 
fubfiftence of the poor ; the eSe£t produced will be 
totaD J contrary, for the low price to which corn then 
&lis dtfgufis the farmer, whofe cnltmre diffiiniihes by 
Ettte aod liitle* A part of the cora-land is converted 
to other tt(cs, or abandoned ; and the bnlhandmaoi 
thinke no more of the profit of following his fields. 
Cuhivatrng corn-lands for the confumption of the inba- 
i^itants alone ; and none daring to form magazines^ is % 
copduft which will prefcntly be felt in the confequences i 
for the firfl bad year all will be in extreme want, and 
forced to have recourfe to foreigners for bread, to f«p- 
port their lives Mmo^ires dg la Socieie de Berne^ '7^5^ 
td par tie, p. 294. Mem^fur tEfprit di l^gifiatUn par 
i/L, Ben]. Carrard. 

♦ Laws and Policy of Enghndy p. 19. 
Inquiry into the Caufes of the Prefect high V£C& o£ 
frovifioDS> p* 97* 


{ i89 ] 

\%fit»etmes a benefit : but bow (hould com 
be exported, if ill was biought to marktt 
to be fold ; fach a law, if executed, woukt 
raife tbe price of our corn to foreigners 
30 or 40 per cent, nay, it wouM in ioxi^ 
iiiflances, totally obftrucl ^11 exportation : 
the quantity of corn brought to market y 
and the difiieulty of lodging it kovpk 
market-day to market-day, would botkt 
be fi> great f the expences upon taking 
proper care of it £> confiderable; that- 
ffioft fanners would fink their price, rather 
than fubmit to fucb evils ; and then comes 
engrofling, in ten times a greater degree, 
ifhan is poffible at present. Millers and 
^bers, by very flight con^nations, would 
command the maiicet, and occaSon mi(^ 
chiefs, at prefent, unthought of. But the 
ionfumption of the neighbourhood, and 
file laie to foreigners, would not be hurt 
alone ; if one part of the kingdom wanted 
corn of another, bow would they get it ? 
why, with the fame addition of prke m 
the foreign markets ^ caufed by a prodi- 
gious inaeafe of land^arriage, and market 
expences thrown upon the farmer. Thisf 
matter dcferves yet a littk further explana^* 


[ 190 ] 

The farmer loads his waggon at prefenif 
and drives diredly to the water iidcj 
cither of the fea or a river. Were this law^ 
in execution, he would drive to the market, 
unload, and expofe his facks to fale ; a 
merchant comes (we will fuppofe it to be 
in the Eaft of England) to purchafe for an 
order from the Weft of the kingdom, or 
froni abroad : who is to c^ry the corn, 
from the market to the, port or river ? , Notj 
the faftor or merchant, for. he has neither 
teams nor horfesj if carrietj. are regularly 
kept for this pyrpofe, the cxpcnce will be 
capital indeed : we muft therefore fuppofe, 
it to be the farmer ; this is the only train in 
which the bufinefs could be carried on ; 
here then we find at once, that a waggon, 
a team of cattle, and a inan are to be kept 
in town, after the corn is brought, in ex- 
pectation of its been fold, that they may 
drive off dire6lly j but if at is not fold, th^ 
wait for nothings go home at night, .and 
another day when the corn u Ibid, Ii^^ve 
the fame journey to take again to load the 
corn \ and carry it, poflibly, to a river 
ten miles nearer than the town to the barn 
door, at which it was firft loaded. Let 
any one calculate how much per cent, all 


[ 191 1 

this, with the expences and lofe of keeping 
it in town amount to. Yet could I name 
twenty writers, who have pleaded witli all 
power againft felling by fample. 

It is needlefs to proceed through all the 
caufes mentioned by fundry writers, for the 
prcfent high prices : thefe are the three 
capital ones, which are mofi exclaimed 
againft; I might add with the /^^y? reafon : 
having thus examined the caufes advanced, 
and found them trifling and miftaken : let 
us next inquire into the (feSi. 

As I began with fhewing the indefinite 
manner, in which the dearnefs of provi- 
fions is in general exprefled ; I fhall here 
aim> at leaft, at avoiding the fame error, - 
and endeavour to afcertain, what ought to 
be called (/ear^ and what cheap times. 

It is firft neceflary to explain, what is 
meant by the woxd family ; that it may be 
known, how many people are, on a me- 
dium, to be given ta every man. 

I fhall fuppofe all men married, which 
is more than I need to do, fince numbers 
are fingle. It is calculated, that marriages 
in . Great Britain, yield, on a . medium, 
four children that live j but families do not 
always confift of fo maify 5 as they leave 


t 192 ] 

their father's houfe generally on being full 
grown ; and the wives, many of them 
die before their hufbands ; we muft not, 
therefore, fuppofe every family to confift 
of fix people : I do not apprehend it con- 
fifts, on a medium, of above four ; but aS 
1 would in this inftance be over the truth, 
rather than under, I (hall fuppofe it five*: 
himfelf, his wife, and three children. 

Thefe three muft be taken, , on a me- 
dium, as to age and ftrength. For a few 
years after the man marries, his children 
earn nothing, but in a few more the cafe 
alters. I apprehend the average of families 
to be near as follows : 

One child, an infant. — ^This proportion 
is by far too great s but I had rather, as I 
faid before, yield much than take a little. 

One of ten years old; 

One of fifteen years old. 
• Small variations will make no difference 
in my calculation. Now let us ftate the 
cxpences of fuch a family. And in the 
firft ^hiCt food. 

* Calculators allow but fix to each houfe 5 a family, 
therefore) can fcarcely be more thaa four, 


[ 193 1 

Seven-Jays M^fsfor aftcut Man. 

Vtrft. Brfead, 2/^. - -02 

2V. B. Wheaten^bread, U^.;and 
2 d. per lb. ryed i d. and po- 
tatoe-bread, excellent good, \. 
. The potatoes at* 2 ^. a buflieL 
A mixture of thefe three, in 
equal pdrts, I call i d. per lb. 
No bread exceeds it. 

Cheefe, 2 oz: at 4 d. per lb. o 04. 
Beer, two quarts -f, - d i 
Sednd. Three mefles of fdup !{:, - o iz 
Third. Rice^pudding, 

Half a^ lb. of rice, i ^. two 
quarts of flet milk, id. 
Sugar, ^^. - . o 24 


• They Weigh 58 lb. the peelings T call 10 tt. they 
are then a | //. />^r /i&. But the inhabitants of cottages, 
"who have a Httle garden, may grow 10 /^. for a far- 

1. s. d. 

t Four burtielk Malt, - - - o 17 6 

Hops, • - - *- -016 

Yeafl, - - - - -oa6 

o 19 6 

, This will malce of good beer, better than any fmall 
drink in farmers honfes. Two hogfheads amounts to 
hot quite a halfpenny a quart. 

JMr. Hanwaysttzt\pi» Letters on the Improvement 
bf the Rifing Generation, V. 2. p. 194.» It is for five 

O flout 

E »94 ] 

F(7«r<i&. Quarter of a lb. of fat 


meat, and 14 of pq^atpes 

baked tocether*, i^d. 
Beer, i dl 


m/th. Rice-miljcf, 


Sixth. Bread, chede, and beer as 

the firft. 


Bevenib. Potatoes and fat meat. 

24 lb. i ez» of cheefe and 


. beer. 


Call the average 3 ^. a day, • l . ^^ 

From a variety of minute inquiries, I 
find that the wives of the labouring poor 

ftout men — 9 pints water— ^i Ibi beef Teaa, cut into 

thin dices, 3^d. 1 pint fplit peafe (boiling field- 

peafe I Cappofe as good) ^ d. — -12 oupces of mealy 

potatoes, ^d. 30Z. ground rice, ~d. Af^er 

thefe have boiled gently two hours, add three large 
leeks or onions i d. two heads of (allary — and fait ; in- 
ft^ad of the fallary, I add two more onions, which', 
and fait, fey i d. This is 6| d. The fifth is ijd. but 
as I think the quantity fmall, I allow two penny-worth 
of it. 

* Salt included, it will not amount t6 more ; and slw 
excellent di(h it is. ^ 

f 1 have marked 2 d. but exceeding nourifhing and' 
good rice-milk may be made in quantity enough for 
the Aouteft mai^ a d^y) for il dl 

6 eaty 

t ^95 1 

feat, tipon an aversige,. more than half; 
but not fo much as two thirds of what 
their hufbands do : 1 fhall fay, two thirds. 
The medium of hoys and girls of fifteenj 
three fourths -, this is above the truth, but 
I fhall let it pafs. Ditto, lo years old, 
half. And an infant cofts, upon an ave-^ 
rage, i j. a week t 




The man's food. 


*■ 1 


His wife's, - 


- 1 

Child of 15 years old, 


- I 


Ditto, of 10, -^ 




Infant^ *> 

I^B * ' 

- 1 


5 " 


Six {hillings a week amounts 

in the year to, - -15120 

To this fum wemuft add others, 
which cannot be divided in- 
to weekly or daily parts. 

Houfe-rent, - - • i 10 o 

Carry over, 17 2 


O 2 Brought 

i 196 ] 

• • ■ • /• s» 


Brought over, 17 2 

deaths -f-, - - - 2 10 

Soap and candles -f, - -15 

Lofs of time and phyfick dur- 

ing illnefs, - - .JO 

£. 21 17 o 

In the next place we muft inquire into 
the ability of fuch a workman's fiipporting 
this expence. 
Labourers and manufacturers, earn upon 

a medium, about 1 i. 3 ^. a day, which 

isper ann. - - -" 19 10 o 
The wife earns, on a medium, 

better, I beheve, than a 

' fourth of the hufbandman's 

pay : I fliall call it a fourth, 417 6? 
The medium of boys and.girls, 

of 15 years old, earn the 

half of their fathers, which 

is 9 /. 15^. but I ihall fay 

only, - - .900 

Dittoof 10 years old, a fourth, 476 

, /J- 37 15 o 

\ Thefe articles I ftale as the medium of fcveral 
families, I have inquired into, during the prefem 
high prices of candies^ foap, and leather. 


[ ^97 1 

Yeai^s earnings, 37 15 o 

' Ditto, expences, - - 21 17 o 

Receipt pxcced^ the expence by 15 i8 o 


I have deducled nothing upon acciount 
of fewel ; becaufe I have found it, of all 
Others, the moft varying article; rifing 
from 10 J. to 3 /. but if i /• 15^. or 2 /. be 
charged for it, I am certain (from the 
beft of my information) that the average 
of cheap and dear countries will not ex- 
ceed it. 

Some of my readers, will, I fuppofe, 
cry out, " This calculation is all ro- 
mance ! Shew me a family that lives fo 
cheap !" But is their not living fo cheap 
any fault in the price of provilions ? Let 
me aflc in return, where the poor family 
is to be found, that do not drink tea 
once a day at leaft ? Can triey live fo cheap, 
as if they defifted from their tea-fipping ? 
Or are they to complain pf prices, when 
they will not allow )them to trifle at the 
tea- table ? Is there any necefiity that fhcy 
Piould eat nothing but the beft wheatqi- 

p 3 - br^ad. 


;[ 198 ] 

bread, when other kinds are to be had 
much cheaper, but equaH^ wholefonae^ 
Whenever tJherefore the price <rf provifions 
is complained of, let an explanatory ex« 
preffioB come in, " as wc chufe to live.** — f 
Fuel deduced here, is 13 A 185. od. 
overplus in the pocket of an induftrious 
frugal vjorkmam at the year's end, after 
deducing i /• for the chance of ficknefs j 
and thofe who know the health which la- 
bour confers, will eafily believe that i /. 
to accumulate in cafe of accidents. This 
overplus of 13/. iSs. is Co confiderabFe^ 
that it admits of great deduction, according 
to the fancy of the reader ; and yet there 
witt remain no trifling fum to lay up 
againft old age, 

I am fo ftrongly fenfible of the preju- 
dices, I have here to combat with, that I 
Ihall now lay before the reader a ftate of ' 
the expences of a labourer, as they now 
live, drawn up from the aftual out-going§ 
of four^ who gave me the particulars ; I 
am very certain not under the truth. 'The 
following ftate is in every article the me- 
dium of the four. I fought out four^, 
whofe families in point of age, &c. were 
fuch as I have fpecified above. 


{ 199 ] 

/. /. d. 
3read per day, 6 lb. 9 oz^ at 

ij d. per lb. is 94. ^. -05 

Cheefe, I'^oz^^X/^d. - ^ o 1 9 



.1' 1 .' 1 



/. s. 


Call this 7 i. 6 </. it 

isperann. 19 10 

Bteer, i x. 6 </. per week, - 318 

Soap and candles. 

• - I 5 


r - I 10 


- / f- 2 10 


- 2 

lUnefs, ^c. 

- I 

Infant, ? r* 

f. - 2 12 

>C-34' 5 o 

This fum dedu6led from their earnings, 
which I found upon an average, as be- 
fore ftated, 'viz^ 37/. 15^. there remains 

3/. lOJ. 

The firft queftion that can rationally be ' 
ftarted, even upon this account, is, how 
can the poor be fo poor ? The anfwer is 
ready in a moment, and I fe^r too uni- 
yerfally applied : Thefe earnings can^ af- 

O 4 " fpr4 

[ 2Q0 j 

ford neither drinking tea at home, nor 
tippling ale abroad. The overplus of' 
3/. I o J. upon the mention of thefg articles, 
vanifhes at once. 

. I fliould remark, that this ftate fuppofes 
the m^n to eat every day, 2 lb. 4.0Z. of 
bread, befides dieefe, which is fo much 
more than appears to be the mean quan- 
tity eaten, in the table of bread-eaters, in 
the judicious I'raSts on the Corn Trade^ p, ' 
192, 1 93, • arid fo much beyond Mr. Han^ 
ways ideas, who ufes the expreffion of 
— ^^ ^rdnfingj that a ftout working man 
may eat ill3. of bread in a day, yet, 
Qfr. **' that I' am induced to believe there 
is Tome exaggeration in the matter. 

But fuppofTng the contrary, ftill we find • 
the labourers pay fufficient for their expence, 
fufficient in thefe dear times, to fupport 
themfelves, their wives, and their families, 
and provide for all extraordinaiies ; be- 
fides laying by np inconfiderable fiim : and 
1 am fure I know no difference, in point 
qf health, vigour, and flrength, between 
tjiern and their families now, and year^ 
Sgo, when proyifions were much cheaper. 

f Letters on the Imp, of the Rif. Gen, V. 2. p. 99. 


[ ?9/ I 

But there is one circuthftancq which I 
Ihbuid apprehend, to be clear and decifive; 
'the labouring poor, in general, earn now 
fufficient to live decently cloathed, and in 
good iiealth ; fome, I know, are not able, 
but fuch their parifh affifts : I am Ipeaking 
-of thofe, who fupport themfelves without 
affiftance. * Some years ago^ they could 
buy bread and beer, and cheefe, &c. &c. 
much cheaper than they can at pre^ 
fentj while their earnings were the fame. 
What was the effeft of fuch cheapnefs ? 
if the prefent dearnefs is fo afflifting, fure 
the former good times were attended \yith 
no trifling efFe£ls? Inftead of laying up three 
or foyr pounds i they then doubtlefs, faved 
twice as much! No fuch matter; what- 
ever was gained by fuch cheapnefs; was 
conftantly expended by the hufband in a 
proportionable quantity of idlenefs and 
ale, and by the wife in that of tea : as to 
health, flrength, cloaths, and money in 
pocket 3 I well know there was no diffe- 
rence in thofe cheap times, from the pre- 
fent dear ones. 

I therefore think the 'reader will allow 
me to conclude, that the prefent prices of 
the neceffaries of life are only dear on com- 
^' '' parifon 

( 202 3 

parifon with thofe oifome preceding years j 
but not intrinfically fo 3 fince a common- 
ly induftrious man may confiderably more 
than maintain himfdf, his wife^ and fa- 
mily* There cannot be a greater contra- 
diction to Xrxithy than aflerting that evcFy 
thing is dear ; while a man with a wite 
and three children, may lay by 1 3 /. a year,. 
after feeding, cloathing^^ and providing 
for all. It may be faid, that wheaten- 
bread, that beef, that mutton, that tea,; 
that fugar, that butter are dear ; but do 
not in the height of an argument, jumble 
thefe and the mceffaries of life together. 

As I have in the preceding papers men- 
tioned fome unufual articles of food for 
the poor; a few words are neceflary to ex- 
plain that matter more fully. In refpe6l 
of potatoes, they are of all other things 
the cheapeil, and moft inexhauflable re-r 
fource. I knov\r not one fingle cottage 
without a piece of ground belonging to it ; 
I was goi-i>g to fay a garden i but they are 
frequently kept in too flovenly a manner 
to.defcrvG that name. All the poor that 
live in the country, might raife a plenty of 
this nourifhing root, at an cxpencc too 
trifling to mention : And that it will make 


excdlcDt bread whtn tmxcd with wh6^« 
fiower> or wkb wheat and ryci I very 
weii know,, having eat k more than otKe^. 
Rice is known by all tt> be the moft fioil^ 
riftnasg of gx^in, and foki ib cheap in aU 
the (hops of England, ^t id, ^ pcnmd. 
Four penny-worth oi b^ead «e eafrfy eat 
in a day hf one man ; but boil a poyiifdoC 
rice, in a penny-worth of milk, dud yod 
wsill £»M ib' foon find a man that cabi ^af it. 
Thiree pacts oKtf of four, ol mankind, I 
ccmjeftiire, eat little elfe -f . B4le witbotft 


* See a proof of potatoes making good bread. Bime 
Mem. lyS^.pariie i. p. 37. 

t It willnotbeamifs to infert here a paflfage from 
the excellent Mr. Hanway\ Letters, as it is very much 
to the prefect purpofc.— — — '* Portugal does not grow 
above half wheat eoougfa, for the confamption of hdt 
own people in a plentiful year, and on a medium, not 
for above five months ; yet a Portuguefs is fupplied with 
bread,, and his garlicky and onk>n«,.and&uitSi hfs D^sr- 
rious preparations of rice, whkh he eats ata|x)at two 
pence a pound from Carolina, and his dridd fifti at 
three- halfpence, from Newfoundland^ content him. 
If in the family of a Fidalgo^ or nobleman, ijhere are 
ten pounds of meat provided for forty perfons-, it is the 
molt they ufually confume on flc(h-days, thibugh it 
amounts to bud 4 0%, each ; the reft, they make up 
with bread, rice, and vegetables, and the waier they 
boil them in. If a French man has bread and vega- 
fibles,. and foups made even without HeHit ,he does 
noj murmpr.— T— A Ruffian having a large flat loaf, of 


( 204 ] 

Incurring to thefe articles, common pro^ 
yifions are, upon the whole, at no very 
unreafonable price. No man can be a 
better judge of thefe matters, than that 
admirable writer, Mr. Harte \ (peaking of 
jhe pric^ of provifions in England^ he fays, 
^* Corn is much cheaper^ than it was in 
half the 10^ century, or during the whole 
of the preceding one : And great plenty of 
Corn, helps to Icflen the price of butcher's 
yneat. Rye and barleyrbtread, at prefent, 
are looked upon with a fort of hprror, evea 
by ppor cottagers, and with fome excufe j 
for wheat now is as cheap as rye and barley 
were in former times j and therefore the 
yeomen of this kingdom, about one hun- 
dred and thirty years ago, mixed both thefp 
vegetables with wheat to make bread : but 
the very name of this mixture is now for- 

black rye-bread, though kept for weeks and months, 
being dipt in water ; he eats ic with fait, and never 

complams. If hefinds fi(h, with which thefe great 

rivers of Rujffia abound, he makes a foup, eats it with 

delight, and is thankful. 1 have feen great mifery in 

Perfioy but not from the want of bread. Whilft they 
have rice, provided it be relifhed with burnt-butter, a 
Petftan is contented. Letters en Imp. of Rif. Gen. 
V. 2.j>. 260. 

gotten ^ 

r 205 1 

gotten* ; whilft the pure flotir of wheat; 
made into bread, was hardly tafted but at 
court, and in the houfcs of the nobility 
and prime gentry ^ where it bore the 
name of cheat. If we take quan- 
tity and quality both, few travellers will 
find a country where bread and butchers- 
meat, upon the whole, are cheaper, and 
better than they are in England *f. 

Prices are to be judged by^ many circum-» 
ftances ; for inftance, the foreign, as well 
as the home confumption of manufaftures ; 
the confequence to the ftate, as well as to 
individuals; and many points will be 
found, in which high prices are as advan- 
tageous as low ones can be %• I^ ^^ difficult 


* " It was called maJlinhrtzAt quafi m\fcellane^\ 

f EJfayi on Hujb. p. 176, 177. 

X High prices at home are no difeoaragement to the 
iddaftrious, moft certainly, however difagreeable they 
may prove to confutners ; add while they ftand high, 
it is a proof that the demand of the confamers does not 
diminifti.— High prices upon goods to be exported, 
are to be judged of by the proportion they bear to 
thofe in other countries — Now the price of a manu- 
fafturer's wages is not regulated by the price of his 
fubfiftance ; but by the price at which his madufafture 
feils in the market. Could a weaver, for example, 
live upon the air, he would ftill fell his day's work ac- 


to (ay precifehf what arc high prices ; but 
fbme thing will be. gained if we define 
what art not high ones^ and I wilt venture 
to affert, that the prkes of ijeccflarics are 
not to6 high in a manufa&uring trading 
ftate, when the labouring poor can by in- 
duftry earn a fufficiency of wages, to pro- 
vide thcmfclves with the neceflaries of lifej 
*viz. a warm cottage, — -tight and decent 
cloathihg,~~food of feme kind that is 
wholefome,— foap, candles, and firing. 

cording to the valae of the manufa^ure produced by i^^ 
when brought to market. As long as be can prevent 
the effeAs of the competition of his neighbours, he 
will carry the price of his work as high as is confift^nt 
with the profits of the merchant, who buys it from 
him, in order to bring it ta market ; and this he will 
continue to do, until the rate of the marjcet is brought 
down. — When in any country the work of manufac- 
turers) vrho live luxClbiottfly, and who can afford td' be 
idle fome days of the weeks ^^^ fi'iU Uve upon their 
wages, finds a ready market ; this circumftance alone, 
pfQYes, beyond all diipute,. that fubfiflence in that 
country is not loo dear» at leaft in proportion to the 
i{)arket prices at home; and if taxes, on confumptioDi 
have in fa(l raifed the price of neceflaries beyond the 
former Aandard> the rife cannot in fa£l difcourage in^ 
dndry: it may difcourage idlenefsj and idlenefs will 
AOt b^ totally roQted out, until people be forced in one 
way or other» to give up both fuperfluity and days o£ 
recreatiou. ** loquiry into the Principles 6f Political 
Oecouomy, V. %. p, 504. It is obfervablc a naturalot 
artificial rife, is in efie^ |he fame thing* 


And befides thefe feveral articles, fome- 
thing annually to lay by againft ficknefs 
and old age, that the parifti may not be 
their only dependancc. 

Short definitions of terms and pfopofini 
tions, are open to an infinity of exceptions 
and errors : This diffufq one m^y not be 
free from them \ but the candid reader 
will cplle6l the general meaning of the 
parage, and not dwell upon that of par- 
ticular words. 

I apprehend no one can expe£l any fort 
of provifions to be fo cheap, that all the 
.poor fhould be able to maintain themp- 
felves t that would be impoffible. Old peo-* 
pie, who are paft hard labour, cannot 
earn to the amount of any prices; and as 
young hearty fingle men eavn infinitely 
mcg^e than neceffary to maintain them ^ the 
medium is, what alone we (hould calculate 
by. Whenever therefore^ the^terms 7^- 
houring poor are ufed, we fhould always 
underjftand the average of families 3 as I 
have fpecified in the preceding psges. 
And I cginnot conclude this fetter, without 
cxprefllng the fatisfa^ion 1 feel, at finding 
that the prices of the necejfaries of life affe 
by no m^ans io high> th^t the iadu^toQUs 


C **^ 1 

a fixth of the prefent rates: how tfim 
would agriculture and^ manufafUirei 
thrive?; Why, if fueb a 'fituation could 
laft, we fliould run dway wilh the trad6 
of the whole worlds ' But population wobM. 
'be precifdy as at prefent ; ifbr the pro^ 
portion between prwifkns 'and p4if^ httag 
the fame, it family wotild^ be as difficu!ttp 
maintain, and the neceflity of working. 
hard equally the fame as now — ^^the 
ftatc of the poor thcrefbre would' not 
be changed* Let me, however^ rernark, 
diat (iidi a iituation could fcarcely la(t ;, 
for that general ballance, which ever 
forms, of itfelfi among the nations of auT 
quarter of the ^obe, beisg lb totally bro>- 
ken, would occafion inch a variation 
anpiong neighbours, that it would prcfently 
be deftroyedf and the former levdisS^ 
place. Thofe who coniider the propor- 
tion between demand and price^ between 
iocpema and livin^^ with various other 
combinations, will not find it diffiisuh to 
comprehend thk. 


i *" 1 


. . . • • • 

TffiRE are- i<Htte dllc? t^ery-' 'mp6t" 
tanv inquklc» m ho Mia^ 'iAt<> t^> 
iferte' of agfkultttrfr, durf rmny t'm^hs tO' 
\k fanttde on it, tHiidJP aptf oP niorer eonfev 
qacftce to tfce welf-feeiug eif AI^ feingdom^ 
thnrt are apparent Ofy ^ ftiperfid^ view. 
Ebt astfre exjcdfent Sdefffy/k" t^ Ermtt-* 
ragefHenf ef Art^y MimifaSiumi imf^ Cm*' 
mertt; hMe> m a Ilberial fkmfititij e^bred' 
preenmim fbr promerting Mttny'ytffoal)fe^ 
itiquinteu 5 I fhaH^ fcBdfw* their oH"iii< o^ 
ttcating Off them; and- mcftjc fodi' rttinafks^ 
ars my exptrtmee' of the fobjeft twll allbvi^ 
me. Thofe for 1766, ar€ a» fi^lW? 


n» etttturcoff -thi j cdebralecf plawr w» 
very mrautdy attended tb* fey the oldJeff»i' 
timm\ Graf their fofrhimfi rmtaAons; an^ 
rtgatfoTttf liowevdf they in%ht aifwer in 
tliofe times, it is- very* cfcar vnff'notf a# 
pnefeiit J arwl if Aey wcusH at prtfc tft irt 
Jhi^^mof^ ceet^ty vviS rMir in* B/z|A(^. 

P af TKi 

[ ^I« 1 

That lucerne is an objeft worthy of the 
Englijh farnkr's attention , mud be appa- 
rent, if we confider the vaft quantity of 
herbage' a good crop yields^^ the - nutrition *. 
quality of if, as it is/aid^ oi fatting cattle, 
apd the benefit it is of to the land. Tfie > 
methods of cultivation mentioned by the ^ 
Society arq planting and /owing. The . 
planting is in reference to the newly difco-r 
V£red method of cutting the tap-roots and 
tranfplanting : the (owing is either iti the . 
hroad-qaft mode, or by drilling* As a 
fufficieat number of experiments have not 
been pul>Uihed to prove which of thefe mo^ 
thods is mpft advantageousi^ the Society 
vfivj }u4icioofly leaves it to the cultivator's 
private jjudgment. ; 

The only experiments of any authority 
which we have on lucerne are, ^rfi^ Thofe 
publifhed in that admirable book the EJ/ays 
m Hufi>andry: thefe are in the tranfplant- 
ing method ; an^ as to all the points o£ 
culture, expence, duratipn^^ (Sc. are highly 
^tisfaftory. Secondly^ Mr. Rocque\ in the 
bro^d^caft. niethod; but thefe, froni many 
circiiinftances, are not of fatisfadory au- 
thority J for they are not xegiftered as ex- 
periments, but deliyeixd to the reader in 


ilile of 4Ma4tkal inftrpiLlion f thf ex* 
peQq«5 4f e. not Uifertcd, nor is,r the dura- 
tion. by ?ny means proved. T^birdfy^^ Mr.. 
t^^rSi in .hjs^di^lionary, bu^ thefe arc 
fikeyvi^ meer jjiftru^ionsf— T^-pot experi-. 
mcn^^ . and th£; gentlefpan's that gained 
i}[y^.vi^dA(Mufi¥myRufi. Vol. w, p. 170.) 
no name nor place of ^bode 5 in the drill- 
ing metl)od : but as it is only one e;(peri« 
ment, and the ^expences not dated, thla 
will by no means .fatisfy ev(;n the lead in*> 

qniiitive inquirer^ 
As to all the tcipe of experimenters, who 

are namelefs, lorwho^^iv^us, nothing but 

dife&ions^ not tlj« leaf^pr&ditjs to be given 

to them. Mr. Wyhn Bakers trials are yet 

too inconfiderable to efta,b)i(h any conclu- 


The penetrating author of the Effays on 

Hujbandry (the Rev, Mr. Harte^ Carion 

qf Wind/or) h by far the moft fatisfaftory j 

^nd ind^ the only authority, in any me- 

thod« that a cautious cultivator can be fa* 

tisfied with« His experiments teach us, 

cdntrary to the miftaken ideas of 7W/*, 

^ *' I have often trkd the tranfplanting of plants of 
.Saiofoin and Lucerne, and could never find that any 
ever came near to the perfeftion that thofe will do 
which are not removed, being equally fingle. Horfi 
Hoiing Hujbandry^ 3d. edit. 1 751. p. 49. 

P 3 that 



[[2W II 

tinft 4htnf[)foateA lutienMl is «n tkl^ iSt 
infimCe importance* ttnd ^exceeds In ^^rd!%. 
moft Mif the comtnonljr t^tiH^Vated' yie^StiiJ 
hits. That Wft a(<curate tiili$^atibf >MI^ 
as, page ix^t 1-19, -that M j^antation 06 
his OTtfi yielded, at the rtrtic *«r ' aere • -rf 
jfeeduigiwo coach4iorfeS'ncArifwefMyHt^, 
and fattening a ffRaAI heilei' befi^esf/- -AM 
page i^f, he 'Calculates ifceVi!f^^afiti)f 
tran^anted luccrBc, -at' yl.^d acre. Art€ 
as it artftwrt, not orfty In poiiit of jirtyate 
advantage, but alfo in pi^ic feeAdfit,' ts 
feipeSI: t^f employing -a^^eat iwiiftfcerof 
hands ; the fcialtiife 4)0511^ to te bigjhly en- 
couraged, and a variety ef experiments to 
be promcAed. ■ ' ' ■ -' • 

T%e dtilKrig metfeofl- Rkewtfe prot h i fe s 
great advantages ; but for want of fetis- 
Fa^ory experiments, fie 'aWblute certainty 
is to be gaiJted. The feroad-caft tnrtfeod 
pi^y Be "of henc&t on Jome (oils; >but'^fft% 
will anfwer ^at a diftanre from jLewfote/lfi 
the mere quantity of cattle k tnafmti^s, 
!s a proWem yet 5 I cjueftion modi, whe- 
ther (in this method) it ecjuals clover. The 
J^ Bipft iji^dQubtedly i* AOt in)|jpoved By 
it like the tranfplantatien and driiiing.*— 

Buch being the extent of the public ,lknow- 


tJ(wmtjf..IIPunfte % Hie f <•««$# vquiuitity 

Ib^vAfi^ «H)r^8»«^h^oaW noii^. sHm at an, 
IkpifDm^' pfena«imife; I fuppofey tiierefor^ 
^llii^is |Eieap»c^9hil%:lipr i^ f^Tm^: now. 
•iJ^WiwiWiJlWAIfj be '«mjp^.t0 try aq 
•fXl^inieBt : -^€.4 yfRy d(jubtfMl *¥fnt> tht 
^Kprn^t^ »0f y^H . will not lie , i:^f>»1d by 

he confi^rs the a£tua], eype^peji tht lo||i^ 
^f Atlplo'^ <Jf«p4i,.iC the 4ttC9Jfndaasi the 
„ ^qfeai>Uity «F. liMl^He, l«fi«s a^ . one : earth 
fih^XyCTo^ ,9fx^i thp, i^anqe .th»t he m?^y 
HQi^aia.tbe ptpRjjftnu.j when be eonfider* 
lihi^|& drcu^ftaqf^s^,! muft own I 4oubt 
Slu^h,iWhetl^er Kipev.ftnner, twenty 
{ho^^illMi wiH VWilHre thii • jBttempt. A 
dixffui^ f remijJW fpr eyery 4jcrfi is the only 
$hws whiehi 1 ap^ehendj wUl«v6r^«a4 


• * f • • • 

Carrots 104 parfnips have, been cultii 
vated fome years with gre^ fuccefs^ as a 

P 4 foo4 


fboa ^r catfle' lii thtf;lfl^ of 6»^;^>t^^ 
I know of no othtr ' p^kt-of ^ kingdom 
where the cukure of thti^'robt has for ibme 
time been' com ttiohi except^ thfc^neigbboui'r 
hood oiWhoSridge iii SuffbflU The fiar- 
itiers there (partkularly in^ 'the angle^ of 
country between Woodhii^e creek as^ the 
jba-coaft) regularly cultivate a fmdl fidd 
of carrot8> f-fbr the winter-food >^of theiip 
korfes, arict'lbnledmes toiendbyfcsatO'the 
Londcm market. I took a )oumey iifto^at 
country ofi purpofe to obferve their crdps, 
find to take ibme minutes of the m^tlMSd 
of cultivating them. . ^ . 

'^ The toil is an exceedingly light fahdy 
loam: Iknow not 'whether I ought ndt to 
call it an abTolute iandt fo deep and loofe 
that I eafily, with ^' flibvel, with ftarcft 
any fortei*made a hole a yard deep in a 
earrot*flcld' belonging'' to Mr. ^Mcdre of 
ff^anUfd^nl without finding any chan^ of 
foiL It wa5 in OBbber^ lind the crop tak^ 
Hig up : " matfy of the cSii'ots were asd&rge 
as the body of a quart bottle, and of a 
great length, and very ftraight : they had 
often twenty, or four and twenty cart- 
loads on an aae (each forty bufiiels :) they 

* Mtm. C^mmunicaU 



I 217 ] 

Ttckbn them a very good fellow ^r bferfejr; 
The method* ojf cuItivsitH^ -them was to 
^ugh a vet-y fleet furrow^ wWi a pair of 
hor^r then another pk>ugh» ibmetinjes 
livith four borfesy followed, and cdt aa; 
deep as they could^ ta f he ^epth of eighteen 
6f twenty inches, and then harrowed in 
the feed : all which c^erations they per^ 
form nearly about Lad^day^ with no pre- 
vKMis ploughing of the ftubble. They hoe 
fhitim three timet, at the price of fix, five, 
and four ihillings an acre: always dig 
them up, which is performed with great 
cafe and expedition. -- 

In fuch a foil, and where the wQrk is 
common, the heeuig. is^ performed, we 
find, for fifteen ftiillings^^r acre: 'where- 
as in other parts of the klftgdoni workmen 
wiU not do the firft hoiiiftg under' thirty 
(hilling. I have, myfi<lf, Sltivated thera 
en a fine light turnipiland loam^ trench 
ploughed • arid hoed the firft time at that 
expence; and the men made only eighteen- 
pence a d^y per man, although I thought 
ihcy would earn half a crown* Now this 
vaft expence of hoeing, and the fucceeding 
one of taking lip the crop, renders their 
culture exceflivcly expenfive in any courifry 

. where 

i «'« 1 

s^t Ufft itber^foH! imt^% . that <a c^rfaff 
|»eiaiiuiq /Itf^ Acre wUl be fAxe<ifily method 
«f inrteadinK tb^ c^ilMiw of this : ufef^d 

, Mr. BiM^u ^reatiie xsoatww the 
f^ly €xfi|Qrini^f 'we have -extant, oh 
Ofisp^i ycfy Jfiev aiftd .fijtipfrapry tiie|r 
ac«»i fmd ^ £m4;H^. in a iiioft convinc*^ 
HPkg Wtiper, thffjiaiporOuiGe of the obje^ 
Titrhifff wiU ;p^per ivdl ^(^ "land whicH 
will wA. h^f: caff ots i hut wl^e^vvr thft 
^U^vUl adfi4t;thra2| 4^cir <ititura is b|; 
far more profitable than that of tbq tw nip^ 

» • * . •>^' 

Wliat has t)een £ikl . of carrots, is in a 
gopd i^eaiure^affplwrabk to this iipot*. i But 
l.aoi very ftjUy fKxfuai^ uokis it 

iiriUtJirive oa a foil too ftiff lor thd^arreti 
tha;CiiltAuve w|U neyer aafwer : th^ latter i« 
jb(y i far the mod valuable vegetable i btt$ 
inaBy people, who have heaKl of the fMir 
fiif^qltare in Brittany^ eoncfyde too i^ee- 
dily m favour of it in Englmd: i^owever^ 
too, mwh cannot be^faid in return for the 
|>^riQtic extenfionof the Society's viawsi» 

. ' ^ Parjky. 

[ 2t$ ]: 


We Jiavc not, 4>a^ fo^pcruneni; of any 
authority oa thisplaot ; :n|Othing ^erfiforc 
can be ^d of Its v^^ ^ . .but thi; idefi(>f 
it^ v»fe. &r If eding; <l>e^p» : very ratkHwIly 
induced ^e ^Society. l«> giv^ a promiun ifor 
its culture, f find as. . t^e . quaintity Wfhich 
Q3dy gain tbe premii^m qi twenty ppuivlf 
is only fofu^ aeres, 4^^ is oiare pr^^|>^« 
Hty of its J^a^wng iwne f ffefil : but in evtery 
o^efit, fo»R,/certein f^^ ^wery sxxis^ \b 
the wag rto^dvaofe ;fh^ 

¥^e-rittd'<f Burnet niehtioritd 
eciknt-footf for mfl^ fo IcJirga^o 

as^heyear 'i€ir6 and i6i^o; but I:hkvc 
always been of opinion^ that it viras not 
J?^*/«*BWrtet,^'butthe Eumet^Baxifrage i 
tonoernf!»'f<4ttt3i,' ihik^ has been ipel&ted 
in * tfcfe l*ft ficnt^ry** ft is remarkaWe; 
howtver, that a pil*rrt rdvired as JFoddfor 
cattle fo lately, {hould fo foon bid fair for 
gcttiog th^e dart. of lucerne, \» 
beyond doubt ((ftiopeiiy icukivated) a mora 

♦ Man. Communuat* 


valuable pafture. Dr. LanAe\ Mr* 
L€wis\ and Mr. Bal(iwip's *» not to men* 
tion what Mr. Rocquf has written on the 
fubjecl^ are very valuable experimehts. 

However, this ' latter plant is certaiitly^ 
worthy of the attention the Society gives 
it J and though aH cattle will not relilh it 
well, yet if it proved^ bidneficial to cbws and 
iheeponly, the earline^ and quantity of 
k render it an objeft truly- valuable 5 and 
it 15 with great fatt!5fa6lion I find ibe pre-* 
miums offered by the Socitiy fcr the greateji 
quantity have been attended wi& fuch vi- 
gorous claimants/^ ^ Their pretnium for 
iurnet on the pooreftfoil^ is alfo of fingular 
utility. There are many thoufands of 
acTfs of a driving fand, whi^h^ivill bear 
90 crop hitherto knpwni if burnet wilL 
thrive on fuchafoili it j^^ a 'Vaiual^ ac*^ 
qyi^itioi} indeed ! . , ^ 

. I cannot difmifs this artide^wijthout ob- 
ferying what a flagrant impofition op feh^ 
pu^blic was Mr. Rocque*$ felling the feed for 
two ihillings a pound s a ieed wbkb 14 

/ • ) \ ,- • . « 

* Ploughed up this, year \ but theLtjccruc Exp^- 
mentsofthis very ingenious and accurate 'cultivator^ 
«rc worthy of no iocoufid^rable attentiiMi 



f>rodacc4 at the rat& of ten quarters /ier 
acre. . However, I' 6«4, it is already, in 
other handsi got down ta four-peace. 

An untiioddjen field I No expertmeGt haisi 
been made on feparated grais-feeds: it 
promiies greatly in idea^ and acoordin^y 
became an objeci of the Society's attenr 
tion. But if they have any where fallen 
ihort in proportioning their premiums to 
jhe dfiieulty of the work, it is here. The 
premiufSi is i%r the gr€ateji quantities rej^ec'- 
iivefy ofJevet:alJorts gathered clean by band^ 
feparauly fovm in drilh^ and kept ckmfrp^ 
all mixturis of other graffhs and weeds > Ten 

It fliould be confidered thait the buHnefr 
of gathering the feedv k very tedious and 
expenfivcT} the fowing them in drills is the 
faiiie> M no driU-pIoggb can died them s 
the dfiUs iQuft be ilruck by a lin.e with a 
koe, the (tfids f^wn by hand, and covered 
iwithar^k^. After all this, the keeping it 
clean tvill^. together, amount to a prodi-r 
gious expence* ,.,l4f>, n@t think it could by 
any means be effeded under fifteen or 


il 4J!> ] 

tmMtf gwnew aft acn» for fbtf vetail mt 
<Klhdck>gs-tiib) «iia«t0itkr«gft; wUdi 
are noc«ci>b« had in fiMr liKbt lyuMXMHt 
as thofe under a monftroos expence, it is 
impoffible to faf' ivliafe it would coft> for 
the drills ought not to be more than a 
ioot afo»foCr Ar prtnttum^ thtfoiDi^. of 
flen:pMimif^ t»d)0n>^:forths'j7Mi<^qanfc» 
iScfy to. be iw ad^ioiiaf itidiiceDiaiitto 
any due who evcor had hdn an dnikacaiibf 
^ in hk thou^tSt 

The Mitt portimam is^ fe^ iirardai avtuit 
(without expbinatioi^y to Ik uttdKAnA 
Jr k a^ follovws.: I^ ibitgreauj^^fmrnufj^^f 
kftd (mt hfs tbM m9 acm} wkM\fimit k 

of gfi^-feedf^ unmheeti, m dk yem^ 17*5^ 
ibe Society will give a premium of rtw<^ 
fmmdijof eaeb fjumoity $f kmdfiijmn i the 
framing tf^ be inf d^^y for t6e cimmfdme if 
keeping the grajl Jrtm ^mdi. Wttotd not 
any onefupp^^tlK^ thiriras afwenioniuaf 
twenty pounds for every a€Fe^ft>vm^ Elfe 
what is i}M^Er^Jk of thofe wixdsyir EUMk 
quefrfity of hndftrfcreeH f At ficft indent^ it 
is faid, for fhe greaUfi fium*itf\ but ote 
w(»)d apprehend^ the" utiMnisg to. be vtmst^ 

* Nine forts* 


the gfei(t«^tiwifb«^ ^^mcmL A friefl()td|l 
nine wa$ «fHlHi8^'Opiri^fy ,^ b^ 
My/ofdingdf the potfi^'itidtiwd 1^ 
wfite to tiieSdefetyVftertt^yi Dt; CT^ii^titi^ 

This- aiRilr of Awiag' gm&^eetti hah 

ly defin> i^ certaihfy aAr obfbft (if itaWdHidP 
itn^rtance'^ aftd^ wtfir $t premium giwn* 
fbr every acre of one Ifiiid (to- a^ ^ertMn^ 
fum) twenty pountia^ *#» inftaaee^; taan^ 
hundred pofonds^ or five acres; fuch five 
acres oner ctdttvatec^ and thel^e«(i aidver- 
tifed at a reafonabk price, woold prefently 
extend to fi%v and fcen to-^l t^-knds 
Itr the kmgdomMd^ d^^/m vrkU ^«f&4led^ 
By giving; a pretmtHn in^ tltat manner 
•very* year* ^ onc-Brt,' the^wifefe #oul(* 
be cotfifrfeatly • ctdtirated^ in^ mf» ye»9 
ttme$ at ^xxpetter of aA\littml|'ed^{]0mid^ 
a year 5 and by propcrfy^ arrangtfig ^ 
Ibrts'to thc^ibf-that^were-fown wi*ft^h*m^ 
the benefit wiDuld^be immen^ and^ bennd^ 
id^ 16 thi^ nation; The extend*^ thi^ 
Tbblt 6\^ of the SocietyJs^at«e4ii»0 
would however at hft' depend entofely t*t 
reducing the expence. of laying down fields* 


{ aa4 J 

k>gr^ The common h9y<4eed9 at pre^ 
fcn^ nece(r^y for an acre ate twelve facks^ halfacrawn a fackj. is thirty 
ihilUniJs i tofltimes the price is two fhil«* 
lingSy and then twenty-^four will fow an 
acret Now if the ieparated fe^ds cannot 
be afforded in a |erm of years under that 
price per acre, the farmers will never ule 
them:, if the expence of both fort^ be. 
equa)^ they will prefer the oU method — r 
but. teU them the feparated feeds will coft 
four or five ihillingi an acre lefs^ and they 
may poflibly lifteq to you. 

Cubivatim of Wheats &c* in Drills* 

The Society, with great judgment, gives 
9n honorary premium, a gold medal, for 
the moft accurate account of experiments 
on the comparative culture of wheat, rye» 
oats, barley,, lucerne, faintfoine, carrots, 
parihips, parfley, turnips, beans, pea9«^ 
atxd tares or vetches* . ; . .. 

There, i$ not a more dubious point if| 
agriculture than the difference between the 
OW and New liuibandry. We do npl 
eyei:i know the merits of the old huiban^ 
<ky. Hqw flrange is it that all the thou- 

I ^25 ] , 

fend books of agriculture with which we 
fwarili, not one can anfwer this plain 
queftion^ What is the profit of a <:rop of 
wheat ? And I will allow it to be an an- 
iwer, only to inform me what the prdfit is 
on any foil, and under any circumftances 
which, might attend an experiment. I 
know perfe<SMy well that fuch an anfwer is 
not complete ^ but even the refult of one 
full experiment is no where to be met 
with: for as to common affertions, and 
giving the quantity producfed, without 
every article of calturc and expence, there 
is no dependance to be placed on fuch ac-* 

- There have been fome fcnfible experi- 
ments oh barley and turnips^ &c. publi-*^ 
(hed in M$Ws hufbandry, as performed in 

York/hire. ^They may ht fo : but by 

whom ? and at what place ? We have then* 
on no better authority than another afler- 
tion of a gentleman that tranfplanted his 
turnip-crop, which ridiculous practice Mr. 
JVf///f fpeaks of in terms of recQmmenda- 
,tion. I call every pra6lice ridiculous that 
does not pay the charges— and all recom- 
mendations of any, unlefs pofitive proof is 

Q^ pro- 

t «6 J 

pfroduced of their quitting c6fts» are of & 
pemitious tfndency: but I ihall {peak 
morf <rf this pradticeby and by» 

Mf . tf^yfm Bakers few etptrittenty are 
very )iKlici<Mi9 and condofivv/. buCtbe re«^ 
der (hould be extremdy caadQQs of ever 
giving the fan^ credit to calculaittons of ai 
term of years drawn from an ejtperitnent 
of one or two, as to- the amaiedktc dr«* 
cumftances of the experiment itfyf. 

Tbofe Cbati(afDkux I cannot 
{peak of in the tenQs of paiie which many 
ufe in commending them: fuice khcjex*^ 
pences of each iQethod are nowfaere in^ 
ferted, nor fatisfaftory accounts of thtf 
old cuhure, wliich muft hs wretchedly de- 
ficient to produce only thr^ timca the 

As there is fiich a grea;t fcarcity of &tiar 
factory knowledge of thefe articles^ ^ we 
cannot too much commend the laudable 
attention of the Society to this curious 
branch of culture. We may, from tfacif 
endeavours, hope, in no long time, to 
fee experiments of undoubted authority, 
publilhed on ail thefe articles, fo that the 
comparative value of both methods of cul^ 

8 ture 


tufe tiiAy be ^liliy and cieterrtiihateiy 
JkhoWn *i 

The rum of five hundred pounds a year 
given in premiums of five pounds per acri 
for all madder planted, is one of the 
hobldfti ihoft effectual and fpeedieft me-t 
thpds of extending the culture of that va* 
luable plantj that could have been devifed j 
and 1 will infwer for it, has been attended 

* tl IS an bt)fervatioii.of the authoi: or the EJ/ays oH 
tlu/hk^ry^ that \^heat may one day be <:altiV2(ted tb 
greater perfeftlon. **Our fellow creatures may pofiibly 
arrive to higher perfeAion, ^fie time or other, in the 
tulture of wheats not withAan ding it has been the con- 
&ifA em{4oymeht ^f mankind eter finos the world be- 
gan : For, < at prefent, a return of feven for one^ makes 
the ^oftiibod produce at in average thrdiighbut all 
Enghndy Dbr is atly EnrisfiM tilLtibd, ufibn.tR^^hdle, 
tnore fuccefsful than ours in this point. Yet thb two 
Vtlods (Spahijb authors of great credit) alfure us that 
il^hlat Ih GhUi oRth pfodikes a crop ot'bne hundred 
fold : Sd that probably the foil proves better than otrrs^ 
or greater ipace !s allowed the plants ; but then the 
mistbrtune is, that the hufbandman iti Chili ha^ no 
ircni, exce}]^ ainofigft his few tieighbour^, and no ex-> 
portation for the grain thus Taifed; which of courfe 
reduces it to lo low a ^rice, that three arrclas, or one 
btifticl and odt gallod of wheat, £n£lijh ^iafure, a^e 
ufaally fold for two flrillings, nlfte pAtcc' tbrci far- 
things, and fometimes for two (hilliags and three pence/^ 
HarU*s Mfays on Hvjhatidrfy Elfey I. pr. gft. 

Qjj with 

[ 228 ] 

With a hundred times the benefit of five 
times the fum given for the great eft quan-' 
tity. Five pounds is of fome account to- 
wards the planting the firft acre i and of 
great confequence towards all the fucceed- 
ing ones. The fame obfervation which I 
have made on the preceding articles, the 
want of experiments, is equally applica- 
ble to this : we are nearly in the dark. 
However it cannot long be the cafe, as the 
Society proceeds fo vigoroufly in encou- 
raging it. The premium for the greatefi 
quantity on an acre is extremely welljudg- 
ed^ as the others are offered for every acre; 


Hardly any fubje£t in rjural ceranomics 
has been fo thoroughly e^^haufted by Englifb 
authors, as the management of bees. The* 
author of the Effays on Hujbandry has a ca- 
talogue of thefe books, that amount to 
near 70 volumes. , The Kings of England^ 
till about the year 1680, always had a 
Bee-mafterj with an annual ilipend of 
royal bounty. The great confequence 
thefe infe6ts are of to a trading nation, 
induced the Society to offer five pounds 
(as far as two hundred) to every perfon 


, I 

[ ^29 ] 

wlio collefls ten pounds of wax from his 
bees, without destroying them. A moft 
munificent premium! and cannot mifs of 
the wiftied for efFeft. The plan is certain- 
ly no chimera 5 Mr. White having publifli- 
ed a fatisfa£lory account of the boxes 
and operation. 

Machine for draining lands. 

This is one of the moft ufeful imple- 
ments to hufbandry that could be invented. 
The commpn price of cutting water- 
thoroughs with a fpade, in my neigh- 
bourhood, is, through ridge-work, to 
open the furrows on one fide, no plough 
having gone before, a penny a rod dug 
' two inches below the furrows \ and if it 
has been ploughed, a halfpenny. On 
broad lands, to open the furrows on each 
fide, .unploughed, a half-penny, and 
ploughed, a farthing. This expence on a 
field of twenty acres, has, tome, amount- 
ed on flat land to twenty {hillings, and 
but inefFedually done too. I have been 
often forced to have them fcoured again at 
a frefh expence. The vaft favings, there- 
fore, that would refult from a machine 

(^3 which 

t 230 ] 

which cpuld be worked by four horfes^ 
are very great 

The machine, however, which the So- 
ciety defcvibes, ' is only for paft vjre-lands j 
for they require that thfe e?irth of the drain 
fie equally thrown out on both fides : now this 
would by no means do for ploughed lan^ds^ 
as we always throw the moulds of fuch 
drains one way, that the furrows may be 
open on the fide of the drain contrary to 
the natural fall of the land, to receiv? the 
v^ater from off it. The plough the Society 
defcribes, would be of incomparable u^ 
to grafs- lands, where (ill th? mould.s arc 
carted away to the compoft dupghil, or 
Ipread about the field: but I miift wi(h 
greatly to fee likewife a machine for drain-» 
jing ploughed lands ; fugh an one n?eds no^ 
cut above four inches below the furrows. 
Mechanicks, in providing fuch ij3ri.plf rp^nt^ • 
^ ^s thefe, greatly benefit agriculture; bu$ 
are frequently applied in a too whimficajl. 
manner, of which I know not a more 
Jlriking inftance, thari M- Piogers co^- 
ftru^ion of ploughs. See his Objervatifinh 
on an efjential fault in ploughs. Mercure de ' 
France. The fcheme of working more 
(liares than one with the fame force, is im- 


[ 21» ] 

practicable;, ibb ih»re«, fiujllte^ c)^n<kvfi^ 
and Qtinaroiut vthcok, forn 9 fj^ftem o£ 
fii<5tion that would kiH any foioe Sn^Jh 
hor^S; and I do aot. appreh^nidi th« french- 
ones arc tnnch. Wronger. , . 

Machine for filctng turnip. 

* . . • 

An olj^e^^ however trifling \xi appear-* 
ance^ worth 3rx>f the^ fiockty's nMnce, and 
they have very judicioufly offered the'rr pre* 
mium of twenty pounds for the .belt cheap 

turnip Cabbage. 

The cekbrated author <tf tlie E^i a» 
Mi^ndry\ brought the feeds of this piant 
from Carniaky in the year 1749, and wa3 
the firft who applied it to hufb^ndry ufes; 
The iflgenious Mr. Baker lately made fom« 
experiments on it, which prove it to be a 
moft valuable acquifirtion to 4he farmer; 
for the depen4ance on a crop of turnips 
late in the fpring is io very i-ivfecure, that 
fome fuccedaneum was^ highly neceflary^ 
And, in refpeft of this plant, I cannot fee 
why a farmer Ihould not venture on plant- 
ing a large quantity • for fuppofe he fum^ 

Q^ 4 Kier 

[ 232 ] 

nier*fallow8 bis land for barley, he may as 
well plough his foil into five-feet ridges-— 
arched up as yard ones— they will, if 
properly raifed in the middle, lie as dry in 
the winter as the others : and then there 
is only the expence of the feed and tranf-* 
planting, which may be performed for 
half a crown an acre. This is an induce* 
ment for aiming at the largeft quantity ; 
a different cafe from many of the preced-- 
ing articles, 


This is an article of culture not very 
promifing, but the Society endeavour to 
promote it by a premium ; I do not, how- 
ever, apprehend this plant will eVer prove 
more advantageous than the common me* 
thod of fowing cole worts, or colefeed, as it 
is called, for the food of fheep : however, 
this is ventured on conjecture. 

Having thus ventured a few remarks on 
the articles of Engltfh hufbandry, which 
the Society have thought worthy of en- 
couragement, I fhall proceed to hazard a 
few conjectures on the probable advance 


[ ^33 ] 
,of agriculture, from fome points of en* 
couragement it has not yet met with. 

It muft undoubtedly be ov/ned, that the 
Society's premiums are well directed ; and 
although they are not, in every in(lance» 
of that force one could wifh, yet the effe£ib 
they muft be attended with, cannot but 
extend the culture of thofe vegetables 
they patronize, and caft a light on the 
methods of culture. But experience 
teaches us, that thefe noble encourage- 
ments, are infu£Bcient fully to determine 
the real merit of any one vegetable, or 
any one method of' culture. The report 
of Mr. Baker to the Dublin-Societyy gives 
us a (ketch of a mod effectual manner of 
difcovering the truth in matters of agri- 
culture. The being at the expence of the 
experiments made to afcertain it. 

Thus, for inftance, fuppofe the Society, 
not fatisfied with the effeSi of their pre- 
miums, on any particular articles, fliould 
make themfelves acquainted with fcveral 
pradical intelligent farmers in different 
parts of the kingdom, whom they could 
depend upon as to accuracy ; they depute 
a perfon to view fuch an occupier's farm ; 
and after becoming acquainted with the 


[ «34 ] 
preceding culture of his fields^ tbelr eropa^ 
the loil, &r. &c. fix on oaie or two, as they 
inight determine, ' to be cultivated for a 
term of years, under their directions, and 
at their expence, i^i cafe the tenar^t does 
not agree to take the crops for his charges ; 
or in any manner that would infure the 
farmer from lofmg by the experiment: 
many there are who would be contented 
with a certainty of their common mean- 
profit ; and if any furplus arofe, it would 
be at the Society's difpofal to reward the 
cultivator with, in pioportion to the ex* 
-nftnefs- of his obedieioce to their direc- 

By entering into fuch a train, the So- 
ciety wou^d loon meet with men of inte- 
grity and zeal, for 'the well-being of 
hufbandry, who would promote their aims 
to the utmoft of their power. Experi- 
inenta would tend to the d%n€t point of 
information, which they waiit to acquire 
!— r-none would be languidly purfued for 
want of money to carry themon-— th^y 
might be made on. a large fcale— ^and, in 
one word, they would be profecuted with 
. fpkit, when the cultivator knew a certain* 
ty of being re^irpburfed his expences. 


[ H5 1 

It would be difficult for fuch farmer? 
(in cafe fome were not fo ftri^tly honeft as 
they ought) to defraud their employers ; 
the prices of aU country work^. in any 
part of the kipgdopi, may. he ^ known ptc^ 
fe6tly on the fppt, in a few day$ time; 
and the Society might liipait the exp?nce oji 
evf ry ariiple^i according to their own ideas. 
But it is a needJefs caution to fMppofe, tha^^ 
doubtful people would be fo employed} 
lince there |i>ay certainly be found many 
far mers— rgentlenien farmersi — qkvgymep, 
on theii: glebes,^ &c. ^f. who wouli^ moft 
readily undertake fuch commiflions, if fa^ 
tisfied for the lofs of their common crops, 
9 — The Dublin-Society feems to put great 
truft in Mr. Bakety and rely on him for a 
fatisfajftpsry account of the expending' ^oii- 
fideraWe fums in hufbandryrexperioients, 
the pl^ppjing of which they appear to 
leave to himfelf in a gpod meafure. But 
this conduct ipight nf* iu g;eneral' be fo 
advifeablqj a few experiments are to be 
minuted in an infta^it, which are highly 
iujportant, but the expence too great for a 
probability of their beings executed by prir 
rate people, 


C 236 ] 



Dig an acre of land in three different 
places, on three different foils (very light 
— rich— and very heavy) three feet deep ; 
plant them with madder — and keep them 
perfedlly clean from weeds, and the foil in 
a loofe crumbly ftate by every method 
Inown. In three years dig up the plants 
to the former depth, and with that care as 
to leave no roots. — This experiment could 
not be executed under fifty pounds an 


On feveral different foils let the follow- 
ing trial be made. The heavy wet land is 
the moft ufual for wheat, I fhall therefore 
fpeak paiticularly of that. Give a com- 
plete fummer-f allow to twenty acres of 
land — divide the piece into two fields of 
ten acres each : fpare no cofl in having a 
woji ferfeB fence round each. Let one 
field be for the common hufbandry; viz. 
I. Wheat. 2. Turnips, if the land will 
admit them i if not, a fallow. 3. Barley. 


[ 237 ] 

4. Clover, 5, Wheat again, arid fo forth 
as before 3 and if the clover fliould fail any . 
year, fow beans broad- caft, to be hand**, 
hoed three times. Manure for turnips, 
if fown 5 and if not, the clover the autumn 
after the barley is off. Let the other field^ 
be fown every year with wheat, by the, 
drill-plough for horfe-hoeing. Let a 
thraftiing-floor be laifed in the jfield, with, 
two floors covered for tjvo flacks ; by 
which means no miflakes could ever be 
made, as in a barn filled from a variety 
of fields, which is likely enough in the 
common courfe of bufinefs. Let this cx-r 
periment laft three courfes or twelve 


Give a complete fallow to a piece of 
land of fifteen acres : divide it into three 
fields of five each : let one be planted with 
lucerne from a nurfery, according^ to Mr. 
Jfor/^'^ direaions. Let the next be drilled 

and the other fown broad-caft by Mr. 

Rocque's inflruaions. . Let three fmall 
pieces of land adjoining, of half an acre 
each, be paled in, and racks ereded. in 


r ^38 1 

them for the fatting of heiFert, oxett, ^Ci. 
and the produce of each five acres given 
precifely^ after Weighing (flight engines 
necefiary for that pufpofe might cafily h€ 
raifed) to refpeftive cattle in eilch of the 
three divifions. Let exa6l: accounts be! 
kept for ten yearb^ Such an expAerimenf 
Would reduce tht matter to a ceitainty oil 
any one foil at a time* 


f^allow a piece of thirty-live acres tonl- 
f Ictely } divide it into fidds W^ll fenced-in : 
throi^ each into courfes of htifbandry as 
follows : 

No. I. Cultivated according to Mn 

RandalFs direftions in the Semh-Vif- 

gilian courfe of hulbandry. 
No. 2. The common hulbandry, com- 
t monly managed. 
No* 3. Ditto, completely cultivated ac-* 

carding to direftions of the Society, 
1^0. 4. Ditto, a crop of wheat, and A 

fallow, without any intervening 

No* 5, Drilled every year. with wheat. 


i 2^9 1 

No. 6. Ditto, and manured according 

to direSions. 
No* 7. Tf anfplanted lucerne. 

This experimeot (houM be, continued 
twelve yeart» 


Let two farms, each bf 100 acres ; 6a 
of arable and 40 of grafs^ both fituated 
on the fame foads, iriA dn the fame fbite, 
be placed uhder the matiagtrn^nt of two re*- 
fjfcdtive bailiffs, each to. edndu(5b the bufi^ 
nefs of his farm accorfihg to the common 
methods of the country, rxtept one bein^. 

, -cultivated entirely wi(b oxert, (no hoffes 
faffered to be Oft if) atid the other with 
horfes, of eaeh the fame nuttibei'. Let 
them be ftbcked accordingly, and eaeft 
^bailiff direSed to ke#p a proper Journal lif 
all his bufiiiefs, particularly the woA attd 

^ expences of his team.— —Such an expeii- 
ment might not fet the matter beyoht! afl 
doubt, but it would certainly be produc- 
tive of a more determinate knowledge of 
the point, than any man poflefles at pre-' 


[ 240, J 


Let two fmall farms, each of 20 acres 
of arable land, and i o of grafs, be man-* 
aged in the fame manner 5 one with a pair 
of horfes, the other with a yoke of oxen. 


Let two fquares be cut out of an uncul- 
tivated heath or plain, each of 500 acres^ 
and well inclofed; one in a fingle field, 
the other divided into ten. Let the firft 
be kept for a fheep-walk entirely, but hay 
or turnips purchased for winter-food; and , 
the other converted into an arable farm, 
always condu£ted in the following courfe : 
100 acres of turnips, 100 of barley, and 
300 of clover and ray-grafs. An accurate 
journal of the bufinefs of each farm, will 
prove to what degree it is beneficial to 
break up (heep«walks. 




I 24» 1 



Porm An exptripoental farm, tonfifting 
of tbrof^ jparts : 


J.— 'Ten acres of natural grafs to bC; 
applied entirely to the fatting of 
cattle^ bought in the fpring ^nd 

ibid in 9utun>n« 

, ' ■ • 

2.—- Ten a»e« > fivtf of tranfphrneA ^ 

lucerne, and five conftantly of tur- 
jiips, drilled and horfe-hoed. Lean 
cattle to be purchafed at MichaeU 

> m^%^ to be ke^t oib the t^^lps un- 
til the lucerne is r^ady, and then 
fatted onit. 

3. — ^Ten acres cojfiv^ed in a courfe • 
of crops, asr in the common hu(^ 

compare the thrcTS accoants; 




Im an unce^ivsted:, sn^ e^ee^ingfy 
llghc' ^iying fend, fit t(> stake mortal 

R with. 

[ H^ ] 

with, inclofe four adjoining fields, each 
of five acres, and plant the hedges thick 
with Scotch firs : Build a cottage in the 
ccnter'and a little bam, and fixing a. la- 
bourer in if, direft the crops of the four ^ 
fields to be as follows, i. Carrots. 2. 
Buck^whcat. 3. Burnet, fown with the 
buck-wheat, 40 M. per acre ; continue it 
until the furface of the four fields is 
cloathed with a thick crop of burndt, and ' 
then iOrock them with inilcb<attk« 


. In various foils, build cottages, ahd 
throw to each a certain quantity of land ; 
from one acre to five, to be kept pcrfeftly 
cultivated by the fpade and rake, in the 
following courfe of crops : i. Potatoes. 
2. Wheat. 3.* Carrots. 4. Wheat. 5. 
Peafe and beans. 6. Wheat. Keep an 
exa6t regifter, and give premiums to tko 
cultivators of the beft crops. Let theip be . 
confumed by the people on the fpot, and 
minute exadly the number maintained and 
how long. 

A few experiments of this kind would 
difcover how far population could be car- ; 


t-ied by," a minute eultivatxoh of th^ 

Sbmfe of thefe experiments, it is truf, 
could not be profecutea eflfeSuallyi with* 
out a corifiderabie expence y but a multi- 
tude of noblemen and gentry, in this 
kingdom, poflefs lirge trafts of unculti^ 
vated land, which offer perpetual pppqr^ 
tunities of forming fuch experimental 
farms at d moderate expence,. and wafte 
land cbUld never Be applied to fiich ufes 
without cohliderable returns;; probably 
With nd inconfiderabie pi:oJit. And thofe 

, who have public fpirit enoughiK to execute 
any tKirig of the like nature of thefc ex- 
perimeiitfe, will earn that fame their con-* 
du(Sl fo greatly entitles them to. I could 
fketch out a multitude of other experi* 
inents ; but my ideas are fufficiently ex- 
J)lained by thefe.-^ — Any others might be 
executed on whatever objects the Society 
thought proper to recommend- I ara 
Well perfuaded, that iii^a dozen years a 
complete knowledge might be gained in 
any point in hufbahdry at prefent un- 

* known, and that in i much more certain 
and fatisfaftory manner than any private 
experiments can ever juftify, unlefs un- 

R 2 dertaketi 

f Hi ] ' 

dcrtaken and executed by a g^ntlfnaaf^ qf 
large fortune, and liberal difpofitio^; for 
making experiments in ^gncu|tur?, on a 
'large fcale, and n^anaged in ^ pQimtlfftp 
manner^ is a bufinefs of a grc^^ ^XDeoj;e^ 
and endlefe attention. 

^ But there is one g^ner^ gircumft^jijff 
wlativd to all e)q>eriments, witlp^Qi^^ whic^ 
•tliey are of Httie yalue ; an4 thi^t is, Tp^^eir 
^Publication, This is univerfayy the c^£p 
^wth' all experiments, but pajticu^arly tf 
wrth the experknent^l tr^nja^tioos of ^ 
Society.- Premium^ un^pubtedljf jir© o^ 
great benefit, when p^o^ijly be^ovjr?^^ 
1>ut 1 may venture to fay t(iay ^e 591 ^^ 
tended with "a tenjth part of th w ^oif 
tflfefts, unlefs the i;efults of tbem 4rs 
publifhed. Thify arje, in ^cneral^ b€i^,\jw4 
by the Society^of' Arts^ for the b?ft e^tjporU 
ments on cei;t5in vegetables ^ cppj^(|\j€»jtW 
whoever gain thcrn^ a,re fupppfed tjo ^e 
the authors oi fatisfaSlorj ajccoupt^' of u;a-t 
portant exper/irhents ; ^ch flfeoqlcj t^, re,f 
gularfy pdbhfljed, that all the vjof\(X ma^y iiqq 
to what the Society gives if s f^n^ion^ ^4 
- he able to foljow exarnp][es^ which b^va 
been found IbccefsfuL 

■ 8 Al?out 

ABbiit a twelwmontli ago (but I fpeak 
from membryl I hw iiji tKe ijews-papers a 
lift of irfedalfi cbnteftcd on mndry gen.tle-t 
men, /or experiments iri agriculture: I 
wiftiedi to fee tfie particulars,^ that they 
might be a guide to myfelf and friends, and 
made inquiries after them, b«t found all 
the publication they had undergone was a 
flight mention in the papers of the. day. 

It is certain tfeat a great variety of e;cpe- 
riments have been laid before the Society, 
as well as hunierous machirresolT all kinds: 
if IS ftrangely unhappy, indeed, if" none of 
thefe are wortKy of the public notice f 
However, while The Transactioks of 
THE SociExy remain unpubHihpd, I am : 
lorry to fay, there refults but little general 
beneflf from tbeir efforts iri favour of agri^ 
fulture. Five hundred pounds a year for 
madder, (a& an ihftance) is a truly muni- 
ficent premium y but I will venture to 
affert that f^veral authentic relations of the 
foil, culture, expences, and profit of fun- 
dry acres of that vegetable, would, if 
publifbed with the addition of the perfons 
names and places of abode, perform grea- 
ter things than twice five hundred pounds, 
-provided the culture be profitable. 

R 3 -I ven- 

t 246 3 • 

f venture theft remarks, the rather be* 
cs^uk a great genius in rural oecono-r 
niics, of the prefeht age, fpeaking of the 
Sbcicty of T!ufcany^ fa^s, ^^'that it has its 
merits provided the tranfa$iom , of it were 
f>ublijhed periodically*. ' \ . 

i L 

Before I finifh this letter, I muH: make 
a few obfervations on the endlefs number 
of volqmes, which have been, and are per- 
petually publifhing on agriculture. The 
publication of experiments really made^ 
faithfully relied, ,and XufBci^ritly authen* 
ticated, by the addition of the ' perfon's 
name and place of abode, is of great and 
important confequcnceto the publick good. 
But on the contrary, the very revprfe is the 
cafe of thefe books, which are publiftied 
under the title of Genera ll'reatifes — Syfiems^ 
DiBionarieSy &c. &c. &c. comprehending 
mpre foils, articles of culture, &c. than 
any one man can experimentally have a 
knowledge of; con lifting of the moft he- 
terogeneous parts, purloined out of former 

* Harte*i EJfayi on Hujbandry. Eflay i. p, 1 58. 


r H7] 

books on the fame fubjefts, without a 
common knowledge to difcover the good 
from the bad *• 

To caft a fuperficial eye over Mr. Mi/Is s 
Syftem of Husbandry, What a multitude 
of, praQiices are recommended, of which 
the compiler is totally ignorant! They 
may, or may not, be advantageous, for 
what- he experimentally knows but alL 

♦ La muhiplicite des ecoles, rambition d'etre admis 
daDS ces academies, ou d*y ^tre couronne, font naitre 
une infiotted'ecr Wains qui foot enieves a Tagriculture, 
aux arcs utiles & au commerce; car en Frame on au- 
teur ne fait qu'ecrire, 8c s'interdic abfolument toute 
profeffion utile, Les Au tears font une efpece de 
Nobles, cu de gens vivaiit noblement de la glt^ire de 
kurs Duvrages & de la prote6lioQ des gens riches. 
Plufieurs d'entre tous ces ecrivains cependant, euffenc 
peut'Ctre miffiX laboure la terre^ mUu:t fibriqui dn 
papier qu'ils ne font des livrcs, & furemcnt euflTent ete 
plus utiles a Tetat. Riw. fur les Avantages &f fur les 
Defav. de la France, &c. p. 50. A l*cgard delacuN 
tare des terres, nous fommes riches en livres anciens 
et modernes qui traitent de cette fcience : mais ce 
font des richeffes dont nous ne pouvons jouir, foit par 
le degout qu'emporte avec lui un amas confus decmmif- 
fances fatis mihode^ dexiinences jam phihfophie^ derate 
fonnemens fans praSiique ; foit parceque fes livres con- 
tiennent une infitiite tt^rreurs rcpetees fucceffwemint^ 
que les yeux feuls de Texperience peuvent dlAinguer de 
la verite.— - — lb page 1^5 Q^XKt agriculture de ca- 
binet eft tres-bonne pour amafer le loifir de ceux qai 
n'ont pas un revenu a tirer de la terre oa qui ne la 
connoiflent pas. Princ, et Obferv, oe€ono. V, !• p. Z20. 

R 4 con^ts 

[ M ] 

ctvMs alike-^the fame authority ptAnti 
the whole* The oM huibandry is univer«> 

fally run down becaufe it is the old----> 

not becaufe thtnn^ is' better. Thus it is 
advifed to tranfplant turnipe--^to fow cai • 
rots and parfnips in drillsj nay, even 
parflcy — and, ftrangwr ffill, clover} And 
i/vhat is ftill n>ore capital thm all the reft 
.*— quotes from an abfurd author ♦, (ay if 
to recommend the thing) a piece of advice 
to buy three hundred fows, to be fed afler 
they pig on boiled turnips^ and tbeotheyf 
and their pigs are to be turned into clover 
while the pigs are fucking. It would make 
the reader naufeate thefe papers, if I was 
to give the ftufF at length. The vileft 
hes^ of abfurdity that ever difgraced eom** 
men fenfe ! People who arc eager in their 
husbandry^ iread fuch books. ^ and as thefe 
ridiculous praftices come recom^mended to 
thjem by thofe who ought to know better, 
they aie tempted' to try thero^ They do 
fo-~and of courfe fail, to their no inconfi^ 
derable lofs: lience a difgufl is taken at 
the very idea of experiments or ^^/i-i&^^«- 
dry i the door is fhut againft beneficial 

• Jarort Hill rfie Poct. 

trials ; 


[ ^49 ] 

trials } snd a whole ndghbourhood of 
farrners clap tbeir hands^ with pleafure at- 
the, gentkmm's difappoiimmcnt, dctennin- 
iiig never to be nulled fay books isto any 
ni^ mcks, which only tend to impovdrifh 
tbem. Btich are the confequences of gw^ 
ing attention to coliediotis of agriciifture : 
which, without hefitation^ I proponnee 
to be the moft pernicious books that are 
publi(hed — which tend tp the utter extir- 
pation of - alf ufef ul experiment-making, 
and brlifg as odtum on every thing new in 

I hdve conterfed on the fubjeft with fe- 
veral gentlemen: and comtiion farmers, re«* 
contmendiitg to them fome trials which I 
thought of. con&quence: they generally 
anfwered rtit with fome fhrewdnefs-— 
" What f try experiments of this and that 
«^ and t'other?"—*' Aye; why nert ? See 
here, don't ypu find how greatfy it an- 
fwered to this perfon ?" " To that per- 

fon! 'Very gcrcd Try experiments be- 

caufe y. G. H^. 0. and Pi R. tdl me 

*• they'll anfwer No, fir— I leave ex- 

" perimenting to you— — -I'll have none 
«' oa'C 



[^50 ] 

It has been faid feveral times, and .with 
very great juftnefs, that what we want is 
a Book of Experiments^. If any pia^lical 
intelligent hufbandman, who occupied a 
middling fized farm, would only keep an 
exa6l regider of all his bulinefs-^fuch a 
coUe^iqn would form, as far as it extend- 
edi a complete fet of experiments -f-. Let 


♦See the EJfays en Hufiandry^ and The Inquiry 
ihade after a Series of Experiments in Agriculture for 
75 years ) made about the time of the Reftoration. 

+ 1 cannot open the EJfayt on Hufbandry without 
ineeting with paflages in every page of a (lamp pecu* 
liar to the author, who every wheve tbmkifir biwfelf^' 
and that with fuch uncommon penetration, that his 
volume, were it printed in a fmali fjze, would be the 
pockei'hook of every curious cultivator. There is a 
juftnefs of ideas, a (Irength of expreflion, and a liveli* 
nefs of remarks in the following pafTage that are adml'> 
rable. <* Notwithftanding I look with pleafure upon 
georgtcal writings, compofed by fcholars, blefled with 
£ne parts and lively imaginations ; yet, at the fame 
time, I t^ke not the lead offence at certain inac«- 
curacies^ in ftile and phyfical knowledge, when I pe- 
rufe the hMfbandry-wricings of downright yeomen 
and farmers; whiHt at ihe fame time more fafVidious 
critics may fpare themfclves the pains of giving vent to 
their remarks, merely becaufe thefe plain fenfibie au^* 
thors may never h^ve heard who a critic is, nor would 

they regard him if they heard his remarks. The 

EMIIEIEIA & ATTO^IA * of DioJcorid4s araan irre- 

* Experlencs and ocular obienration. 


t 251 ] 


lis look over Mr. Randah Semi VirgiUan 
Ilujbandry^ and Mr. hifies Qbfervatiom on 
IJuJbandryy and it becomes apparent at 
once, what a vaft difference there is be- 
tween regiftcring experiments, and publiih^ 
ing books pf agriculture, in confequence 
of having made experiments —They have 
certainly infinitely more merit than trea^ 
tifcs written by people unpraftifed. in the 
bufineis— — but confift only of the inferior 
part of experiments 5 that is, the remarks 
and conclufions : fo that we have only the 
author's refleflions, inftead of that autho* 
rity which enabled him to refleft; and 
from which we might draw very different 
conclufions. — Hence arifes the difference 
I mentioned : tAe experiment is truth itfelf 
^ — the author's conclufions^ matter of opi- 
pion, which we may either agree to, or. 
reje6^, according to our private notions. 

fragable aofwer to thefe holiday- obfervers. Such a 

plain pradical author as Gahrid Plattes pays his little 
contiogeat to the republic o£ knowledge, with a bit 
of uoOamped real bullion, whilft the vain-glorious 
inao of fcience throws down an heap of glitteiing coun- 
ters, which are gold to the eye, but lead to the touch*? 
ijope," Ejffiy I • p. 194. 


r ^52 1 

Tltc tw6 books, I flfwhtiohed ttihfilk of i 
grett nafitiber of rfcmai-ks tralff rhade oh 
husbsndry--^-^Ajjd Mi\ RanddPs, dra^n ifi- 
ta very Jortg toftf tiftittns, oA fome prodii 
gk)ufly expenfive praftkes. A rdktioh of 
fiicfa, having anrvi^ei-ed m f^ir experihient^^ 
wadd fatisfy the reader^^but mere affur- 
anc(£s and g<n^ral reinarks are of no ad- 
tborky. And I may p&fhapj be allovf^ed td 
add that chemical iriquirks witi pfove df 
but little ufe 1 and that titdtbetnaiical caU 
culations are mef e trifling. But in refpiffi 
to good husbandry-^writlngs the Ehglijh 
language contains few tliat Art of great 
note : amidft the imrhenft hufobcr of pub- 
lications in general, on all arts and fcien- 
tes, and even of great cha^a6!ir and repu- 
tation, it is furprizing fo few fhoufd have 
gained a moderate degree of fa the by wofki 
en husbandry. The rertiark vfrhich Af. 
Je Boulainvi liters makes on this fubje£l in 
France^ is equally applicable to England. 
*' It is prodigious to fee the difcoverie^ 
which have been made in our days in cer- 
tain ufelefs fciences, or at leaft unnecef- 
fary ones to focicty; while th6fe, upon 
which population, riches, and confequent- 

f ?S3 X 
ly the power of a ftate depend, have 
been' negle^e^ by Ttjcl} a nifml^r of au- 
thors, who have written upon other mat- 
ters rwHjr f^ivolqus*." 

• ^et Intiriis it la Franft mal niendui. Vol. i. 

^»o• ■ 

• • • • 

1 * 


L E t t E R Vli. 

I Shall hot enter into a f^ull inquiry o/ 
the great confequence timber is of to a 
iharitime nation; that is a point fo clear 
and undifputed as to need no elucidation i 
I (hall only fpeak of it as it naturally forms 
an important object in rural oeconomics* 
There are vaft tradls of land in this 
kingdom, which would anfwer better in 
plantations of trees, proper for the foil, 
than cultivated to the purpofes of agricul-^ 
ture. The real intereft of the tountry re- 
quires that none but the worft lands be 
covered with wood, inftead of which we 
every day fee fome of the beft land of a 
farm taken up with coppices and timben 
But of all foils, none are fo well adapted 
for the produ6lion of underwood as thofe 
extreme wet ones that will not anfwer 
draining and cultivation. Aquatics thrive 
on fuch to very great profit. 

The great and important objeft is tim-^ 
ber-oaki this will never be planted in 
large quantities but by men of confidera- 
ble landed property ^ for there is no tranf- 


[ 255 ] 
planting oaks into any corner, or in hedge^* 
rows or in avenues, as is pradifed with 
other trees that have no tap-rootis. The 
only efFedaal way of propagating them is 
to few a whole field at once with acorns, 
and keep it perfedlly well fenced in and 
weeded : a fmall corner of a field, indeed, 
will do, if entirely fenced in; and tbefe' 
plantations on. a fmall fcalc, I wQridet* are 
not more common. Half an acre hefe 
and there, about a fmall eftate would not 
be felt I and if triangular corners are ta*\ 
ken, only one fence in three wpuW be to 
do new. But we rarely fee this public 
fpirit, which is no where more apparent 
than in the planters of oak; becaufe nobody^ 
can expe^to reap although they fow. 

But noblemen and gentry of lairge ef-: 
tates, cantaot do more public iervice to 
their own pofterity and their country, than 
by planting fuch trads of land as will riot^ 
anfwer fo well otherwife to cuItivate^J and' 
if profit is all their attention, there are 
many fpecies of timber and. coppice- wbod 
which vvould pay noWy for the expence 
of planting. Think of the vaft quantity 
of land which is occupied by warrens and; 
moors, . which does not even contribute to 



I 256 ] 

feed fl)(9p ; there are none but what will 
(vippQrt a niMx^er o£ ufeful treost &c. that 
might be turned to fome profit in twenty 
years^ md yield annual cuttings. 

It cannot juitly be faid that it is a I0& to 
pAaat coppices inftead of timber^rees : 
fy[(\i becavUe they will thrive in many places 
whkh will not da for timber ; mid fecond^^ 
ly> any plantations, which, by yielding 
^fm%j iave timber trees from that deflrac* 
i»vo and abominabk practice of catting 
tbcyr beads off to tmtL them into poUards, 
and of ftripping thisir boughs oC to cym« 
vere them intft niayrf)olea9 by pcafenring 
whAl aii^ady h ^biber> ]$» ia fa£t^ the 
f^OK aa pUfitixig ilu , 

Thrift df ftru&im. pia^ticea of rutning 
yOHQg tnrasr arcr owing tO) riie tenants of 
«ftat^ bfang afiotwed all the croppings of 
pollard onta fior firing^rf-^Tbere is. nothii:^ 
to bei impeached iik fych a camnamer whea 
IJM landlord, or his lleward^ keeps a regu- 
lar account dF every tree on a whole eftatev 
and fees flxiSly that nothing isi converted 
isxto new pollards : for without a conftaoott 
waAQh, many tenants cut: off the^ heads, of 
young timher^trees, to add ta the number 
of tkK& vfhok tops beioc^ ta then. This: 




f 25; 1 

\s a general pra6lice when landlords Iivd 
at a diftance, and feldom vifit their farms J 
and whoever will take the trouble to view 
young pollards in fuch farms, w^ll gene* 
rally find them to have been timber-trees^ 
which difcpvered no figris of fuch defer- 
ftiity as to render it advifeable to cut* their 
heads off. 

If there are atiy fignS of the pollafds oil 
ail eftate decreafing, fo as to render firing 
too fcarce, and the landlord is unwilling 
to advance fomething to his tenants for 
toals, it is infinitely the beft way to plant 
a field with underwood, large enough to 
yield a cutting every year, ififtead of let-* 
ting the young timber be ruined to fupply 
the want. And it is to be remembered, 
that moft farmers have a great averfion to 
all timber trees that (hade any of their ara- 
ble land } not without reafon indeed ; for 
where a farm is fo badly managed, as not 
to have a proper border of grafs round 
every field, the trees which fland in the 
hedges neceffarily drip on the ploughed 
ground, and kill whatever crop is fown 
under them : for this reafon, in all farms 
that are judicioufly difpofed, broad bor- 
ders are every where preferved 5 for grafs 

S is 


[ «58 I 

13 fitrfc the worfe for trees, unlefs quite 
covered with them ; and there are a thou- 
fand conveniences, befides their beauty, m 
thefe borders of fields being conilantly m 

The only proper plaees for icattercd 
timber- trees, are, either in the hedges 
rows of a farm, or fpcead thinly about the; 
paftures. There are Ibme obj^£lions ta 

the former unlefs the ditches are every 

Inhere exceedingly good and deep ones^ 
trees in the hedges are apt to make gaps ;. 
for jdle people and fportfmen have only ta 
clap their hand againft a tree fo fituatcdi. 
and they break through the hedge at once^ 
which they could not do without fuch a. 
lielp. This, however, is but little objec- 
tion when the ditches are kept in perfe^ 
repair. But if a man plants, an eftate 
himfelf, I fhould apprehend it much tl^ 
moft advantageous to let the trees be 
planted iy the bank of the ditch, but not 
in it ; for then nothing is fbaded but the. 
ditch and the borders, which is all the ad-, 
vantage attending their being in the hedge ^ 
— -or elfe fcattered in clumps about the 
grafs-fields— or in comers. I fpeak thi& 

5 ^ 

i>f thofe trees which are propagated by 
tranfplantatioh, or fetting fhoots^ 

The moft money which I have known 
inade by gentleinen of timber planted by 
tbemfelves, has been of the afli and the 
^plar t the latter in general is the quiqk- 
e;ft grower 5 but when the former likes tl^ 
foil, it thrives nearly eqiial vvith the other/ 
and in thirty, thirty-five, or forty years, 
either of them will grow to the vake Qf 
three pounds, and fomedmes more. The 
afh, indeed, i^^ofpers better when the 
keys have been fi>wn where they are to 
i^pxain, than tranfplanted- — ^but the poph 
lar is the eafiefl propagated ^f any ; for if 
ieveral vigonous growing poHards ari kept, 
they will yield etrery eight or teft years 
4bropplngs of fofiicient length and flze for 
l^lanting ;; which is done with no othei: 
trouble than digging a fftitall hole two feet 
deep, and with an iron crow dibbling 
.another at the bottom of that, in which 
the end of the ihoot is plated, ram in the 
naouid and the bufinefs ^ dpne : with this 
advantage, that they require no fencing— 
for the trtuik. will be large enough to de- 
fend itfclf againft all cattle. I have plant'- 

S 2 cd 

, [ 2^0 ] 

eid many in this manner that have thriven 
perfeftly welL 

The ungenerous proceeding, which will 
in future times be fcverely felt, is the fell- 
ing noble timber-trees, without planting 
or fowing any in their ftead. If gentle- 
men of fmall eftates, as well, as thofe of 
large ones, cut down ti^ees, they ought 
ever to plant fome others j two for one 

furely ! A fmall felling will amount to 

twenty or thirty pounds — a fliilling in the 
'pound would fence off a comer of a field, 
and fow it with acorns. Such a conduft 
has nothing of difficulty or expence in it ; 
it ornaments an eftate— and lays the 
foundation of future wedlth for one's fuc- 
ceflbrs. It is much the fafhion at prefent 
to plant; but it is not general to iow 
lands with ac<5rns, for they will not (htm 
themfelves to advantage foon enough :. 
pines, firs, limes, chefnuts, S?r, &c. are more 
ufed^ hecaufe they make a figure fpeedrly ; 
M'hereas The oak takes a longer time to ex- 
hibit himfelf *• But it (hould be confider* 

* Let Intents dt la France mat enttndut. Vol. i. 
P- 45- 

8 ed. 

[ 26l ] 

ed, that when a plantation of young oaks 
is thinned, and the rubbifh grubbed up 
and cleared, nothing is fo beautiful as the 
fine ftraight trees left at a proper diftance ; 
and in refpeft of growth, in land tolerably 
ftifF, I have feen them twenty feet high, 
and beautifully ftraight, at the age of fif- 
teen years. There iS' no approach to a 
great houfe a quarter fo magnificent as 
plantations of noble oaks ^.breaking up- 
on the fpeftator at every point of view, 
A man cannot have the fatisfadlion of be- 
holding the full efFeft of his labour — -but 
the idea of perfection, which muft attehd 
it, is greatly flattering. Such, plantations 
live after the nobleft buildings are in ruin, 
and forgotten. 

The Society's attention to this national 
obje6l, as it moves the vanity of mankind 
in favour of the public good, is juftly con- 
ceived, and very properly executed : nor 
is there any reafon to doubt of its having 
an exceedingly good efFeft. Such nume* 
rous complaints of the decay of oak-tim- 
ber, in moft parts of the kingdom, pro- 
bably induced that munificent fet of 
patriots to extend their premiums to this 
•bjeft. And if half the complaints that 

S 3 aro 

[ 26z 1 

^re made are true, it is but a melancholy 
^fFair : the more melancholy, when w? 
confider how eafily private people might 
have prevented it, had they planted even a 
few trees, when they cut down a great 

If the reader turns to Mr. Harfes ex- 
cellent EJays on Hujbandryy he will find 
many exceedingly judicious hints on this 
fubjeft, with fome very fenfible obfei^va- 
tions on feveral trees not yet commonly cul- 
tivated ; much more to the piirpofe than 
any thin^ I can add to this defultory fketch^ 

t «63 J 

• * • K 

THROUGHOUTT the foregoing pam- 
pers I have, in every refped, con- 
fidercd the fubjefts of which I have treatr 
ed, particularly in regard to population^ 
and the value tx) the flate, of the people 
inaintained by ieveral profdiHons and bufi* 
;^eile8. I have been die more attentive to 
thde points, ^as the flrength and welfarp 
pi a kingdom depend fo much upon them z 
and as the chief Support of a nation ever 

lies in the lower ranks of its people ^I 

might poflibly have laid in its poor-^it 
;wiU not be foreign to my general defigi^ 
to inquire into the ilate of this chief pillaj: 
of the kingdom^ and the laws which arie 
at prefent in being for their prote6tion and 

Population, taken in a general lights 
depends chiefly on the poor inhabitants tf 
ihe icmntry. Thofe of great cities, it is well 
known, are by no means fo prolific 
arid the debauched, unhealthy lives that 
are generally led in them, are terrible 
ifeourges to the human fpecie^ 

S4 ^ ^s 

i 264 ] 


As the country is therefore the fccne of 
thofe living riches which give {lability 
and glory to the State, let us inquire how 
well our laws contribute to the increafe 
and fecurity of fuch wealth. If we caft 
our eyes over the feveral nations of Europe, 
as well proteftant as roman- catholic, and 
copnpare them with our own, we fliall find 
that nowhere has there for many ages, 
been fuch conftant attention to this objedi: 
as in England indeed, in many king- 
doms the legiflature has not interfered in 
the matter, but left the whole affair to 
chance, and the common concurrence of 
accidental gaufes. 

In this country, on the contrary, fuc- 
ceffive laws have laid on the whole 
kingdom, a mofl: prodigious tax for the 
maintenance of our poor : in the mean 
amount of it for a tei'm of years, far 
beyond what is commonly fuppofed : in 
multitudes of parifties exceedmg greatly 
the land-tax at four fhiilings in the 
pound * 5 and, if we confider the ungra- 

* M. D'^ngueilhys it amounts to 3,500,000/, jfyant. 
0t De///vant. p. 308. Mr. Hanway makes it but 
1,300,000 /. but^hat in a low calculation. Litters on 
Jrnp V. 2. p. 84. Mr. AUock^ in bis judicious Ohftrvor 
iim 9n thedefMs^ iiQ, afltrts it is 3,000,000 A 


cious manner in which this heavy bur- 
then is raifed, the endlefs and heavy law- 
fuits it gives rife to, we may fairly pro- 
nounce it to, be the moft oppreffive 
grievance under which the fubjeft in Eng* 
land groans. 

The land-tax at 4 j*. in the pound is 
deemed a heavy tax, and in many parts 
of England heavy it is j yet do fome of 
the pooreft towns and places, bear a much 
greater, by their church and poor raites^ 
The land-tax is limited, it is raifed quar- 
terly, it is paid all into one oflBice, the 
exchequer 5 there it is accounted for ; and 
the accounts are fubjeft to the examina- 
tion and infpeflion of parliament. The 
people who pay, may not indeed fo much 
regard what becomes of the monies they 
pay ; but it moft nearly concerns them^ 
that, they be made to pay as little as pofli- 
ble ; and more than 4 s. in the pound they 
never yet have paid. The land-tax is laid 
on the profits : and incomes of lands and 
eftates ; it falls on the owners thereof, . 
and is applied for the defence and fecurity 
of that property, on which it is laid; nor 
can it be raifed without. the confent of 


f 166 ] 

King, Lords, and Commons: But by 
43 d Eliz. overfeers are impowejed to mak^ 
rftKi for what fums they themfelves think jit 
without any limitation whatever. And is 
fiotihe property of a whole pariik too corifi- 
derable to be lodged in the arbitrary wiH 
of five or fix parifh officers, who may con- 
trive to ihare the plunder of it ? Reafon«> 
able obje6iions to public accounts are 
generally made, to dire£t the oeconomy 
and good management of public monies^ 
and to avoid unneceflfary expences on our- 
felves and our pofterity, by heavy debts 
fitid taxes) and would it 2iot be right to 
keiep parifh-officers to oeconotny and' good 
management, and to prevent thejr laviflii. 
ing and embezzling the monies* they raiic^ 
^nd^ving in falfe accounts for the fame? 
Or are they to learn the art of mifapplying 
money, and account-making, in order to 
quaflify themfelves foi' higher pofts of kna^ 
very ? The mifapplication of money raif- 
ed by rates, makes men think the money 
laifed by every other tax is alfo miiappliec^ 
and creates in thofe who are not able 
to • think abftra6ledly, a diffidence and 
bad opinion of power, from the IoweA, 
-^ even 


C 46; I 

jeven to the hi^heft daf? of ,§ovetnr 
pient *. 

The perpetual litigations, octalioWttl bf 
the raeqpatity— -the chicatiery a^ tJw 
^ifpates about the Poor's rates,- t^nicf 
them rnfrnhely burthenfome. The abfurd 
uncertainty of the las^^ in all that c^eiates to 
the levying this tax, gives occafion to the 
lawyers too often to play the hdt^. If 
there is any ftanding tax for the fflaJnte* 
nance .'6f the Poor, furely it ought to be 
afleffed iti the molt equal manner, by cer* 
tain and invariable rules— ^— and all appeals 
from the affeffment heard by ju^ge^ im* 
j)owefed to determine all caufes condBfive- 
Jy,. and with as' little expcnce as ptoffible^ 
The very contrary of ^ this is tht cafe t 
the law is vague, doubtful, and pefpkxei 
— the affeffment is unequally, and, in ge^ 
peral, ignorantly laid--— and all appeals 
jfrom it are, in other words, nothing but 
plunging into that dreadful abyfs the 


But to fpeak with lefs warmth, it is not in 
the power of even the law itfelf, asf it 
itands at prefent, to remedy the variirtyof 
jnjuftice which the parifh rates throw up- 


* Short VifW ofAbiifes^ &c, p. :>6. 


[ 268 1 

on numbers of people : Look into thofe of 
a parifli, which confifts partly of lands 
and partly of houfes, or large towns, and 
fee what iniquity abounds ; /or, to ufe the 
words of a fenfible pamphlet in this ca(e, 
«* the intercft of the land-holders and houf- 
holders ftands divided ; and this frequently 
occafions manifold difputes, in which the 
houfholders have always the advantage; 
for though their refpedive occupations are 
much the lefs in value, yet by a majority 
of votes they can always fecurc their own 
church- wardens 5 and juftices, even out of 
corporations, and free of all attachment, 
generally take the recommendation of thefe 
officers in their nomination of overfeers, 
for want of being better informed. Thus 
in the ftead of fubftantial houQioiilders, 
according to the real intention of the law, 
you have a continual fucceffion of mean 
people in office, whofe ftudy and intereft 
it is, to lay the burthens of their levies more 
particularly, upon the lands, altho* their 
own numerous occupations increafe the poor 
2o to one*." The law fuppofes perfonal ef- 

• Afliort View of the Frauds, Abufes, and Impofitions 
of Parifb Officers, by Mr. Fooaereau 410. 1744. 



r ^^9 1 . . 

tates in, or out of trade, or annual iil-*' 
comes to be rated, but what chicanery and 
inequality is at once mariifeft upon this. 
A gentleman poflefled of a landed eftate, 
muft in coiifequencc pay feveral parochial 
taxes ; for he is rated for the houfc or 
houfes he lives in in town and country, 
and his tenants are rated for his farms, 
which is precifcly the. fame thing as if he 
was to pay all iiiftead of them, for his 
rental is leflened iii exact proportion to 
their rates ; but yet he has an income of 
five hundred pounds a year, for inftance, 
and lives at a diftance from his eftate-r 
What injuftice would it be to rate him for 
this income? He would evidently pay 
twice ; neverthetefs he is open to this in- 
juftice ; for if a man has the income, no 
matter from whence it comes— it is rate- 
able ; but to ufe the expreffions of the 
abovementioned gentleman, *^ Why fliould 
not every man who is willing to pay his 
due proportion, know by fome certain rule 
what that proportion is, and what he is 
taxable for? An uncertain tax is the 
greateft grievance and oppreffion ; for you 
can never Tcnow where it will end. But 
be the nature of the thing, or the reafons 


f 270 ]' 

ivhat they will, that flocks of pqrfonati 
eflates cannot be rated $ yet that they ge- 
nerally are not, is reafon fufiiclent, that 
the occupations of the houfholders ought 
at leaft to be rated as high m proportion 
as the lands^ aod the farmers and land- 
holders not left to the open and manifeil 
oppreilioo of the houj(hoIders, as they are 
at prefent/' 

If a farmer occupies a farm of 100 /. a 
year, he is rated according to the real rent 
of his farm to the poor; aad he pays the 
tythes of the produce of his lands and lar 
hour to the parfbn, and is rated befides to 
the repairs of the church, &c. he is made 
to bear the heat and labour of the day, and 
all the while can get but. a bare fubfiflance 
for himfelf and family; whilft a fliop- 
keeper, in a houfe of 10/. a year, fliall, 
on the profits he makes in a parifh^ get 
more money, and maintain as laige a fa- 
mily, and be liable to pay no more than; 
one-tenth part of what the fai'mejr pay& 
At 4;. in the pound, the farmer on .his[ 
roo/. a year, at the rack-rent pays 20/. 
a year to poor's rates ; the fhop-keeper out 
his houfe of 10/. a year, Ihould by that 
rule, exclufive of ftock, pay 2 A But the 


[ 27J ] 

(kop-keeper's Houie of loA a year (bait 
be rated at but a quarter of its rent, mz* 
at no more than 2 /• 10 j. where the (hop- 
* keeper therefore pays one fhilling, the far-, 
mer pays forty. 

The amount ol this tax, and the Uti^ 
gious manner in which it is coUefted, arc 
not oply extremely burthenibme— ^^but 
the €f€^ of it, when raifed, is, in general, 
pernjicious to the good of the State; and 
detrimental to the poor themfelves. Every 
thing provided by the feveral afls of |>arU« 
ament for their ufe, is indefinitely exprefied 

Money^ lodging, apparel, food, &c^. 

&c. as may be wanted, are all uncertaixu^ 
The parifh^officers colleft the tax, and 
manage the poor ; that is, they aflifl: them 
as they think proper ; and whoever think$ 
himfeir negle^ed, has nothing to do but 
tak^ a walk to the firfl juflice of the peace^ 
and make his complaint. Law, andxighv 
and common fenfe ar^ then too often out 
of the quefticMi j but Mr. Juftice, if po^ 
pularity among the poor be bis foible, iad- 
dks the pariih with whatever bustben ho 
thinks proper— and, on the contrary, if 
the next rank of people be the objfi£l: of 
Ikis attention, then the poor may ply him, 


t 27i ] 

Iright or wrong, with their grievances, but 
meet with a deaf car to all. In this cafe it 
is cafy to conceive how uncertain true rights 
as eftablifhed by law, is ; and alfo that good 
or bad as the laws may be, their execu- 
tion depends, in too great a degree, on 

This undeterminate ^provifion for the 
Poor makes them depend on the parifti 
for all. If they are exceedingly diligent, 
fober and induftrious, while they are 
young and in health, what is the confe- 
quence ? Why, they lay up a fniall fum ' 
monthly to fupport them eafily and com- 
fortably when aged or in ficknefs : this is 
in the power of moft. But fuppofe they. 
are idle, drunken, and worthlefs — What 

attends fuch a contraft ?. ^Why, precifely 

the fame efFeft ; eafe and comfort, either 

ki ficknefs or age not from themfelves 

indeed — but the parifh. Is it not there- 
fore apparent, that unlefs the majority of 
them be perfe6lly wel/ inclined^ the necefla* 
ry confequence muft be idlenefs ! Who can 
fuppofe that fuch men will work the harder 
againft old age or ficknefs, when everyone 
knows fo well that the parifh muji provide 

. them 

them in fuch a day with all their own la- 
bour could^ wire they ever fo induftrious. 
I am very fenfible that the miferies of 
the poor arc often mentioned as proofs of 
the villainy of pariih* officers : and that 
muny of them are great villains, no one 
can doiibt; no fet of men fo numerous can 
be found, among whom villains will not 
be difcovered : Nor is the villainy moft 
common, that of grinding the poor, but 
cheating their brethren who pay the rates. 
The miferies of the lower people are ever 
owing to the neighbouring juftices of the 
peace, who, in this cafe, have power ra- 
ther too ample than otherwife. But let it 
be remembfered, that one family in wretch- 

ednefs is ken known — remarked — 

and blazoned out by all — and in confe- 
' quence of a few inftances, the whole tribe 
ofparifh-officers are reprefented as a parcel 
of deteftable fellows. But let me afk 
a plain queftion. If a parifli is op- 
preffed very heavily, by the prodigious ex- 
pence of providing for a large number of 
idle, drunken, debauched and infol&nt 
poor— —Who is it that trumpets forth 
their grievances ? The farmers may not 
break nor be fl:arved, and no open and 

T ' appa-i 


M74 1 

apparent mifery . flares the fpeflitor In tlief 

face bat are they to groan under fuch 

manifeft oppreffion without pity, or a 
fingle word faid in their behalf! Yet is this 

frequently the |:afe and at the famp 

time the rates paid by a parcel 6f little 
farmers, who work ten times harder for a 
poor fubfiftence, than th€ very people for 
whom they are fo heavily taxed. It h faid 
they, like the poor, meet with redrefs 
from the juftice— True j if they can g?t 
it — they have the chance of the Juftice's 
foible being in their favou r ■ but if it is 
not — thev muft be contented — No won-^ 
der, however, that when their day of 
power comes they (hould not be {o Ubefal 
as they ought. And is it natural to fup* 
pofe that a fet of men, who are daily wit- 
neffes of that depehdance which the poor 

have on the parifli who fee how little 

attentive they are to work hard again ft a 
time of want, and how feldom they vyill 
labour even common days, or common 
hours — who experience perpetually their 
infolence — — in (hort, who behold the 
whole tenour of their lives — Can it, I fay, 
be expefted that fuch men mWJredy and 
generoufy contribute to the maintenance 


« , • , ■ . • • 

of people who. could fo eafily malntaifi 

themfelves? •! venture thefe aflertions 

ivithout any doUbt. It is well known that 
the poor muft, by law, be found all necef- 
faries by the parifh, if they cannot find 
them for themfelves : this/^^ is fufficient 
•J — -without recurring to the teftimony of 
common experience, 1 am certain every 
reafonable perfon will agree with me, that 
the confequence muft be ad I have fta- 
ted iL 

From thefe confiderations, 1 muft own • 
, tnyfelf an enemy to that general abufe 
which is thrown, fo undijiinguijhdbly ^ on all 
parifli-officers* I fliould again repeat, that 
iii the affair of rates, they are extremely 
more open to attacks, than in the con- 
du6l of the poor. We fliouId remember 
that the number of people who, by turns, 
ferve thofe offices, is immenfe — = — lb 
great that any general charge upon them, 
of more than common inhumanity, is ab- 
furd and ridiculous—— We ihould not be 
fo free in condemning fo confiderable i {tt 
dt people unheard — *^we ihould bear in 
mind the:tertdfency of the Poor laws; and 
ratherjjjlrow the blame on thofe encoura-^ 
gers OTidlenefs, than on a fet of men, 

T 2 whoy 

t 276 ] 

^ho, from their fituation, muft know the 
merits of the poor better than others. As 
much however as I have advanced in their 
favour, I will freely allow that great num- 
bers of abufes are frequently found aitiong 
them in the whole management of the 
power of taxing their pariQiioncrs. No- 
thing can better explain their abominable 
fiauds, than to confider that chicanery 
which is often pra6lifed in towns, " of ra- 
ting numbers of fmall occupiers, for the be- 
nefit of their votes, in fupport of knavifh 
officers; and then receiving no payment 
of them. By exempting the lefler occu- 
piers, they fecure A majority from raifing 
any clamour againft their exorbitant rates, 
made for 10 s. 8^. ip^tlie pound, when 
4i. with proper mafiagcment might have 
been fufficient. But though thefc meaner 
inhabitants have not paid to any poor 
rates, yet fhall they pay, or be marked as 
having paid to a pretended church-rate, if 
made but for one penny in the pounds, 
that they might be qualified to ^ vote tiie 
fame perfons into office again, or, at leaft, 
others of the fame confederacy, which 
amounts to the fame thing* Thefe church- 
wardens, thus re-chofen,- muft npw think 


C ^77 1 
both of gratifying and carrying on an in- 
tereft with thofe that chofe them : money 
only can do this, and money they ^re fure 
to ha ve^^ for the fm all trouble of calling 
their hpn^ft voters together at a pariflir 
pieetingy But fuch mpan inhabitants will 
not be fatisfied with being exempted frqm 
paying to rates 5 they have other advan- 
tages in vjew 5 they have a fellow-feeling 
with their churph- wardens ; th^y are em- 
ployed by them ; they (hall do unneeeflary 
>vork, and charge their own quantity and 
price for it; they (hall riot at a pari(h ex- 
pence ^ they (hall procure large colleftir 
pns fqr their friends and relations, otn -^f 
the monies received bv »K>Oi'':'ate--, rtiid 
manv inall be exempted from wc>;k?!«LS 
.and receive money to live idly upon,. 
Church-wardens (hall let pariihrlands to 
their friends at under-rents, or occupy 
them themfelves at what they (hall pleafe 
to allow ; or without allowing any thing 
at all ; and a majority (hall juftify all a6ls. 
** Church -wardens, under colour of 
their office, by the ftrength of a hired ma- 
jority, are allowed to carry any point, 
though ever fo unjuft 5 and if you will dif- 
pute it with them in Court'ChriJlian^ the 

T 3 inquiry 


r 278 ] 

inquiry feldom goes further than the forni 
of a rate : it is called a rate for the church; 
it is made by a majority of thofe prefent in 
vcftry ; the majority binds the minority, 
and the prefent conclude the abfent; fo 
that a rate made to raife money^ in efFeft, 
to treat and bribe a majority, or for any 
pther purpofe, however foreign to the duty 
of their office, muft pafs as a good and 
legal rate. Great indulgence do church- 
wardens meet with in the courts where 
they are accountable ; and feldom are they 
punifhed for any mifappUcation of monies. 
The tedipufnefs and expence of fuits,* with 
the manner of proceeding in thofe <:purts, 
are fufficient to deter any one from attack- 
ing them therein ; and if you do attack 
'them, and after great expences and delays, 
caft them in Court-Chriftian, yoii cannot 
well recover of them 5 for they are gene- 
rally unable to pay, unlefs thfey can raife 
more money by rates. The church-war- 
dens* muft therefore make rates with plau- 
fible titles, and with the confent pf 9 
majority in pumber, and that i§ enough 
for Coiirt-Chriftian to juftify under; for 
|t is fo eftabliflied as their law by cuf- 

torn J 

[;279 3; 

torn; and a inofk excellent cuftom i$. 
is ! *" 

It is agreed, by the moft fenfible poli- 
ticians, that the true richer of any ftatc 
confiftin the employment, of the labour*, 
ing poor -j'-; ,and all countries will fjourifli 
in -proportion to the quantity and value of 
their labour. England^ I have already 
proved, depends chiefly on the culture of 
the earth, which is principally effe6led by - 

them confequently any lofs of labour is 

3 lofs to the State. A wafte acre of land . 
is a public nuifahcc i and, in like rtianner, 
the lofs of a fingle hour^ work, of a la^ 
boiiring hand, however fmall, is never-' 
ehelefs a public one ; and it is necefiary^ 
by enabling fuch hands always to find 
employment, to prevent fuch a lofs. What 
a wretched policy muft it therefore be, by 
any miiguided laws, to give the leaft en- 
couragement to idienefs, which is con- 
ftantly attended with fuch a^ prodigious lofs 
to the public J That the poor ought to be 

• ^ Short VieWj p. 24. 

t Mr. Hanway calculates a labouring man's life to 
be worth, on an average, 412 /• 7 /. 5 </« LctUrs on 
Imp* VqI. 2. p.; ^5, 

T 4' well 

well fed — well cloathed — and live in that 
warm comfortable mawier, requifite to 
En^i/hmeny is a point of undoubted confe* 
quence — and which cannot be contradi6l- 
ed I but the enabling them to live in this 
manner^ at the expence of the public good^ 
in a lofs of a part of their labour, is the 
grievance I at prefent complain of* 

Compare the prefent ftate of our poor, 
in refpedl of laborious induftry and fobri* 
ety, with an ideal ftate of them if this 
total dependance on the pariftx was at an 
end. On this fide the way lives a little far- 
mer, an exceffive hard-working man, very 

fober, and yet fcarce able to live On 

that fide fee a poor family, tliey will eat 

much better than the farmer have their 

tea once nioft certainly, and perhaps twice; 
a day i will not work harder than part; of 
their prefent maintenance requires j for 
twenty to one but the parifli pays their 
rent, and finds them woodj and if the 
leaft ficknefs or accident happens to any of 
them, they immediately become charge- 
able and when old, and pall hard 

work, wholly fo j whereag the money they 
have fp-nt in the' fingle article of tea and 
fugar^ faved^ would entirely have prevent^ 


I 281 1 

cd fuch charge— or conftant labour while 
in health, doubled to themfelves the a- 
mount of it,— —Compare the little farmer 
with thefe his neighbours— —Is it by any 
means juft that bis induftry (hould be taxed* 
to fupport tbeir idlenefe ? — —But all T 
have faid in relation to thefe country la- 
bourers, is a hundred times more ftrikirig 
amongft poor ma<iufa£lurers — when fbey 
work tolerably, they earn much more than* 
the pay of the labourer, confequently are 
able to indulge proportionably in idlenefs, 

I never omitted any occafion of making 
whatever remarks I was able on the con- 
duct of the poor, in alation to their de- 
pendance on their parilhes : and I never 
yet knew one inftance of any poor man's 
virorking diligently, while young and in' 
health, to efcape coming to the parifh 
when ill or old. Some will aim at taking 
little farms — but if, by any means, they 
are difappointed in their endeavour, they 
confider the money they have already faved 
as of no future value, but fpend it long 
before they really want it; I have fre- 
quently heard labourers, in the full per* 
fe^ion of their ftrength,' talk of the parifli 


[ 282 ] 

inaintaining them, on the very idea of any 
accident and illnefs ; men, whom I have 
perlbnally known to earn two-pence, 
three-pence, and four-pence a day. more 
than .the common pay of the country, and 
which others, while in health, are obliged 
to fubfift on. I have conftantly experi- 
enced, and for fome time, that numerous 
families that are completely cloathed by 
the parifli, will let their cloaths drop irj 
pieces, without being at the trouble and 
expence of ever mending them, at the very 
tiipe they have every day drank their tea 
fweetened with nine-penny fugar. It 
woiild be.endlefs to particularize all the 
multitjude of inftances which myfelf, and ' 
I will anfwer for it, every other farmer 
could, from their own knowledge, quote 
of this kind : and whoever attends to thefe 
points among the poor, will ah^ayf, I may 
fay, find it owing to the certainty of fall- 
ing on the parifh when they ^re in 
want*. * 

• ^' The nation .IS not only weakened for want of * 
due proportion of inhabitants ; but it is alfo greatlji 
ilAreBtd by the doth and idlenef^ that prevail^ 
among the poor, great numbers of whooi^ are> in ^ 

, manner. 

i 283 3 

I therefore am tempted ta think th||t 
the pf efent laws, relative to the foppOf t of 
^he poor, are univerfally epcppr^gcrs of 
idlenefs* drunkennefs, and tef-rdriqjging 
amohgjt them ; and tthat,;as fgci^^^jh^ 
are highly pernicious to the vyclfarf ; Of the 

Kmgdom: . • .: .J : • ^ 

And here, I cannot but obfcryoi jhat, 
as hw a figure as Ua-drinkiiig iqay 'liiabe 
in this trio— it is neverthejefs of. vsfQn^dei?- 
ful extent and confequence: As much ft^ 
perfluous money is expended an tea and $p- 

manner, legally entitled to live without indufljy. OiJe 
of the obje^ons againft a {landing army^ in time of 
peace> is the great expence to the nation, ef maintain* 
Jng 16 pr 20,000 idle wen^ who opght to fuppoft 
thetnfelves by their own labour; yet we. give no at- 
tention to the burtheo- of another army, conlifting 6f 
no lefs than 600,000 perfons ; for fuch xh^ number of 
thofe receiving alms was computed to be aboTit 60 year$ 
ago^ and it has rather increafed than dimini(h^d iince 
thattiffl^. Suppofing one half of thefe were r-eally in- 
yalids, or infirm, who were judly entitled to public 
'charity ; is it not however a difgracc to our national 
poHoy to fuKFer the other half to prey upon the ftate, 
when, by proper regulations, they might be made tq 
coatribute to the fupporc of it. Hence, the.aft for 
f.the maintenance pf the poor is ftiled by an eminent 
^writer^ the true bane and deftru<Siion of all: the EngUJh 
manufa£lur^s in general, a3 it apparently encourages 
(loth and beggary/* RefleSfions on the Domejiic Policy 
proper to be obfifved on th$ coruiufton of a Peace, 1 763, 
D. 87» 


[ 284 ] 

GAR, di wcmld maintain four miilions more 
cffkijeiJs in BREAD*. If it is confidered 
v^hat a* fatal enemy exceffive tea-drinking 
is to tjie human body — how much it im- 
pairs the vigour of the conflitution, and 
debilitates the mind, the 'pernicious influ- 
ence of it will b? apparent ; and it (hould 
be remembered, that the ordinary adulte- 
rated fort, which is drank by the poor peo- 
ple, is^ attended with much worfe effqfts 
than the fineft forts ufed by the rich. It 
has been aflerted, and I believe on very 
good authority^ that exp^Hive tea-drinkinj 
is of more fatal confcquence tp the incr^ai 
of the human fpecies, than even the im** 
moderate ufe of fpirituous liquors. Nqr 
fhould it be forgot, that the trade we car- 
ry on for tea is totally againjl us in the 
balance. It is a branch of commerce by 
which we perpetually lofe : thus buryinj^ 
our mdney in an unfathomable gulph, for 
a pernicious commodity that tends to our 
very ruin. Our legiflature taxes every ne^ 
cejfary of life > furely this vWt fuperjluiiy 
calls aloud, in its abufe, for greater re- 
Itritlions I'^'But what are we to think of a 


• ^JS^P'^ Uvjfhandry^ p. 166. 


t 28s ] 

conduct, diametrically oppofite, of lower- 
ing the duty upon this pernicious drug> 
that the people may be able fo much the 
cafier to confume their health, their time 
and their. money ! To enable them univer- 
ially to drink it twice inflead of once a day* 
It will not furprize me to hear of its being 
rendered yet cheaper, that the public reve^ 
nue may jiourijh. Thofe very foovy who 
now coft the nation two millions to main- 
tain, will then, I fuppofe, drink it thrice a 
day, and at laft fubftitute it totally in the 
room of bread ; the cultivated vegetables of 
England to be fure cannot nourifli them ; 
they muft have recourfe to the w.eeds of 
China. What wretched politics ! To ima- 
gine that the revenue of the public can be 
improved by lavifhing away the time of 
the labouring poor ! Such an idea is con- 
genial alone with the laft ruin of a 

l^ow the duty is lowered^ the entertain* 
ment of fipping tea cofts the poor each 
time as follows : 


't, '^ 





^hctca; - - ^J: 

The fogar, - 
The butter, - i 

The fuel and vcear of 
the tea-equipage. 


N. B. This article in general cofts mucli ' 
more, but fometimes we fuppofe the 
fire not made on purpofe. 

This is a tea -drinking for one perfon, or 
woman, and perhaps a tittle girl > if the 
company is larger, all the articles will be 

Two pence halfpenny a day, is 3 /. 16 j^ 
a year, and if it is drank twice a day, it 
amounts to 7/. 12 j. At page 199, I in-: 
ferted the prefent expences of a labourer's 
family of five perfons ; bread amounted to 
51. 8 ^. a week, which is per^ annumi ' 
14/. 15 J* 9^. Now the above tea- 
drinking fum, 3 /t 1 6 J. is more than a 
f^rtb of this coft of the bread, eat by a 
family of five people ! Or, in other words, 
the wife leaving off tea, would be finking 

I th^ 

t 2% ] 

the price of wheat to the whole family a 

fourth : when it is 6 i. a bufhd it would 

lower it to 4i. 6 d. And if the tea is drank 

twice a day, bread finks on leaving it ofF 

half the price.— -If thefe fads do not 

prove, that tea-drinkers have no right to 

complain of the price of wheat, 1 know 

not what can. Yet, to ufe another's ex- 

predion, it is amazing how the people are 

tea-bitten, and become as tenacious of 

drinking this infufion, as a mad dog to 

avoid drinking at all. 

The law of fettlements is attended with 
nearly as many ill confequences as that of 
maintenance. I have faid enough. to prove 
of how great importance our labouring 
poor are to the public welfare ; the ftrcngth 
of the ftatc lies in their numbers : but the 
prodigious reftriftions thrown on their 
fettlements, tend ftrongly to prevent an 
increafe of their numbers. One great in- 
ducement to marriage, is the finding, 
without difficulty, a comfortable habita- 
tion — ■ — and another nearly as material^ 
when fuch requifite is found, to be able to 
exercife in it whatever bufinefs a man has 
been educated to, or brought up in. The 
firft of thefe points is. no iuch eafy matter 

* tOi 

[ 2^3 ] 

to be acccmpliflied $ for it is too much the 
intereft of a pari(h, both landlords and 
tenants, to dccreafc the cottages in it- 
and above all, to prevent their increafc, 
that m a procefs of time habitations are 
extremely difficult to be procured. There 
is no parifh but had much rather its young 
labourers (hould continue (ingle; in that 
ftate they are not in danger of becom^ 
ing chargeable ; but when married the cafe 
alters : all obllruftions are therefore thrown 
in the way of their marrying ; and none 
more immediately than that of rendering 
it as difficult as poffible for the men, when 
married, to procure a houfe to live in— — 
and this condu6l is found fo conducive to 
cafing the rates^ that it univerfally gives rife 
to an open war againft cottages. 

But fuppofe the young labourer or ma- 
nufafturer to be an inhabitant, by fufFc- 
rance, of a pariQi to which he does not 
belong} the officers of fuch parifh, the 
moment they hear of his intention to mar- 
ry, givC'him notice to quit their parifh, 
and retire to his own, unlefs he can pro- 
cure a certificate that neither he, nor bis^ 
fliall ever become chargeable to them. The 
man applies to his own parifh for fbch cer- 


tificate — : — " No 5 grant a certificate! 
Never will we do that Let marrying 

alone, and live where you aie: ;but if 

you copie here with your wife — you know 
what lodging we have for you ; ouc 

houfes are full already." Such is the 

language in anfwer to the requeft j and in 
millions of inftances is attended with the 
defired effect. The intended couple dread 
the difagreeablenefs (perhaps impr amicability) 
of living in a little cottage with feveral 
other families — one to thetnfelves is not to 
be bad — ^if any are aftually empty, the- 
landlords of the parifh take care tliey ijiall 
not be fo filled : nay, how often do gen- 
tlemen, who have poffeflions in a parifli 
where fuch cottages come to fale, purchafe 
them, and immediately erafe them from 
the ground, that they may never becorpe 
the nefis^ as they are called, of beggars 
brats "^ by which means their tenants are 
not fo burthened in their rates, and, of 
courfe, .their farms lett the»better : for 

the rates are confidered as much by tenants 
as the rent of a new farm. 

In this mapner cottages are the perpe-' 
tual obje6ls of a parifh jealoufy-r- — The 
young inhabitants are deterred from mar- 

U rying, 


[ i90 1 

rying, bccaufe of the difficulty of procur- 
ing an habitatioix : a hearty (lout labourer 
that earns good wages, aims at having a 
neat comfortable houie to live in, and can* 
not bear the idea of living in commoti 
with others: but all his wifhes are too 
often fruftrated by the fcarcity of cottager. 
Nor is the hardlhip of removals lefs : a 
man is reiident in a parifh^ where> by bis 
connections, or nature of bis bufineis, he 
is much better able to maintain himfelf 
than in any other place-:-— this circum- 
fiance often is, as three to one;—— He 
marries, immediately he receives warning 
to quit this place, where, ak>ne> he can 
advantageoufly fupport himfelf, and is dri- « 
ven to another to live in a ten times more 
uneafy manner, and where,he is unable ta 
make near his former earnings. His lot is 
hard 3 and hb example hangs in terroremy 
to prevent others from being guilty of the 
folly of marrying. 

Jn whatever light we confider thefe * 
points of fettlement and maintenance^ 
they will regularly be found to encourage 
kllenefi> and prevent population. Two 
greater mi&rhiefsL cannot happen to any^ 
nation thin thefe ; andacountry> wbidiia 



[ 291 ] 
ibhtlreiy ftippbrted, like this, by the indlif- 
try of its inhabitants, ought, in every pof- 
iible* manner, to reflify any fuch teiidency 
in its^ laws j for it is furcly a moft melan- 
choly reflcftion, that vaft futais of money 
ihould be raifed for the'direft contrary ef- 
fect to what they really are attended with. 
What we therefore want, from the wif-^. 
dom of the legiflature, is a total abolition 
of all our poor laWs^ and the immediately 
iFraming others in their place, which would 
not be liable to the fame objedions. The 
foundation on which fuch new laws fhould 

be laid is clearly To maintain thofe who 

CANNOT mmintain themfelvesy and who could 
not have Javed a fufficiency to Jiipport thent 
nvben they can earn little or nothing. For if 
hearty ftrong young people are to fpend in 
fuperfluities (particularly tea) and lofe in 
good times by their not working a full por- 
tion of labomr-—what would . maintain 
them when fick or old, fuch fliould have 
no relief from the public* But all wlio 
meet with misfortunes of lamenefs, or ill 
health-'— or are oriierwife incapable of 
maintaining thcmfelvcs, who, while in bet- 
ter circumftanoes, JgrlMved indudrioufly and 

frugally - on fuch certificates from the 

U 2 minifter. 


[ 492 1 

miniftcr, &c. they ought to be taken per- 
fc6t care of : — Not, however, in the parifh 
by pecuniary gratifications; but in Mun^ 
dred boufes oflndujiryy which will prove ten 
times as effectual in whatever concerns 
their lire, health, and welfare. 

And, as a means of preventing the poor 
being fo blamcable in future times, fuch 
houfes of induftry (hould, indifcriminate* 
ly, take all poor's children who apply 
for relief, or who, having large families, 
cannot properly bring them up without 
affiftance from their parifh. This would 
be attended with a wonderful efFeft; fw 
nine out of ten of the worthlefs among the 
poor, were brought up by their parents in 
idlenefs and pilfering. By maintaining 
them in fuch a Houfey they would be made 
to work at a variety of unlaborious bufinef- 
fes — they would never be fufFered to be 
idle — they would be kept from all thiev- 
ing and beggary; and when of a proper 
age introduced to the world with a fifty 
times better chance of profpering in it, 
than fuch as ifTue immediately from their 
parents cottages — In general I mean ;— 
there is no argument but what will adroit 

. '' of 

-■,)»W-^ ->_»-^«V/^- »~.. -. 

[293 ] 

of' fome exceptions; but in this cafe I am 
certain they are extremely few. 

Whatever management of the poor 
took efFe6V, they ought never again to have 
a certainty of being maintained by others, 

when a day of want came. Such affi* 

ftance fhould be freely granted to all who 
deferve it, but to no others. — —Was this 
once the cafe, they would beftir themfelves 
while in health and youth to praftife a life 
of fober induftrioufnefs, that they might 
be entitled (when misfortunes came that 
were paft their power to remedy) to pro- 
te6lion and maintenance from others. 
Nor can I fee where any hardfhip can be 
found in this for aflerting it, is no- 
thing lefs than faying, That diligent, fo- 
ber, and valuable people are to be taxed to 
maintain others in drunkennefs, idlenefs, 
and debauchery. For where is the diffe- 
rence between paying them the wages of 
fuch iniquity, and maintaining thofe in 
ficknefs and old age, who fpent the pro- 
duce of their health and youth in ale-houfes 
and at the tea-table? If there is any fuch 
difference, my apprehenfion is not q^uick 
enough to catch it. 

U 3 Let 


[ ^94 1 . 

Let us confider what prodigioufly uf^'» 
ful eftablifliments, what noble founda-^ 
tions for ftrturc induftry and fobriety 
might be laid, with the vaft fum our pre- 
fent poor rates would pay the interpft of 

-^ Take an account of the mean fum 

raifed by each parifti eafe the whole 

nation of half, or a third, of fuch amount, 
and on the credit of the remainder, borrow 
the fums fufficient for extending the houfes 
of induftry over the whole Icingdom* 
limit the reception, as 1 before-mentioned, 
and the infinitely good effeds would be ap- 
parent in a term pf years — '. — the good of 
them could not be perfedly undprftood, 
until the children brought up in theni 
were put into the world in fervices, ufeful 
trades, and occupations pf hufbandry. Iii 
a future generation we might expect a dif- 
ferent race of poor. 

The moft common objeflions to thefe 
Jloujes oflnduflry are The hardfliips of 

confining elderly people, and taking tben> 
from their conneSliom \ and, fe^ndly, The 
great fear there is, that the gentlemen whp 
qre the truftees will not, in futijre times, 
after the novelty of the fcheme is over, give 
that due attendance in infpeding the 



I ^9S ] 
€ondu£); of the overfeers and managers, 
that will always be requifite for the good 
of the ppor.-~^ — As to the firft objeflion, 
it certainly has no real weight \ for thofe 
who cannot maintain themfelves, but live 
at the ex pence of others, have no reafon 
to complain of the method taken, provided 
the thing is properly done : it would be 
ridiculous^ in any eftabliihment of this 
nature, to allow full liberty for the poor 
of the houfe to wander ab6ut the country 
at their plcafure it would counteract: 
the very defign of the foundation, and be 
productive of raultitudes of evils; As to 
the hard/hip y there is none in it ; for the 
queftion ought- certainly to be reduced 
plainly to this j We are to have the bur- 
then of maintaining you ; is it not reafon- 
able that while we maintain you, we 
fhould do it where and in what manner we 
jfleafc? We will neither allow you to be 
vagabonds nor tea-drinkers— -i-and thofe 
two circumftances are what raifc a fpirit in 
the poor to oppofe the fchcme in genera). 
People who have fpent their lives, with- 
out laying up enough to fupport them 
w hile old, in a country io full of employ- 
ipent of all kinds as this is, to i efufe aiii- 

U 4 ftanca 

[ 296 ] 

fiance unlefs they have it where they like, 
might as well make a bargain for the berf 
green tea and twelve-penny fugar every 
afternoon, before they accepted of warm 
cloathing, wholefome food, and a good 
houfe over their heads. 

As to the point of the truftees, I freely 
own the objection is of great weight, and 
I do not in the leaft doubt that a part of 
the benefit which has hitherto been found 
to refult from the few Houfes of Indujiry 
eftabiifhed, rs owing to the attention of 
the truftees, and their conftantly meeting 
on the appointed days to infpeft every 
part of the officers managernent. But if 
it is fufpe6led that this attention will, by 
degrees, wear off, it furely might eafily be 
infcrted in the aft of parliamentj that fuch 
a number of truftees Jhalt meet at the 
time appointed, under certain penalties to 
be levied on all who abfent themfelves. 
There would be nothing unreafonable in 
fUch a claufe, and it would eiFedually re- 
move the obje6lion. 

As I have been particularly attentive to 

the efFe<5l of every thing I have mentioned 

in thefe piapers, ' oh population, it may 

not be foreign to the prefent fubjeft, to 

• I - confider 



I ^97 ] 
fze^ddtr of fome means of promoting mar- 
riage amongft the lower people. It has 
been obfefved by many authors, that it is 
manners alon^ which increafe or diminifh 
the number of people ; and a very pene- 
trating one of our prefent age, fays, 
J* Thus, when Auguftus made laws againft 
celibacy, thofe vefy laws proved the Ro^ 
man empire to be on the decline/' And 
it lias been remarked, that laws and ordi- 
pances to encourage matrimony, agricul- 
Jure^ ^c.. only proVe a difeafe, but will 
"never effeft a cure*. There is fome rea- 
fon in thefe aflertions 5 but there is a cir- 
cumftance not generally remembered with 
them, which abates greatly of their vali- 
dity : ^be UNIVERSAL increafe of what is 
called Luxury. 

It is impoflible, as we poflefs the art of 
printing, that the world fhould ever fall 
back into ages of darknefs and blind igno- 
rance : and as the invention of mankind 
is ever on the wing, in adding convenience 
to convenience, and elegance to elegance 

a s frefh branches of commerce are 

daily opened, and the products of every 

* See EmiU, tome 4. 


[ 298 ] 

clime greatly multiplied in civilized coun- 
tries— —a general increafe of what ii com- 
monly called luxury mi)ft neoeflarily be 

the confequence and I do apprehend, a9 

the manners of mankind grow more polifli- 
qd and refined, the more they wiU teiid 
towards thofe vices which arife from a 
great inequality among them s and hence 
iprings that celibacy * complained of, and 
that difregard of agricutlure* And the 
caufes which thus operate, being gradual 
^~— fapping, moft imperceptibly to indi- 

* The followiog obfervations are vtrj joft ; oae io* 
ftance only is taken, but it is in a moment to be ex- 
tended to a million ; and all together, form a fyftem of 
expence, that readers matrimony in nomerous cafes but 
another word for ruin.^^^^^ The grandeur of equi- 
. pages, apongft other expences, cots deep againft 
. plenty, marriage, and population. If a yoiii^ geatle** 
\v>oman, or the daughter of a tradefman in good dr- 
cumftances, in the height of her youth and health, 
thinks (he has loft the ufe of her Umbs, and muft have 
two horfes to draw her about, a man to drive them, 
and another to attend behind ; they will now coft her 
hufband the intereft of 5000/.^ which is a handfome 
portion for the daughter of an Earl. Some Earls 
I could not. give more 50 years ago, and fomc caa 
hardly give fo much at this day. Thus by the tyranny 
pf cuftom, many a young lady and gentlewoman in tho 
fpring-time of their youth, and the bloflbm of their 
charms, are (hunned, as if men were afraid of being 
poifoned if they come within their atmofphere, Let^ 
urscn the Imp. of the Rifmg Gen. Vol. 2k p. 172. 


[ 299 ] 

vidua1<?, the groundrworks of fimplicity 
and every ipvcics of frugality-^ — and hav* 
ing thcii toundation in the very foul an4 

fpirit pf tjic times it is impotfible that 

laws and ordinances, which are framed ac^ 
cording tp the afpeft of the day, can regu- 
larly combat with the very nature of 

things.-r Thus fftf the objecl^on has 


But does it follow, that becaufe fuch a 
condudit cannot, have an unbounded and 
univerfal eftecl, it- Ihould therefore entire- 
ly be given up ? Or is it to be fuppofed, 
that becaufe laws cannot change the nature 
pf things, they fhould not improve them ? 
. The mpft raging torrents, even the ocean 
itfelf, are by the art of man, by the power 
pf human laws, controuled and kept within 

bounds why may we not therefore af- 

fcrt, tlxat good laws may have a great ef- 
fe<ft in oppofing the manners of the 
times ? 

The quotation I gave of the laws of Au^ 
^uftus is of but little effect ■ ■ thofe laws 
Jiappened to be promulgated at a time 
when the empire was actually enflaved — - 
|)p wonkier it ihould be on the decline-^ 


[ 300 J 

Arbitrary power, that canker that prey$ 
upon the vitals of the univerfe! had fpread 

her black cnfign over the empire Is 

any conclufion to be drawn from laws 
made at fuch a period ? The Roman people 
were ho more : no wonder that laws Were 
made againft celibacy. 

Premiums are at prefcnt ofFeied for 
agriculture in England. It is from thence 
concluded, by the fame author, that it 
will not long flourllh in this kingdom. 
But it is fuppofed that hufbandry, how 
far foever it may be off perfedion, was 
never fo efFedlually pra6tifed as at prefent. 
We fuffer no change in 6uf conftitution, 
but are, in every apparent refpeft, in a 
mort flourifliing fituation.-— —Extend the 
' profpeft — Look into a future age, and 
fiippofe (what my foul fhrinks to conceive) 
our liberty no more. Premiums may then 
be given for agriculture ; and an argument 
drawn that England is on the decline- 
Wonderful fagacity that \— 'England 
will be ruined, and thofe premiums quoted 

as a proof premiums which can have 

nothing to do with it, arid which could 
prove neither on the one fide nor on the 


# • 

I 301 ] 

t ' • If 

other.— —But take any nation juft en- 
flaved, and I defy the moft fagacious po-* 

. litician to quote one public premium- 
law a6t deed, or any thing elfe, 

which will not tend to prove fuch nation 
undone — or, as it is faid, on the decline i 
but at the fame time it may be far froral 
proving that the very fame public ads, in 
a different period^ would not have been at- 
tended with very different conclufions. 

The premiums at prefent granted iri 
England prove clearly enough that agricul- 
ture is not advanced to the perfe6lion it is 
} capable of, and that a fet of public-fpirited 

individuals patriotically endeavour to ad- 
vance it as much higher as they are able : 
But can we conclude from hence that it 
will foon decline ? Let a change in the 
conftitution come when it will, it declines 

. and fades away that moment 5 but fuch a 
falling off has nothing to do with premi- 
ums. In the fame manner laws againft 
celibacy are to be confidered ; if conclu- 
fions mcift be drawn from them, every at- 
tendant circumftance is to be confidered 
before one maxim can be founded on, 


t 302 ] . 

If a cotinti'y, whofe inhabitants are 6rf 
the increafe, forais laws for the encourage- 
ment of matrimony, it is beyond a doubt 
fuch laws, if properly fjamed and duly ex- 
ecuted, will be attended Wxihfime good ef- 
fed— —the manners and principles of 
the times may bear the moft fway ; but this 
does not prove that every thing clfe is 
attended with none at all. I would not, 
however, be under ftood to mean by fuch 
laws, pofitive ones ; but fuch as will cffcft 
the defued end, by creating inducen>ents 
in the lower people to marry. For inftance, 
an a£t of parliament, which occafioned a 
regular increafe of employment, would 
neceflarily increafe the people in proceis of 
time. But as to laws enafted dirccftly 
agairift celibacy, or to reward people for 
marrying, it yvould be an abfurdity to 
frame fuch. 

If therefore the legiflature of this king-^ 
dom may make fuch laws, to encourage 
population, as in their wifdom appear th« 
moll wholefome, without the imputatioa 
of afling vainly, and without any proba- 
ble good effeft; furely we have great 

reafon to wifhthat fome fuch were framed^ 
I have already endeavou^^ed to fhew that 

[ 3^3 1 

an alteration of our poor-laws would have 
an exceedingly good tendency in this re- 
fpect, and what remained would confift 
chiefly in rendering the marriage ftate 
more eafy than it is at prefejiit among the 
lower people, and, if poffible, make a 
large family be of no inconfiderable value 
to the father of it. Marriage will ever 
flouriih, when there is no danger of chil- 
dren proving an incumbrance. It is well 
known that Colbert exempted every poor 
man in France from all taxes that had ten 
chil^en; and in the fame kingdom we 
find, by the Marquis of l'ouriilh\ that the 
peafants oh his eflate married freely and 
begat children, when he had provided a 
maintenance for them in conftant employ^ 
menti whereas,' before he improved his 
eflate, they avoided marriage as the 
greateft evil. I mention no particular 
jplan of encom-aging marriage ; it being fuf- 
ficient to point out the expediency of the 

meafure ^The forming a bill will be 

more wifely performed by the legiflature, 
from their general information, than the 
fchemes of any individual *. 


* Je me r^duis i examiner les moyens At psrveair a 
la cooaoiflaace Gircan/taaciee de la populatioa de TAn- 


[ 304 J 

There is one more point on which t 
fhall venture a few reflections, as it mate- 
rially concerns the population of this king- 
dom } and that is, the migrations of our* 
people to the colonies. 

I think I have proved that the mofl: im- 
portant object of our attention, whethei* 
confidered in the light of trade, commerce, 
manufacture or population, is the duly 
cultivating the' many vaft tracts of waftc 
land, which are in fo many places to be 
met with in this kingdom. Until this ob- 
ject of attention be completely finifhed. 

gleterre, & de faire no ufage utile de cette fcience, 
biea intereflaote fans doute, toute fimple qu^elle eft» 
paifqae la population eft le figne certain qui nousap^ 
prend l*etat de la fante dn corps politique : le moment 
oi^ elle eft la plus floriflante, eft furement le moment de 
la plus grande force de tous les etats, dans tous les 
gouvernemens. On donne des eloges dans la Society, 
a celui qui foccupe de I'etude des moyens de multi- 
plier ces animaux vils utiles que Thomme force i 
Je fervir dans fes traraux ; combien doit-il paroitre 
plus louable de mediter, & de contribuer a la multi- 
plication del'efpece delhomme, cetetrele plus noble a 
fes yeux, d'entre tous ceux qui refpirent fur la terre. 
Jvaatagts (^ Defavantages^ &c. pt 276. 


f 305 J 

and the lands already under culture im- 
proved to their utmoft, it is impolitic to 
encourage any but neceflary manufa6lur- 
ers*— and infinitely fo to encourage thofe 
that work on foreign produds— I muft here 
add, that it is yet more impolitic to fuffer, in 
fuchcircumftances, any h\xt necejfary migra- 
tions j — ^for the moft advantageous colo- 
nies w^e can plant, are on our barren lands 
at home ; the confumption of our manu* 
faftures, if that is the plea y will be as great 
from a colony fettled on our own wilds^ as 
on American ones : the fecjirity of their 
confuming our own manufactures infinite- 
ly greater, and the wealth afifing from 
them to the nation of the moft truly valu- 
able kind. Let us people all the heaths of 
England^ Scotland^ and Ireland^ and fuch 
increafe of fubjedls will never coft us fome 
thifty, forty, or fifty millions to de- 

I know not, in imagination, a more 
melancholy refle*!i!lion than the thought of 
jfome thoufands of poor Germans coming 
over to England here fupported by cha- 
rity and then, becaufe we did not know 

where to beftow them, to fhip them off to 
America^ for their children, in another 

X . , age, 


age, to draw the fword of r '^ « n, 

and plunge it in the vitals of their mother-' 
country. Sliame to our monftrous land- 
poUeflors! — —Shame to thofe great men 
who pofiefs v/hole counties of uncultivated 

Ipnd ! More to their glory would it be 

to expend a part of their wealth in adding 
to the riches and population of their coun-. 
try, than to wafte the whole in the career 
of naufeous vanity. Judge not of a noble* 
man's ^reatTiefs by the number of footmen 

before hs chair, but the number of 

labourers on his cftate; and never forget 
that there is fifty times more true luftre in 
the waving ears of corn, which cover a 
formerly wafte acre, than in the moft glit- 
tering ftar that fliines at Almack's. 

The fenfible author of the EJfays on Huf- 
bandry^ quotes a query prppofed to this 
nation in the reign of "James the Firft— ^ 
Whether our colonies had not difpeopled 
us vifibly, and thrown a damp upon 
" the culture of the earth? E72gland htgan 
ts plaMtations near an hundred years af- 
ter Spain, and confequently the effe£ls 
thereof are not yet' fo vifible as in the 
•* other kino;dom. But our inhabitants 
*' are fcnlibly wafted already, and it has a 



" i 


[ 3^7 ] 
*^ very ill efFe6l upon our tillage and huf- 
'^ bandry in 'all the fduthern parts of the 

** ifland. So that, as the trade o/Eng- 

^^ land grows by the plantations, thc^/ands 
*^ ^'England y^r// 5 the gentry and the no- 
** biUty fink, and the fecurity and ftrength 
" of the kingdom abateth/' — 

I am very far from aflerting that colonies 
are, in general, prejudicial to a kingdom ; 
I would only endeavour to prove, that 
they are fo if planted before population is 

at its height at home- ^and that it is 1 

great ablurdity to form migrations to 
waftes and wilds three thoufand miles ofF^ 
when we have fo ifnany amongft ourfelves* 
And I am certain, that it has ever been 
Iifeld the wifeft policy to procure, by 
the moft judicious means, a full complsr 
inent of inhabitants — any mealurcs that 
tend to a contrary efFecl, voluntarily em- 
braced, muft therefore be highly impo- 

One of the moft important inftances, in 
which our colonies have proved advanta- 
geous to this kingdom, has been the pro- 
viding a fettlement for' vaft numbers of 
foreigners, who have taken refuge there : 
This circumftance fhould teach us the pro- 

X 5 per 

[ 3o8 ] 

per ufe of plantations in general, which 
ought to be ufed as the means of increaf- 
ing our own numbers, by dirainifliing 
thofe of our neighbours, and not by re- 
moving our people from the principal do- 
minion to the extreme parts, under the 
ridiculous notion that every one there finds 
employment for five here: than which 
there cannot be a greater falfity; for at 
that rate all the inhabitants of England 
would he now employed in furnifliing the 
colonics with manufactures; inftead of 
which, their own manufadures advance 
with fuch fpeec^ that we may fpeedily bid 
adieu to fupplying them at all 5 owing, 
however, to a feries of very wretched ma- 
nagement. ^ 
But were foreigners the people we 
chofe to plant in America^ we fhould at 
leaft have the fatisfa6lion of lofing nothing 
if we did not gain 5 whereas, by encour- 
aging our own people to fettle there, we 
undergo a certain lojs^ and for an uncertain 
gain at bed. Breaking regiments in Ame^ 
rica^ and inducing the cmcers and men to 
accept of grants of land, is depriving this 
Jkingdom of numbers of people it wants 
»ot to get rid of; for if it is a benefit to 


[ 3^9 1 
have fettlements to take off turbulent and 
unfettled fpirits, or thofe who fail in their 
endeavours* to live at home 5 yet moft cer- 
tainly there is no benefit in their taking off 
people that could maintain themfelves at 
home, and a great number of the indivi- 
duals, that compofe a military corps, may 
furely be fuppofed to come within this de- 

But there is a particular circumftance in 
the prefent cafe, which merits the greateft 
attention— and that is, the fecurity of 
preferoing our colonies. For if we have 
poured forth our own inhabitants to people 
tbem^ and involved ourfelves in vaft debts 
to defend them j it is a melancholy confi- 
deration if there is, even in idea, the leaft fear a lofs of the advantages we 
gain by them. 

The probability of our colonies (baking 
off, what they call the yoak of their mo- 
ther-country, is a fubje6t of too extenfive 
a nature for me to debate in thefe deful- 
tory papers. But a remark or two on a 
point of fuch great importance, will not 
be mifplaced. 

We fhould remember, that our contir 
nental plantations arer fpread forth over 

X 3 fuch 

[ 310 ] 

fuch a prodigioufly extenfive country, now 
at their command, that were it a quarter 
peopled, it would form the moft potent 
empire upon earth— An empire, to which 
our European dominions would form, on 
comparifon, -but a pitiful province. 
We fliould remember likewife, that were 

. thefe colonies p^iopled, all South America 
nuift infallibly, in the natural courfe of 
all human events, fall under their domi- 
nion. A northern nation poffeffing irorty 
has ever conquered fouthern ones that 
roll on gold: befides, the different ca- 
pacity and difpofitions of the inhabitants 
of thofe two parts of America are fo very 

. oppofjte, that fuch an event as I have de- 
fciibed, would be effected almofl: without 

a blow It would be like a battle between 

the Iroquoifs and the original Mexicans. 
' Nor is it totally foreign to this idea^ to 
remember that arts, fciences, and empire 
travel weftward with the fun : This cir- . 
cumftance did not efcape Sir W. Te^nple. 
" Sciences and arts," fays he, ** have run 
theh' circles, and had their periods in the 
feveral parts of the world: They are ge- 
nerally 'agreed to have held their courfe 
from Eaji to JVefii to have begun in Chal- 


• « 

f 3" ] 

dea and Egypt -^ to have been tranfplanted 
from thence to Greece^ from Greece to 
Rome-y to have funk there, and after many 
ages, to have revived from thofc aflies, 
and'to have fprung up again, both hi Italy 
and other more wejiern pi ovinces of Eu- 
rope. When Chaldca and E^fpt were 
learned and civil, Greece and Rome were as 
rude and barbarous as all Egypt and Syria 
now are,, and have been long. When 
Greece and Rome were at the:h' heights in 
arts and fciences, Gaul^ Germany^ Britain 
were as ignorant and barbarous as any 
parts of Greece or Turkey can be now*/' 
The* cafe has been the fame with empire ; 
for though it was divided when it pafled 
morfe to the wefi than Rome^ Spain and 
France fucceflively became the terror of 
Europey and would have poffeffed univer.- 
fal monarchy, had not the poUtics of the 
moderns, in point of fecurity againfl over- 
grown powers, far e^cceeded thofe of the 
antients; and this policy has improved to 
fuch a degree, that the gioomy ideas of a 
few modern writers, who would periuade 
us of danger, where there is none, is fo 

* Worby folio, Vol. li. p. 159. 

X 4 totally 

[ 312 ] 

totally without foundation, that the ftron- 
geft potentates can, in this age, fcarcely 
conquer a province, without having it 
either wrefted from them fpeedily, or ru- 
ined in its prefervation. The conqueft of 
kingdoms is now at an end ; let any of the 
great powers of Europe \ either France^ 
Spain^ Britairiy &c. &c. fall into the loweft 
ftate of dchility, they will not therefore 
become the prey of their neighbours : 
Even Portugal herfelf preferves her inde- 
pendency. — Thefe are the arguments of 
modern politicians, but let pie except 
America from their reafoning, 

Wc (hould not conclude, becaufe the 
vaft territory of North America^ at prefent, 
is in a great meafure in a (late of barba- 
rity, that arts, fciences, and empire can- 
not one day fiourifli there. What Sir IV. 
temple remarked of learning in Afia and 
Europe^ is equally applicable to America z 
All her barbarity will wear off in time, and 
thofe regions, which now are boundlefs 
forefts, waftes; and wilds, will one day 
be peopled with flourilhing cities, and 
adorned with beautiful cultivation; and 
j)ofre fling in all their brilliancy the arts, 
the fciences, and all the confequences of 


[ 3^3 ] 

luxviry and empire. The prefent flourifli-. 
ing kingdoms of the weftern parts of £«- 
ropey will then be in as low a ftate, as the 

art of printing will permit were it not 

for that art, they would fink into the 
fame barbarity as Greece and Egypt experi- 

- ence at prefent. Will the circle run 
round again? Will the Afiatic deferts 

- once more be regions of learning and em- 
pire ?•— Will Turkijh tyranny give way to 
Grecian elegance, and fhall her wretched 
depopulated provinces once more become 
the path for human genius to walk in ?— . 
fhall they ever more give birth to fuch 
mortals as Socrates^ PlatOy Epaminondas^ 
Homer y and Euripides ? — fhall their tem- 

. pies be raifed, and decorated by fuch ar- 
tifls as PhidiaSy Praxiteles, Cleomenesy and 
Apelles ? Shall Italy again boaft her Regu-- 
iusy her Tu/fyy her Firgi/y and her Trajan ? 

— ^Alas ! thefe are but dreams but they 

are pleafing ones Why may not the 

day once come, when the whole world 
ihall be in a flate of knowledge, elegance 

and peace when genius fhall fhine 

with unvaried fplendor 5 without thofc 
attendant political convulfions, which 
have hitherto fullied her mofl glorious 

days ! 



[ 3H ] 

days ! But I am wandering ilrangel^ 

from my fubjefl pardon, reader, this 

revery— — to return »■ ■ 

The queftion turns entirely upon this 
point J Will the difficulties attending fuch 
a rebellion as I am hinting at, overcom<$ 
the natural courfe of an extremely potent 
people, throwing off the fov6reignty of 
another Icfs powerful than jthemfelves ? — * 
The difficulties, we are generally told, are 
thefe: Firjiy Thofe arifing from the vaft 
extent of country, over which the colonifts 
arc fpread, which would throw many im* 
pediments on a con {'piracy or defign of 
this nature; for fuch fchemcs, when at- 
tended with fuccefs, generally take place 
among a people colkcled nearly together. 
Secondly, It is alTertcd, that the pcefent di- 
vifion of the country into different colo- 
nies, under various governments, different 
religions, 6fr- &c. would render fuch a 
fcheme inipoffible, as they are as little unit- 
ed among themfelves as ever they can be 
againft their mother-country. TCbirdly^ 
That the event, fuppofing it was poffible, 
muft be extremely, remote ; for it was ne- 
ver mentioned as probable until the coun- 

[ 3^5 ] 

try is nearly peopled, and it will take many 
jcenturies to half-people the whole. 

In anfwer to thefe remarks, it may how- 
ever be obferved— — That the extent of 
the country is a circumftance far from 
proving the improbability of fuch an affair. 
I quote the Stamp A£l : Had the country 
been ten times as extcnfive, the fiame 
would have been- the fame throughout it : 
the leaders in great affairs will 6nd a 
quick conveyance very eafy ; and one ge- 
neral infurredion at the fame ^ time 
throughout, would be connedled in lefs 
time by half, than forces could be in rea- 

dinefsto prevent them, But the various 

colonies is a point quoted as an objeflion : 
- — -True 'y it may be fo ; but the Stamp 

A61 ! again remember that fire-brand 

of rebellion.. The fnake cut in pieces, 
with the names of all the colonies wrote » 
pn each joint — with this motto, Join or 
DIE. We know too Well from that late 
affair, how ready they are tojoitiy provid- 
ed it be againft their mother-country — 
fifty times readier than when the fwords 
of the French vf^rt at their throats. — As 
to the third reafbn, 'it is contradicted by 
themfelves y for it is alfetted, on the beft 


t 3»6 ] 

authority amongft them, that they have 
doubled their inhabitants every twenty- 
five years fincc queen Elizabeth's reign.—— 
From all thefe circumAances, I think we 
have no reafon to believe the objedions 
of weight enough to bear down the natu^ 
ral courfe of things. 

But here I jfhould obferve that the bene- 
fits refulting from colonies, and the pro- 
bability of preferving their allegiance, 
greatly varies in our American ones. All 
ijlands are fccure from revolt, unlefs the 
continental power become fo great, as to 
overwhelm and wreft them from their 
duty } confequently infular fettlements are 
the moft fecurely our own. Another very 
important circumftance, in relation to all 
colonies, is the variation of produft be- 
tween the fettlement and the mother- 
country; for the great end of peopling 
new difcovered countries, is the procuring 
commodities of a different nature from 
the ftaple ones at home : Hence a fenfible 
people would always plant colonies, in cli-? 
mates totally different from their own. 

If we examine our American fettlemcnts, 
in this light of variation of produ6t, we 
fee a very material difference in their va- 


[ 2^7 ] 
lue. Their plentiful produ<5!s are fugaf, 
rice, and tobacco ; thefe are commoditiea 
which we muft purchafe of our neigh'^ 
bourS) if we did not provide them in Ame-^ 
ricay and thefe are all raifed in our foutbem 
colonies ; as to the northern ones, for in- 
'fiance, Penfyhaniaj New-Tork^ New^Ef^-^ 
landy Novafcotiay and Canada^ their pro- 
duftions are congenial with our own, and 
kxyc only to rival us in our exports and 
fiftiery : What they may be brought to 
produce in (hipping and itaval (tores, is 
in the womb Of time j a mfere uncertainty; 
that they have not yet fupplied us with 
them is a fa£i, and we may therefore reafon 
from it 

Unfortunately, our moft populous and 
powerful colonies are thefe northern ones ; 
who not pofFefling ftaple commodities, 
different from our own, betake themfelves 
to common hufbandry and manufa6lures, 
deftroying therein the vtry idea of colo- 
nies, that of confuming the mother- 
country's manufadlures, in return for the 
produ6is of a different climate. Hence 
arifes the greateft difproportion, between 
the Brittjh exports to the northern^ and to 
xhtfouthern colonies, in proportion to tke 


[ 3i8 ] 

ftumhers in each j the latter being fuperidi^ 
fifteen to one. And to this ciixrumftance^ 
. is to be added the northern colonies lom- 
ning away with qur cod-fifticry i a very 
material fupport of our navigation and 
naval power. 

If this rcafoning is jufl:, furely we oyght 
to be very attentive to what colonies all 
new fcttlers move. We (hould difcou- 
rage, and even totally obftru(9: ^// emigra- 
tions to the northern ones» and fo far 
from planting new ones, transfer' as many 
inhabitants as poffible from dbem to the 
fouthern ones j for if we run any hazard 
of lofing our colonies, or other dangers 
refulting from them, it ftrongly behoves 
us to turn them in the mean time to the 
bell: account i all which muft be to the 
foutbward ; to the north, we are to cxpe6t 

nothing but oppofition and rivalftiip. • 

The reader, I apprehend, will not think 
thefe hints foreign to my fubjeft ; for as 
our own agricultqre and population are 
made to fuffer in favour of thefe colonies^ 
a little inquiry, into the moft beneficial 
of them, cannot be unimportant; that 
while we do fuffei% it may at leaft be for 
thofe who make us a return in exchanging 


[ 3^9 1 

commodities, which we want to buy, for 
our manufactures which we want to fell. 

As to the means of converting all our 
colonies, to greater advantage than we 
have yet drawn from them, they are (like 
all the really great movements in the cir- 
cle of ix>litic6) very plain and fimple — " 
nothing can efFe6l it but bounties upon 
Jhple cammodities, vigoroufly applied. I 
am confident nothing in the trading-world 
can reiift their force j but the bounties 
hitherto given are mere nothings. 

Having thus confidered, as fully as I am 
able, thofe points of confideration, rela- 
tive to our population, which deferve aU 
pur attention ; I fliall conclude with ear- 
neftly praying to God, that the Manners of 
the People may powerfully co-operate with 
the Wifdom of fuch future Jketches of Laws^ 
as I have ventured to mention. 

[ 320 J 


HAVING in my preceding letters 
ventured to point out many of the 
omiffions in Britijh hufbandry, arid en- 
deavoured to explain fome of the mofl: im- 
portant points in Rural Oeconomy, I (hall 
now confider the means of promoting our 
Agriculture and Population^ and of extend* 
ing both to the higheft pitch, .which our 
political fyftem will allow. The (ketches 
which I have to o(Fcr on this fubjeft, I 
ihall beg leave to arrange under the fol- 
lowing heads, which I apprehend are the 
means which promife moft to attain the 
defired end. 


Never prohibit the exportation of corn i but 
in times of great fcarcity^ allow importation 

Nothing in trade, is fo dangerous as be- 
ing too free with prohibitions, and re- 
training laws ; and this truth is remark- 
able in that of coin : A prohibition loft US 
the exportation to *Su?^^e7z i fince which un- 

i 32* ] 

liicky ArcJke, we liaVe fcarceiy kni the 
Swedes a fhip-load df corh. If the porta 
are opened to foretgrt corn, it is enough, 
and will haVe a^ greit fefFe6lS as inj addi-* 
tional J)recautionS can infure ; tor it h ve- 
ry impolitic to reftrain our own merchants 
from the trade , of corn, and limit their 
carrying tf ade : a perfe£l freedom of fale 
will give a greater plenty of any commodi- 
ty than a million of prohibitions, becabfe, 
Corn being an article of trade, would, iri 
cife another nation was diftreffed as well zd 
ourfelves, be flowed in our ports on rnbre 
accounts than one, the article of the bufi-^ 
hefs would be enlarged, and we may de^ 
pend upon it, that the more We tirade in 
corn, the mWe we fliall have to 'ear. If 
is idle to imagine that fo rich a ft^ioh as 
We are, and who raife coril in general for 
exportation, can ever feel fuch a diftrefs 
for the \vdnt of bread, that opening out 
ports will not alleviate; I ani confident 
that fincc the bouhty has been giveui no 
fuch want has been felt in this kingdbm. 

Having examined the merits of the 
bounty, and t;Ke limits of exportation fo 
particularly in the firft part of thi$ work, 
it is needlefs to add more than a remark, 

y that 

[ 3" } 

that without a cooftantly free trade in 
corn, no agriculture can be flourifhing > , 
without a bounty our agriculture would 
decline > and with many prohibitions^, we 
ihoyld lofe thofe benefits, our free expor- 
' t^tion has been attended with^ 


. Abolijh tytbes^^ ^JJigning to each parfotmgt 
boufe in the kingdom a fort ion of land io the 
amount' of the mean produce of the tytbes for 
the loft ten years. 

It .i* a very poor plea againft fuch a law 
as thi^i -to mention the difficulties attend* 
ing the' execution. .The importance of it 
is too great to be neglefted, bec^iJie pro* 
prietors would fquabble and (jua^rrel ahQi}t 
the partition of lands. An exprefs law^ 
with a clauie that the ailignment of lands 
fhould throughout the whole, kingdom be ' 
finifhed'and completed within three years, 
.under {tvt^t penalties, and a monthly fine 
till the concluiionj would have an admira* 

A very little thought will convince us,^ 
that tythes are really a very great bur- 
then to agriculture j they are precifely of 


t 323 1 

ihfe t^tXit nktufe with thofc ih fottje fo-' 
reign countries, that are found to be ex^ 
ceffiveily oppreflive, viz. they are multipli^ 
able on crops and live flock j forming a 
tax on ifUfproventenfs*. The great argu- 
tMtit in favour of the prefent unequal 
land^tax^ is the benefit which refults from 
iti htmgjixed', were it changeable Avith the 
rents, how few would undertake expenfive 
improvements ! If a farm is advanced 
a*W from one to Jive hundred pounds a 
ycaf , the benefit of the improvement^ in 
free<lom from taxes, h all the improver's 5 
which gives a wonderful energy to fuch 
undertakings. But ty thes have a direct 
contrary effcft, being very frequently the 
cauft of 6ad land continuing fuch. 

The tenth of the produee is a very confi-* 
4^able tax ; for after a farmer has richly 
manured a field, drained it at a very large 
e:{pence, given it a year's fallow, fowed it 
with wheat, harvefted the crop, and paid 
two years rent for it, to pay a tenth of 
the produft of all his expences and labour 
^ b fo exceedingly burthenfome, that no 

-» s ■ 

* See th« JS^; vi^Hufiandry^ Effay i. p. 160. 

y ;2 tax 

[ 3^4 1 

tax fubfifling at prefent in England nearly*. 

The common anfwer to fuch remarks 
as thefe, that the burthen lies on the land- 
lord, and not the tenant, the rents of 
farms being in proportion, is a good one 
in particular inflances, but not in general ; 
and the exceptions to this rule,^ 
flrongeft proofs of the pernicious influence 
of tythes. 

It is at the option of the clergyman^ 
when and of whom he will receive his tythes 
in kind'y and the pra6lice (too commonly 
followed for the good of agriculture) i$ t© 
gather it only of thofe farmers who have 
the purfe and fpirit to improve their lands. 
Thbfe who cultivate their fields in an acr 
curate and truly hufband*like manner, 
feel the weight of this tax in its heaviefl: 
form; whereas the flovenly farmer, who 
a£ls in a direct contrary manner, is almofl: 

* If the rental of England amounts to 20,000,000/. 
the produSl of the lands caonot be lefs than 80,000,000 A 
the tythe of which is 8,000,000 /• which wants but a 
fifth of equalling the fum total of all the taxes paidjo 
the government by the fubjefts of Great Britain, 'lis 
true, fome deduftions are to be made on account of 
tnodus*s and parliamentary exemftioBs $ but thefe ate 
Bot confld^rabie. 

• * fuiG? 

[ 3^5 ] 

fufe of an exemption, nearly on hi§ 6\yn 
terms ; for the difference of value of the 
tythes is prodigious, though taken hoxh at 
fo much in the pound. This circum- 
ftanec therefore creates a conftantly aiting 
obftruction to improvements -, for the far- 
mer, who rented his lands ©n the expefla- 
tion of compounding as well as his prede- 
ceJlTor, finding that this vigorous cultivation 
is the fignal for a heavy and irkfome tax 
upon his diligence, rather gives up a prof- 
pe6l of profit, than fubmit to a burthen, 
which is laid on him becaufe be is indufiri^ 

cm. It is by no means furprizing, 

that fuch a caufe fliould be attended by a 
firong cfe/it 3 it is really the cafe, for the 
improvements in hufbandry, which are in 
this manner defeated, are extremely nu^ 
merous. I have little doubt, but the 
abolition of tythes would benefit the agri- 
culture of this kingdoni fome millions 

As to the equivalent, to be given the cler- 
gy, it is fo apparently fuperior in agreeable^ 
nefs^csifCy and dignity of character, fo greatly 
cppducing to an harmony between the 
paftor a|id his flock, that the very men- 

y 3 tion 

[ 326 } 

tion of the contraft is fufficient. The be; 
nefit to them would be prodigious ♦• 


Frame new P^r Laws^ 

This is one of the moft important points 
that can be attended to, in refpedi: to Ru- 
* ral Oeconomy : But as I have been fo 
particular in dwelling on it elfewhere, I 
ihall give it nothing more than the men-* 
tion here. 


Convert the wafie lands of the Ungdom ir^ 
to arable farms^ 

It is furprizingthat fo much wafte land 
ftiould remain in a kingdom, where agri« 
culture has received fuch great encourage- 
ments as in Ef^land. We have done 
much, but much remains to do. In my 
iirft letter I remarked, that 15,000,000 

^ For a further explanatioa of the opprdfOve nature 
of tythes, exemplified ia aa examiDation of M. ^< 
Jfaubari^ famous fcheme ; fee Bir -Janus Stewart's 
PaUtical Inquiry^ Vol. a. f. 568. md ^anta^ d Dif* 
4ivafitages^ p, 22^ 

of acres out of the 34,000,000 which 
England contains, might be fet afide as un- 
cultivated commons and unimproved 
woodS; Accuracy cannot be expe6i:ed ia 
^uch calculations, but we may venture 
furely to aflert, that there are 5,000,000 
/of wafte acres in this kingdom, that might 
be converted into arable farms, with little 
trouble befides jplotighing up the ferface. 
In a country where there are fuch nara- 
bers of uncultivated heaths and downs, it 
jis a childifh abfurdity to complain, in a 
public manner, of a want of plenty of 
provifions. Let tl>e kgiflattpre take the 
proper methods to bring into culture 
5,060,000 of w^fte acres; and fuch an in* 
creafe of tillage will yield us another mil- 
lion of inhabitants, at the fame time that 
it increaf§s our exportation of corn : I add 
this circumifance^ becaufe if the number 
of our people became twice as great as it 
is, the ex'portatioh fhould be encouraged j 
fpr imleis we rsiife inore corn,th?n is. eat at 
hom^^ jye'may bje certain wpjhall npjt 

Five miiriQris of' acres broke up, and 
if on verted into a regular courfe of hulban- 

V 4 ^^y* 


[ 328 J 

dry, might be brought to yield as fql* 


Firft year turnips* 

Second, barley, g qrs. per aci e. £ 

15,000,000 of quarters, at 

iS^.^^rqr. - - 13,500,000 

Third and fourth clover. 

• 1 ...» I 

Fifth wheat, 2 qrs. per acre, 
1 0,000,000 of quarters, at 

3 8 J. per qr. ;; 1: ^ 9,ooo,oop 

•> < « 



Produft of the corn alone in X 

fiveycBYS, - - 32,560,000 

In ten years, - - 65,000,000 

In twenty years, - - 130,000,000 

The produft of the chaff and ftraw of 
thefe crops, and the clover and turnips, 
would nearly pay the expences upon them ; 
but without expefting Jucb a return, lefs 
con fideratle profits would render the ex- 
ecution of fuch a fcheme of infinite confe- 
quence to the kmgdom in general. 

Nor would fuch a plan, if coolly confi- 
dered, be found at all impraflicable, fince 



[ 3^9 ] 

§ny tranS of wafte land may be incjofed 
with ditches, the banks planted witl> white 
thorn, and fecured by a dead hedge at 
top, in fields of a proper fize for farms of 
500 acres each, farm-houfes, with the 
proper ftables, cow-houfes, barns, &c. for 
every 500 acres built s and the whole f^r- 
iface covered with marie or clay, at the 
rate pf 100 loads fer acre, 40 bufhels. 
each 5 all thefe improvements may be made 
in any part of the kingdom I am ac- 
quainted with, (and I know none but dear 
ones) for the fum of Jour pounds fenjhillings 
per acre. Five millions of acres, at that 
rate, would coft 2 1,250,000/. or, in other 
words, be efFefted for one half of the mo- 
ney it coft this kingdom laft war, to bury 
twenty thoufand of her ftouteft fellows in 
the ditches of Germany. However, to 
draw no fuch melancholy comparifons, 
where is the impraflicability of raifing one 
million a year, and efFefting fo glorious a 
work in a little more than twenty years ! 
What a variety of employment^ of the moft 
valuable kind, would enfue on beginning 
the work ; it is employment alone which 
beneficially promotes population in a trad- 
ing country. Think of the vaft chain of 

3 exceed* 

[ 33^ ]. 

exceedingly advantageous confequences 
whith would refult from fucli an undertak-^ 
ing! I cannot perfuade myfclf to think 
that fuch a fcheme can be neglefted .for 
ever. But "where is the money to come from f 
——Borrow it. In the nartle of wonder, 
are we to run in debt for all the world but 
ourftlves! Let us havey3wrfi6/;/^ fubftan- 
tial, for at lead a little wing of that airy 
fabric, which our enchanters have railed 
by the twirl of their political wands. 

The only poflible means of paying off 
cur debt, of one hundred and forty mil- 
lions, is to increafe it to two hundreit 
MILLIONS. Nothing is clearer to me thaij 
this pofition. 

But to return 

It is certainly remarked, that if the 
marling or claying is omitted, the diffe- 
rence in the expence is great ; or if lels 
than 100 loads were fpread j arid that 
quantity would be too great for many 
foils. The fum which I have allowed^ is 
fufficient to forni very defirable farms; an4 
were no return to l)e made immediately to 
the national revenue^ the reality and ex- 
tent of the benefit would be too great tp 
bear the leaft doubt. But there is no want 

I sn J 

of fueb allowance $ for if we calculate thai 
value of the waftc lands^ at 4 x. an acre in 
their uncultivated ftate, were they improv- 
ed as above-mentioned, no one can doubt 
of the advance being 6 s. fuch farms 
would very rcadUy let for 10$. fer aero 
free of tythe. 

The rife of &s. on 5,000,000 

of acres, is - - 1^875,000 
Deduft i^Lper farm for re* 

pairp^ - ;^ - : i^o^CfOQ 


Peducl the intercft. of 

Zi^z^o^ooQ^ j^ per cent. 850,000 

£ 875,009 

Remains clear profit, which is . fufllcient 
to pay the intef eft ^f another twenty mil* 
lions, to be expended on fimilar under^ 

I have reckoned the wafte lands to be 
letat 4^.j^r acre; but it is well known 
th^t iJiany of the royal foreils, chafes, &c. 


[ 332 ] 

do' not produce as many pence, which 
circumflance is fufScient to extend the la* 
titude of the calculation* 

I have fuppofed the farms to be ib large 
as 500 acres, that the improvement might 
fae effe6led with lefs expence ; but it would 
be an admirable encourager of population, 
if fame wafte lands were converted into 
fmall farms, completely Jiocked^ and then 
lett to labourers who could produce a 
decent charafter, and prove their having 7, 
8, or I o children, or more alive 5 fettling 
them in fuch farms, taking no rent the 
firft.year, and afterwards no more than if 
the foil was divided into large farms. If 
fuch a plan was adopted, the expence 
would be found to amount as follows. 

Farms of 60 acres, each a houfe, and 
neceflary offices, inclofed in fields of ten 
acres each, and completely flocked with 
all the neceflary implements, furniture and 
live ftock, two ploughs, and two yoak of 
Q^ien, the foil all marled or clayed s 100 
loads per acre, would coft in die whole, 
8/, i/^s.per acre. 

Ditto marled with only 50 loads, or 
half the farm at 100, yl./^s. per acre. 



t 33i } 

Ditto,' not marled at all, $ L 14 s. 

A flight calculation " would fliow the 
amount of the expence oil any given nunji- 
ber of acres^ thus far, however, 1 fhall 
aflert that 1,000,000 of acres, half marl- 
ed, would provide for 16666 families, 
coft 7,200,000/. and after the firft year 
yield in rent (reckoning the rife 6 j. which 
on one million acres is not- much, as we 
need not fuppofe then! lett now at 4J.) 
five per cent, interefl on that fum. 

I am fenfible of the ftrong prejudices, 
which lie againft all fiich calculations, 
plans, and fchemes as this. I know how 
readily people are apt to laugh at all prd-- 
jeSis for the public good : But that h no 
reafon againft any one's beftowing a Kttfe 
time, in endeavouring to be of fome fer- 
vice to his countrymen. fuch 
noble undertakihgs^iave hrthferto been ex- 
ecuted, is that an unanfwerable proof, 
that ail are imprafticabler? I have given 
but a flight flcetch of what might be done ; 
a minute inquiry into all the particulars 
of it, woul^' prove it not 'only poffi- 
ble, but expedient. To dwell upon the 
increafe of population, from fuch a work, 


C 334 1 

IS needlefs, being fufficiently evident upon 
the bare mention of it. 

Extend the idea to all the improveablc 
:waftes of the Three KiNOi>oMSi— — 
.What a truly glorious undertaking ! Hap-* 
py the monarch whofe reign is adorned by 
Inch an event,---~Yiekl in fame, ye Ed^ 
wards and ye Henr)'^— acknowledge the 
infinite difference between eonqutfi abraadf 
and imprcvem^nt at home I 


. Fim/& tb< enlargement of the capital i and 

y^n the number tf. its inhabitants^ by Jucb 

Secondary meant as .may be judged mofi prth 

, That the oyer-grown fize of Lmdon is 
pernicious to tlie population ci the king* 
dom, there can be no doubt» There can 
be no ftronger proof of this, than the pro- 
portion between the births and burials. 
The difference between great cities and the 
country, is calculated by the ingenious M. 
Bertrandy at 43 to 25 *, aiid the wonder 

♦ Mimures de la Btrne Sccieti, 1765. 2cl part p. 8 1* 

i 335. 1 

* - ■ 

is, that it js not greater 5 in London it moff: 
indubitably is owing to the exceflivc 
numbers of people crowxled into a fnisill 
compals, ?ind the quantity of fea-coal . 
confumed ~— — we cannot be farprized 
at the Ipfs of people in that great city, 
if we confider the following fails 
in opiy one inftance, that of infants, 
which I have extrafted from Mr. Han^ 

^* Infants die at the rate of only four- 
teen or fixteejj in thphomdred, in 'Villages, 
fifty, a hundred, or two hundred miles 
from London j but there thcy^ die fixtj or 
feventy in a hundred. • - •'* * 

Permit tm to afk, would not ^ any man 
ii; his fenfes conclude, after the death of 
three or ^ four children, in ^^ohe woman's 
hands, that the nurfe. was very unfortu- 
nate ; and after five or fix, that fhe -was • 
Very ignorant, or very wicked ? But when 
in fo fhort a period the mortality of fevea 
or eight had happened, would it riot cre- 
ate a fufpicion that fhe ftarvcd them^ or 
gave ih^m Jkepsng-potions ? And would not 
the /ame common fenfe and candour lead 
one to think, that upon ftdrig the 

^ eighteefflb 


[ 33« ] 

eighteenth child brought within this parith^^ 
nurfe's den, that thofe who fciit them, 
preferred that they fhould die ? 

The parifh-officer alluded to (in another 
traft, written by Mr. Hanway) it feems, is 
a (hrewd, fenfible man i but by the mere 
force of cuftom, and the habit of burying 
children, becoming as callous as a flint, 
upon being folicited on the behalf of a 
young woman, to allow her two (hillings 
and fix-pence a week, for fome time, in 
order to fupport her child 5 it "being alledg^ 
ed that this is the common price of a 
pariifh-nurfe ; he anfwered> " Yes, that is 
very true ; but then after a month or fix 
weeks, we heard no, more of the child, 
whereas your young woman will probably 
preferve hers/* , , 

Hath it not alfo been declared, in 
open court in Guildhall^, by the mafter of 
a wcik-houfe, of a very confiderable pa- 
riih, that not a fingle child was reared in 
his parifii in fourteen years ? 

And what think you of a cafe, where- 
in a bond of 30 /. giye|i under conditiori 
to find a child 3 s. a week in the mother's 
hands, was compounded for i ih 5^. with a 


[ 337 ] 
\\evf to bring the child to the worl:>^ 

If thefe fa£ts are true, which is indubi- 
table, can we wonder that upon the whole 
number in the bills^ 24 die to 16 that are 
born ? 

The lofs of th? human fpecles in that 
deftru6live city, will appear from the fol- 
lowing table : 

Burials withii\ the bills of 
mortality, for 150 years 
paft, exclufive of 200,000 
by the plague, - - 2,631,137 

The chriftenings only - 1,806,769 
Confequently the diminu- 
tion of fubjedts, by wafle 
in thefe cities, is - 824,368 

Including the plague, - 1,024,568 
This, upon a medium^ is 

annually, 7 - 6,829 

The number, upon a me- 
dium of the three years, 
1763, 1764, 1765, - 8,089 

In 150 years longer, the 

lofs will be - • 1,213,350* 

• Hawwaft Lttkrh VoL 2. p. i3i» 

Z Evctt 


i 338 ] 

Even in the laft 80 years, 
the lofs is upwards of * 


-That the plague ought to be reckoned 
in* the lofs, no one can difpute, fince its 
rage was certainly owing to the number . 
of people crowded into a clpfe unwholfomc 
fppt J. 


t Tiree Tra^s, p. 206^ 

X C'eft unc experience elernelle qucdans les grander 
Villes, le genre de uie ordinaire abregc beaucoup la 
vie des hommes en gentral. On y renyerfe I ordre des 
faifons, la nature y eft toujours prife an rebours 5 
les Hommes y oi>t bLioia de deux natures ; d*abord de 
cellqqui leur elt commnne avcc tout le genre bumaio; 
&enfuit6, d'une autre qui leur (ocvnc ud fccpnd tem- 
peramment, pour jefifter a un certain fyfleme de vie 
qui neft pas nature!. Regie generaie : dans reus les; 
Royautnes o& il fe trouve plufieurs capitales extreme* 
ment peupfees, le reile de Tetat manque toujours d'ha- 
l>itans9 parce que la population de ces grandes VHles 
jpe fe foutient que par le recrutement contihuel desi 
provinces, qui s'epuifent a la fin d'homme^ pour elles^ 
Jnterits di la France mal EnUndus^ tome i, p. 33 1. 

Cette population des grandesVilles, toujours formee aux 
depens de celle de la canipagne occafionne un vuide dan$ 
Tagriculture, qui eft mal repare ^ar ^augmentation de 
quelques arts. L'influence de ceuxci ne s'etend point 
affez au loin. Le corps general de la Monarchie nq 
s'ep refTent pas aflcz. Ih. p. 40. 

Enfin> qu'ainfi que la mifere,Texce8 des richefles, Ic 
luxe & la mollefTe des, villes foat devenues contraires a^ 
la fecondite comme au nomor^ des.0anage$r Let 
Avani. {*f DeJavanU p. 322, 


( 339 ] 

The lofs of 8000 annually, inftead of 
ih^ gain of 168,000, which would be m 
proportion to the many villages in thq 
country (24 in ibo) is amazing, and 
when confidered in conjun6i:ion with 
the lofs by war, ^c. (^c. is fufficient 
to explain, from whence comes our 
lofs of one million and half of people with- 
in a century ; the calculation of modern 
politicians. But fuppofe only 10 in 100, 
the gain in the country, the lofs by 

London IS near 80,000 annually and if 

5 in 100 is taken, yet it amounts to near 
40,000, which is prodigious; and a power- 
fully pleading argument, for flopping at 
leaft all further addition to fo pernicious a 

I have heard great complaints of the 
dearnefs of Jiving at London : it is a na- 
tional misfortune, that it is not ten times 

Great cities, fays MontefquleUj are deftruftive to fo- 
ciety, beget vice and diforder of all kinds, ftarvc the 
remoter proviaces, and even ftarve themfclves. UEf- 
frit dt$ Loix. 

. I (hould not have given thefe authorities, for wfeat 
was already proved, with refpeft to London^ in the text, , 
did they not (hew that foreigners are ftruck with the 
fame ideas, from viewing the elFefts of Paris^ a city 
which contains 2 or 300,000 fouls lefis than Lond.n. 

2i z dearer* 

t 340 ] 

dearer. To find fault with good roads^ 
or any fuch public conveniences, in thiar 
age, would have the appearance of para- 
dox and abfurdity ; but it is neverthelefsr 
a faft, that giving the power of expedi* 
tious travelling, depopulates thQ king- 

Young men and women in the country 
villages, fix their eye on LdnJm, as the 
laft ftage of, their hopes ^hey enter into 
fcrvice in the country for Kttfe ctfe but to 
raife money enough to go to London^ which 
was no iuch eafy matter, when a ftage* 
coach was four or five days creeping zxt 
hundred miles ; the fare and the expences 
ran high. But now I a country fellow, 
one hundred miles froQi Londotiy jumps on: 
to a coach-box in the morning, and for 
eight or ten (hillings gets to town by 
night ; which makes a material difference; 
befides rendering the going up and dQwn 
fo eafy, that the numbers ivha have feetk 
London are increafed ten fold, and of 
courfe ten times the boafts are founded in 
the cars of country fools, to induce them 
to quit their healthy clean fields, for a jtc* 
gion of dirt, ftink, and noife. And the 
number of young wonien that fly thither 

r 34* y 

is iilmoft incredibte. Some giiefs, hdW- 
ever, may be given, from the ten thoufand 
which are faid every year to be there 

, But is aH tbis^ fay fome, a reafonfor bav-^ 
ivg bad toads f By no means : good roads 
are excellent conveniences ; all I would 
prove is, that as the means of increafing 
the inhabitants of London multiply — ^ 
fbme fpirited meafures (hould be exerted ^ 
in oppofition to them. Thus much how- 
ever I will venture J I had much rather fee 
a crofs road converted into a turnpike, 
than one that leads to London^ 

Good however as the latter became, 
there was yet another circumflance, which 
Ud fair for keeping the over-grown city 
within bounds : The fmaU-pox hung in 
Urroremy and frighted millions at the idea 
oi London. What a change in this artifle 
too L In a year or two there will not be a 
lout in the country, that has not been in- 
oculated i from which moment all bars 
are removed, and whip he flies to make his 
fortune at London. I know, in the extent 
#f no great number of parifhes, near an 
)iundred inftances of this. 

^ ..... Z 3 T^« 

I ^ 

[ 342 I 

The influence of inoculation, in tin* 
rcfpecl, I know, to be pernicious j but 
who from thence would argue againft fo 
excellent a pra6lice in general : Nothing is 
further from my thoughts ; but I muft at 
the fame time be allowed to remark, that 
it is a ftrong additional reafon for throw- 
ing obftru6lions upon the increafe of Lon- 
don. If every thing tends to add thou- 
fands yearly to that city's inhabitants, at 
a time, when the pernicious effedls of her 
prefent numbers arc fo well known, furely 
it greatly behoves the legiflature to confi- 
dcr of fome means, of not only preventing 
all future increafe, but of reducing the 
prefent populoufnefs of it. Dircft pro- 
hibitions, in fuch cafes as thefe, are con- 
trary to natural, as well as artificial liber- 
ty, and ought never to be framed; but 
the whole fyftcrti, of even Britijh liberty, 
allows thetreftriftions which operate thro* 
taxes. To tell a man that he fhall not live 
in London^ is violating the nature of our 
liberty ; but to make him pay heavily for 
living there, \% totally confonant to our 
ideas- Inftead of encouraging fchemes 
;jfor fupplying London with provijSons 
cheap, render them dearer. Let the win- 

t 34^ ] 

lidw tax be doubled or trebled, and with 
Ho exceptions. Lay a tax upon all fervanta 
kept at London. In (hort, form fuch a 
fyftem of expf nee upon all that live therej 
of the lower fort of people, as to put a 
ftop to the numbers that daily flock thi-* 
ther, and even drive out many that are 

already fettled there--^ 1 am not infen- 

fible to the obje6llons that fuch a plan is 
open to : Ail I have to fay, is this 5 draw 
a comparifon between the prefent evils re- 
fulting from the fizeof the capital, and the 
prejudices which arife againft local taxes j 
which of thefe fhould give way ? Which 
are moft important, the intereft of fome 
of the inhabitants of Londm^ or thofe of 
the whole nation ? 

But contrary to all this feafonihg, a 
late author, who has wrote twojarge quar- 
to volumes, feemingly in defence of all mo- 
dern politics, (in them, whatever is^ is right) 
attempts to perfuade his readers, that large 
cities are beneficial, inftead of being dif-* 
advantageous ** He fays, " The prin- 
cipal pbjeftions to great cities, are, * that 

* health there is not fo good» that marriages 

* are not fo frequent as in the country, that 

Z 4. *debau- 


[ 344 1 

^ debauchery prevails, and that abufes are 
• multiplied/ To this I anfwcr, that thefe 
objections lie equally againft all cities, and 
not peculiar to thofe complained of for 
their bulk ; and that the evil proceeds 
more from the (pirit of the inhabitants^ 
than from the fize of the capital. As for 
the prolongation of life, it is more a private 
than a public concern. It is farther urg- 
ed, that the number of deaths exceed the 
number of births in great cities; confe- 
quently fmaller towns, and even the coun- 
try is ftripped of its inhabitants, in order 
to recruit thefe capitals. — ^Here I\dcny, 
firft, that in all capitals the ntimber of 
deaths exceed the number of births ; for in 
Parii it is otherwife. But fuppofing the 
ailertion to be true, what conclufion caqr 
be drawn from it, except that many peo- 
ple who arc born in the country die in 
town. That the country ihould fumifti 
cities with inhabitants is no evil. What 
occafion has the country with fupernumc* 
rary hands * ?" 

• Inquiry into Polificai Ofconemyt Vol, i- p. 5J^ 


C 345 1 
TJiis paflagc contains a very €urIoT» 
piece of reafoning: Let us examine iu 
^be obje^ionsy on account of health, marri^ 
ages^^ debauchery y and abufes, lie equallj 
againji all cities. This is diametricalljf 
contrary to faft j but reafon alone is fuffi-^ 
cicnt to refute it. Can any one imagine 
that health ftands as good a chance in the 
midft of the ftlnking effluvia of near a 
million of carcafles — without reckoning 
the attendant cattle and live animals— 
breathing th^ fea-coal ' fmoak .from the 
chimneys, of above 105,000 hdufes? and 
otifting five miles from country air ? Axc^ 
not thefe circumftances, I fay, naore un- 
favourable to health, than the fame a6ling 
in a city, which contain but i or 200,000 
fouls f Will not every one of thefe evils 
leflen in proportion to the fmaller number of 
inhabitants ? Tht negleSl of marriage — de^ 
bauchery/ znd abufeSy arc the confequences 

♦>Mr« Hamvay kiferts in his Letters, tfie chrineniiigt, 
in«rrl»ges, and butials la two markeNto^ns ; by 
which it appears, that the chrifleDiogs exceed* the 
bdirials 21 per cent, ioftead of falling (hort 30, as at 
L9Hd9n, Likewtfe 700 iohabitaats produced 10 mar- 
riages annually; Lwdon{mxh. 700,000 fouls) (faould, to* 
be equal, produce i«,ooo, inftead of which; ihe has* 
o»ly 2^350. Wbat a coatraft I 

[ 346 1 

of exceffive luxury : Is a city of two hufl- 
dred thoufand inhabitants, ever found as 
luxurious as one of a million ? It is the 
prodigious confluence of wealth that caufes 
luxury ; with this- addition, that where- 
cver there are moft men, ♦ mojl villany will 
neceflarily abound. So far are all cities 
from being in thefe refpe^s alike, that 
few, if any, can equal London ^ for It is 
not only the feat of government, the court, 
and the exchequer, but the greateft trad- 
ing emporium in the whole world; fo that 
caufes that do not often join, unite there, 
and mufl: be attended with proportionable 
effects. But the author afferts, that tbeje 
evils proceed mare from tbefpiritoftbe inba^ 
bitants^ than the fize of tbeir city^ which is 
a ftrange abfurdity and confufion of terms \ 
becaufe the fpirit of the inhabitants pro^ 
ceeds from the fize of the city j ergo^ the 
evils proceed from the fize of it. Who can 
be fo weak as to imagine that the luxuri- 
ous debaucheries of London^ are vices 
innate in the minds of the inhabitants; 
and not owing to the influx of riches, and 
the influence of example ! Why do not 
common proftitutes bedeck themfelves and 
walk forth for their prey in country 

9 ' towns? 

C 347 1 

towns? Is it becaufe the minds of their 
inhabitants are virtuous ?" It is ridiculous 
to fuppofe that half a million of people can 
crowd together in one fpot, and not give 
rife to fifty times the vice that is to be 
found in ten cities, of fifty thoufand each. 
It is aftoniftiing, that a irian of any pene- 
tration could fall into fuch ftrange abfur- 
Aties. He further fays, That the proloH^ 
gation of life u a private^ not a public con- 
cern. Thefe, it muft be confefled, are 
admirable politics ! I muft refer the reader 
to the preceding pages, where he will 
find, that infants in the country die 14 in 
looi in London y 70 in 100: However, 
this, according to Sir James, is a private 
affair; the proiongatioii of their lives 
is certainly no public concern. Far- 
ther, The country s lofing her inhabitants is na 
evil: What occafion has (he for fupernumerary 
hands f If the reader turns to the Political 
Inquiry, he will find many fuch ftrokes as 
thefe. All forts of fubje<Ss are reduced to 
combinations and principles ; and by ftrange 
political legerdemain, are jumbled about 
and fquared into maxims^ and them once 
gained, are applied to every thing j thus 
agriculture is found to receive no benefit 


t 348 J 

Itowifupirnumerary hamls — Cities drain tht 

country of numbers ; but this is no evil^ 

becaufe the country wants not fupemu- 
merary bands.— Such chains of reafoning 
will not ftand the teft of examination. Be* 
caufe ther^ are fuch hands as fupernume-^ 
raries, it is at once concluded, that the 
city purges it (an expreflion of our au- 
thor's) of no others. But let me a(k thkl^ 
writer, whether hale youths of eighteen 
and twenty, who have been brought up to 
the plough, are fupernumeraries ? Whc-, 
ther the country wants to be purged o( 
others; who are introduced to ofie country 
fervice^ only to rub off their rufticity, and 
fit them for the capital ? What country is 
fick of producing hale wenches, that make 
good dairy women, and farming fervants ? 
^ That the country has fupernumeraries, I 
agree ; but none of them go to London^ in 
hopes of being waiters at bawdy-houfes and 
taverns ; or the girls, kept-miftrefles and 
ftreet-walkers. The country is purged in- 
deed ; but precifely of that aliment flic 
would wiih to keep and digest. If a great 
city is an evil, the increafuig it is the fame ; 
hut the increaling it, by robbing the coun- 
try of its mQft valuable hands*~until pro* 


[ 349 ] \ 

per ones are fcarcdy to be found for 
cultivation, (the cafe in many parts, of 
^Er^land) is fo far from being a benefit, 
that jt is a nioft pernicious eviL 

Before I conclude this fketch of the con-*' 
fctjnenccs of the capital, I ftiall mention 
another circumftance, which has an im^ 
mediate affeft upon agriculture i and that 
is the lofs of manure. A flight calculation 
will give us fonle idea of thisv 

London annually confumcs 

2 1 ,600,000 buftiels of cbals; 

now a bufliel I have founds 

by experiment, yields a peck 

of afhes> that is 5,400,000 

buftiels ; which, at i-^d. per JT^ 

bufliel, is - - 33,756 

There are 105,000 houfes in 

that city, which certainly 

make, upon an average, and 

exclufive of coal aflies, four 

load of manure annually, 

each of 40 buflicls : It is to 

be remembered, that a vaft 

number of tradefmen make 

• twenty times that quantity j 

[ 359 1 

for inflancc, bakers wood- 

afhes, ftarch-makers, dif^ 

tillers, brewers, fugar-ba- 

kers, Gfr. &c. &c. this 

amounts to 420,000 loads, JT 

which, at 2 5. 6^. is - 52,500 

The author of the T'bree Traifs^ 

reckons the horfes kept ia 

London^ at 20,000; which 

certainly make each 20 load 

of dung *, or 400,000 

loads, which at 2 ^. is - 40,000 
There are killed annually at 

London 41,000 bacon hogs; 

35,000 of thefe, rauft at 

leafl be fatted there : I rec- 
kon two loads of dung to 

each, which cannot be over 

tlie truth, as they are there 

fo long in fatting ; 70,000 

load, at 4^. (it is much 

better than that of any other . 

cattle) is - - 14,000 

One hundred' and forty-fix 

thoufand, nine hundred and 

thirty pork hogs, of which 

• In the country^ where they are kept only the ^otcr 
half year m the (table, they make 10 or i%. 


I 351 I 

J reckon 80,000 fatted at 
London^ and two-thirds as 
many loads of dung, or ^ 

53,000, at 45. - - Jo,6qq 

There is no finer manure than 
the rubbifh mortar of old 
houfes when pulled down ; 
that and the manure from 
fires, and the rubbifli of the 
brick-kilns ; cow-yards, the 
yiddance of privies, and nu- 
meroais other articles, not 
contained under the fore- 
going heads, 200,000 loads, 
at 3 i. r - ^ 30,000 

^dd the profit upon this quan- 
tity, which cannot be efti- 
mated at lefs than double 
the amount ; if it was not 
^ that, it would never anfwej: 
to manure at all, ^ n 361,700 

Total lofs by this article p. ann. £ 542,550 

As to the quantity really ufed- by the 
farmer?, it is very inconsiderable, com- 

. f 352 I 

pared to the whole quantity, and I hare 
reafon to think, does not exceed what is 
lo^ in the purlieus oi London^ not reckon* 
ed in the above account ; and the quan* 
tity in that city is confiderably more than 
minuted, for numerous articles are not in- 
cluded : the fullage of the ftrcets I take no 
notice of, bcqaufe it may be faidto be ow- 
ing to London being what it is ; and yet 
if the 700,000 people were divided into 
towns of 10,000 cach> there wopld be 
much fullage^ and none loft* This flight 
iketch, though it cannot boaft:. minute ac« 
curacy^ yet is fufficient to prove at leafl*, 
that a very ctmjiderable lofs is yearly fufiained 
fy agriculture^ in the quantity of ufelefs ma^^ 
nure made at London^ 


Reduce greatly the prices of the necefarks 
of life^ and tboje of lahur in proportion* 

To effeft thefe, in a manner agreeable 
to the conftitution and liberty of Great 
Britain J would he of infinite confequence 
to agriculture and manufactures. I have al« 
ready attempted to explain thereafons why 
the^;^ would do mifchief without the fecond: 


[ 353 ] 

nor do I fee any thing impra6licable in 
keeping a confiderable ballance between 
labour and provifions. Our laws at prefent 
allow the jaftices in feflions to rate the 
price of labour. An explicit a£l of par- 
liament ftiould fix the proportion between 
them, naming every degree : for inftance, 
take of wheat houfhold bread — rye ditto — 

rice — potatoes — cheefe mutton-^— beef 

——veal — pork — malt * — candles and 

Iqap, of each one pound ; caft up the 
prices, and take the average, and then or- 
dain that when fuch an average is fo and 
fo, the price of a day's labour of twelve 
hours fhall be fo and fo, one hour and a 
half to be allowed for breakfaft and din- 
ner: And the proportion, between the 
price oi piece-work and a day's labour be- 
ing found, ordain the fame proportion 
between provifions and that, I only men- 
tion this fcale as one way of determining a 

As to the means of reducing the prices of 
provifions, by increafing their quantity, 
1 apprehend the following would be effec- 

* The mean price of malt being found, a very Tittle 
trouble would at any time tell the price of a pound. 

A a I. 

[ 354 ] 

I. Lay a very heavy tax upon all bories ; 
and with a part of its produce give for 
three years a fmall bounty, upon working* 

Rather than fo exceedingly a beneficial 
law (hould be loft, ^ tbrmgb caufes mt pro^ 
per to be mentioned^ let race and coacb-horfis 
be exempted. 

One million fterling a year migbf be 
raifed on horfes, with greater eafe in the 
coIIe£lion, and equally in the taxation, 
than mod of our taxes can boaft. 

II. Take off the duties upon the fol- 
lowing articles, fait — candles— Joap^ lea^ 
tber — coalsy except at Lo;?^«— — and beeri 
all thefe taxes raife but 540,000/. and one 
upon horfes, would greatly more than pay 
it, and yield a bounty upon oxen *. 

III. Take off the duties upon tea, and 
fubjedt the houfes in which tea is drank 
to a limited excife. 

This tax fhould be abfolutely ahned at 
the poor : It might eafily be framed fa as 
not to give greater offence to the Hberty of 
the fubjeft, than many others already in 

* The author of the Pnfent Stati, p. 98, 99. has 

Sketched this matter more fullj. 

4 being.' 

f S55 ] 
hmkg^ Bat tinleft tea-driftkmg it put an 
eftd to among the poor, no grtaH and be- 
Hefiem f^rAy of ntee^ks ean efifue. 

IV. Give a bounty of 5 /• fet acre on? 
JlU f»oKatoes thar are iCoeceeded by wheats 

V. Lay fof five yetars a duty of 20 j. ort 
evtfy calf killed^ {dV to be cotiikkred as 
^b, tin twc^ years eld) or f eaftifig pig 
expofed in market ^ the laft to be levied by 
die dlerk» e^ tlie markets, the firft by the 

Thefe five* articles would infallibly efFeft 
the V(Fi(hed fdr ei>d| and exeeediftgly pro- 
mote tht |>opiilation, agriciilt-ufe, i^anu- 
H^nrt^y and trade of Bri/oih* 

Vnite Inland t$ Or eat Britain. 
A fubjeft pregnamt with important con- 
jfe(|t9ence! the lull difeuffion of which 
would requite a voltnae. Well might the 
mi\m of The Effiays m Bujbandry declare, 
that were this timori to take place, the vis 
inertia of the Britijh empire would be equal, 
if not fuperior to any one power in the 
world *. 

* EJfay I. p. 61. ' • 

A a 2 I 


[ 356 ] 
I could extend thefe hints for improve*- 
ments much further ; but too many ac- 
cumulated particulars are apt to confound 
ideas, and give an appearance of imprac- 
ticability of execution; befides, thofe I 
have already named, would, I humbly 
apprehend, be attended with fuch effects, 
that fmaller matters would be found of 
little comparative confeqiience— — 
' Sir M. Decker y it is true, has pointed 
out with great clearnefs the effefts of tax- 
es in railing the price of all the necefla- 
ries of life : nor can there be any doubt 
but that the immenfe riches of this coun- 
try, and the infinity of taxes raifed in it, 
muft have fuch efFefts j but thefe are caufes 
which I have purpofely omitted to men- 
tion (though the moft powerful) becaufe 
all propofitions of amendment would be 
idle and abfurd, even in the idea ; but as 
ftrong an efFeft as they are attended with, 
yet other points that are poffible to be 
remedied, are of vaft confequence, and as 
fuch I have confidered them. 

f 357 1 

S Y L V JE: 




O N 





Diu maltumque dubitavi, an HOS LI6ELLOS, qui mihi 
fabito calore, Sc quadam faftiimndi volnptare fiuxcrant (com 
fioguli Sejfinu meo prodiifi^Ql) copgregatos ipie dimitterem. 
Sedet CUtlCEM legimtss,. & BATRACHOMYOMA- 
CHIAM etiam agnofdmus. 

Statu Syh. in Prafaf. 

s ' %♦ 

A a3 

C 358 1 


Comparative Profit of Paflure and Arable 


THE foUovying cakulatiof) of th© dif- 
ferent profit attending arable and 
pa/iure-Iandy is not dr^wn up nrercly from 
fancy, but from accounts I have kept of 
niy pwp props, ai^d (he f nfprai^tioii I Jisye 
gained from feveral fenfible farmers. 

I take twenty acres, and fuppofe them 
an addition to a fiarm ; liut { ifaavld |k- 
mife, fuch an one as will require fome ad- 
ditional cattle to be kept for it, perhaps 
two horfes : but a farm of fifty pounds 
per annum may be k> circuBiftaiiced ^ to 
fpquire |io material f}:^ndli)g extraordi^^y 

4£}(pen«:es for iucb m ^^tm^ m wkvk 
cafe the piou^ngs, &c. will hot ooft n«ar 
what I have eftimated them at ; but the 
faire^ way is the fuppofition I have made. 
We reckon nothing is cither gotten or loft 
by four fhillings per acre for a clean earth- 


[ 359 ] 

Calculation of the expences and profit of 
farming n ploughed or pafiure-field tfiwen^ 
ty acresfor nine years ^ on afuppofition that 
it is not a farm by itfelf^ but an addition 
to another <f ffty pounds per antrum, the 
foil wet and loojey a woodcock^, brick-eartb 
on the fvrface^ j or eighteen inches deep ^ and 
under that a very good fiiff cUiy^ The field 
improved by land draining^ 

RrftYcar, Falknr. 

/. s, d. 

Rent tnd chargcS) - - - 1500 

Fbpft ploughing, a dtstn eartli, - 400 

SeeoDd ditto, ribblipg it clofe acrofs f , 400 

Harrowing it acroTs, - - - 050 

Rolliag, - - - * '- 030 

Third earth, an half ploaghing, - 2 10 o 

Fonrtb, a clean earth, - - 400 

29 18 o 

■ m iiiiiii n »i—i ^^ 


* LooTe, damp, hollow ground ; it is difficult to 
give an accurate defcription of any foil, few having the 
exquifite talents at defcription, which is fo remarkable 
in a late Yolume of poems, Entitled Ti:te Amaranth ; 
tviierdn it is difficult to (ay which is moil confpicuous ; 
the excellence of the fentimen/Sy or the elegance of their 
4&'{/}. As to the reaiba of ipy quoting it here, take 
the follpwing defcription of a go^ foil: It is not only 
truly poetic, but adioirably juft: 

A a 4 The 

+ This u raifing k into jialf ridges alternately hi^h and 

[ 36o ] , 

Second Year, Barley. /. s. V. 

Rent, tec. - - - 15 o o 

Firft ploughing, a clean earth, - 400 

Harrowing down the ridges, - - 050 

Expences of manuriog, at twenty loads 
, per acre, and fpreading ^be manure, 

fuppofed to be at the farmer's houfe, 10 O o 
Second plonghing, the fowing earth, as 

it may be done with a double-breaded 

plough, to fhut up the fmall ridges, 

called in SulTolk barks, that and the 

harrowing, - - — - 400 

Eight quarters fix bufhels of feed7barley, 

at feventeen ihilUogs per quarter, - 7^9 
Two bn(hels and a half of clover-feed, 

at twenty-five (hillings per huihel, "^ 
Harrowing and water-furrowingj . 
HarveftiDg, two (hillings and fix-pence 

per ftcrc, - - r ^ 

Carry over, 47 16 3 

The well-turn'd foil with auburn brightnefs (hone, 

Mellow'd with nitrous air and genial fun: 

An harmony of mold, by nature mixt ! 

Not light as air, nor as a cement fix'^d': 

Juft firm enough t'embrace the thriving root. 

Yet give free expanfe to the fibrous (hoot j 

Dilating, when diAurb*d by labVing hands. 

And fmelliug fweet when (how'rSrrefre(h the lands. 

Chriji^s ParabU of the Sower ^ pu 8- 

If the reader turns to the Georglcs o{ Virgil \ the 
writers De Re Rujiica^ particularly Varro ; and the 
Greek Gtopcnii ' VLUthors^ he will find that no circum- 
ftance in ,the defcription of well-ronditioned foil is 
omitted in the above few lines ; and modern experience 
iu this inflance has gfven the fiatbp of truth to t{iQ 
writings of the anti^nts^ 

3 ^ 




2 10 

[ 36i 3 

/. s. i. 

Brought over 47 1 6 3 

ThrefliiDg eighty quarters, at -one fhil- 

Jing per quarter, • - - 4 

Carrying out eighty quarters, at eight 
times, eight pounds ; but as back car- 
riage may fometimes be got, fay - 50^ 
Expences eight times at market, ^\ - i 10 o 

O: O 

Third Year, Clover. 

Rent, &c. - - 

Cutting twenty acres, and harvefting it^ 
Threlhing thirty- two bufhels of clover- 
feed, at four (hillings per buihel, 
Expences of carrying the feed out, and 
at market, - - - 

Weeding the clover, - 















Fourth Year, Wheat. 

Rent, &c. - - - 15 o O 

Ploughing, harrowing, and water-fur- 
rowing the clover-land, and fowing 
the wheat, five ibillings and fix-pence 
per acre, - - - 5 10 O 

Five quarters of feed, - - 800 

Weeding, - - - r id o 

Barvefling, including all expences, five 

(hillings per acre, - .- -^00 

Threfhing fifty quarters, - - 500 

Carrying out ditto, at five goings, back 

carriagethreeof them, and at market, 300 
^ Haulming, at one (hilling fix-pence, - i ib o 

44, 10 o 

f 3^ I 

Fifth Year» Fallow; 

Rciir, &e. - «- 

Expend the (ame as the firft ]rear» 

KxthYcar, Wheat. 

licqty tec. . . • 

Maourltig, the materials fuppofed to be 

in the farmer's yard. 
Five quarters of feed blew-cbaffvheat, 
Sowing farth^ > . . 

Wfcding, ^ - . 

Harvefting, - • »» 

TlKcfliing fixty quarters, at two (bil- 

h'ogs aud fonr-peu^e per quartf r, 
Cafpyiiig out ditto, at fix times, as be- 

(pre, . . - - 

SevfAih y^v, Wjiitc Oats, 
R<i>t, &c. ... 

Firft ploughii]^» 9 dean earth, 
Water-furrowipgt ... 
Second ploagbiAg, a di^an ear^. 
Wjit^rrf arrowing, ... 
Third ploughing, fowing earth, ai)d 

Ten quarters of feed. 
Weeding, . . - 

Jiar veiling, two (hillings and fi;( -pence 

per acre, - - - 

Tbrclbing jQxty quarters,, 
Ca^ryiag out fix times and marketing, - 









^— *. 

. ! 




















2 ] 



3 ' 




t 368 1 ' 

E^h Y^ar, Tares and Turnips, 

Rent, fifc. - - •* 15 ^ P 

One clein earth, and harrowing ten 

acres for tares, and -vater furrowing, 

ai^d KoUing, - « . 

Two qi)arters and half of feed-4BWS, 
Cutdfig* makfog, loading, andftackin^ 

of fifteen load» of . <«re fodder. 
Ploughing uj^ the tare-lasd, a dean 

eaith, • - - - 

Dit^ a^rofs, -another clean «arth. 
Half ploughing it, ^ . . 

fflrft ploughing for turnips, tea acres, a 

ct^nscarth, • r 

fiecMd ploughing, dnawkig^^he -ridges 

foto Darks, - • «. 

Third pliDughing, ribbling it acrofs. 
H arr o w in g it flat, * - 
Fourth ploughing, a dean -aarifi ; draw 

it on to the fleach, .- ' - 

Jifiji pjpughing, fowing earth, ^rcb it 

up, and harrowing, 
Turnip-feed, -. - - 

Firfl hoeing, ;it four fluHings per ^cre^ 
Second ditto, at two ihiBIngs and |Sx- 

pence^ - - - « 






P % 





























Ninth Year, WJifiat swd JB*cky. 

Rent, &c. - - - - . 15 Q 

Ploughfog and fowing die tara-httd wMi 

wheat, water-furrowing, &c« - 2 10 t> 

Carryover 17 10 o 

C 364 ] 

/. i. d. 

Brought .ovdr:i 7 10 o 
Two quarters and an half of feed red- 

ftalkcd wheat, -_ -. -.400 

Weeding, /• • . - .0 15 o 

Harvefting, - . . - . 2 10 • o 

Haukniog, . , . - . o 15 o 

Threfliiag thictyquarters,. . - ' - 300 
Carrying out ditto, &C. - - 2 10 o 

Floi^higg and fowing the taroip-Iand 

with barley, barrovving, rolling, and 

w^ter-f arrowing, . - • 2 10 o 

Four quarters of feedrJ^^rky^ . .. - 340 

Weeding, ^ , -026 

Harvefting, ..«.:.. -j. . -150 

Thrpfhjpg thirty-five quarters, - . i- 15 o 

Carrying out thirry-fiv^quarters^. , - .1 10 o 


41 6 

P R (> D U C E! 

"• • ,FI.rft Year. 

Sheep-feed worth, ." - ,' . i lo o 

~ '. Second. Year. 

EigKty quarters of barley,,.at fifteen Ihil- 

Ungs^per quarter, ",- ' -' - 64 o o 

Feed for cattle, - - -200 

65 o o 

Third Year. 

Feed of clover before it Is leaded, - 20 o O 

Thirty rtwo huftiels oLclover-feed, at one : * 

pourfd^ five Ihillingj pejr- bufliel, - 40 <> I P 

Feedrafter feed, - , - , • x- /' ^ 00 


1 .. ..J ,62 o o 

[ 365 ] 

• Fourth Year. 

Fiftyquarters of wheat, at thirty (hillings 

perquarter,( r ' - : ": - 

Feed for cattle, - - - 

Fifth Year. 


Sixth Year. 

, Sixty quarters of wheat, at twenty eight 
fliillings-per quarter. 
Feed for cattle, . - " -■ : " 

Sefenth Year. 

Sixty quarters of white oats, at fixteen 

ihillings per qilMter, 
Feed for cattlej 

i . #^« ^^ ^ 

Eighth Year. 

Fifteen loads of tares. 

Ten acre$of turnips to buy cattle in, and 
fatten on them, to fell off in the fpring, 
worth three pounds per acre, 

r ' -^ 
I IC) • o 

• \ n 

C • • 

76 10 o 

Ninth Year. 
Thirty quarters of wheat, at twenty- 
nine (hillings per quarter, • 


I 10 o 

84 o o 

1 10 o 

8.V io^ o 

d 'M' ^ (^i ar V| . ... 

48 o o 


50 o o 

4' .^ "■ 

15 o o 

30 o o 


45 o o 

43 10 o 

Cafry over 43 10 o 

[ 366 ] 

]Sr6(rght over 43 lo o 
Peedy •* * - '^ o t^ t% 

Thirey-lh^ quarters of barley, at fifteea 

(Ulfogs per quarter, ' -» •* 26* ^ 6 

Feedi - - - •100 


71 10 


Rrft Year, Fallow. 

• •» w « 

» tf 4 • 

1^ it 
I 10 

29 » « 


Second Year, Barley. 

» '* ^ ^ ^ 

V ■• « «i 

58 6 3 


^ <te 9 « 

Third Year, CloTor* 

W « M 


7 13 9 



26 13 


35 7 


FourtkYear, Wheat. 

76 la 

44 10 


. « . 



Fifth Year, Fallow. 

• • « i* 

M «■ ar ' •■ 

29 18 
I 10.^ 


28. 8 

[ 3^7 } 

Sixth Year, Wheat. 





Seventh Year, Oats. 

Eighth Yeir, T^re^ afid Ttfi«i^. 



/. », 


85 to 

55 .0 


30 10 


SO ti 



46 6 


3 '4- 

« ' 


39 la 


5 7 «, 

Ninth Year^ Wheat add fiarley. 

Produce, - - - -711OO 

Expences, - - - -4166 


tft tear, 
5th Year, 

Lofs of 2 Years, 


I 1 

3® 3 6 

■1.M.I1 I** I 

at 8 o 

a8 8 9^ 

■ ■ <■ I II ■■■!■ 

56 a6 o 




[ 368 ] 


R F I T. 

A J. 


ad Year, 




7 '3 


3d Year, 


rf •■ 


35 7 


4th Year, 





6th Year, 


^ • 


30 10 

yth Year, 




3 H 


8th Year, 


- , 


S 7 


9th Year, 




30 3 


Profit of 7 Years, 

• ^ 

144 15 


Lofs of two 


•• • 


56 16 

Total profit in 9 Years, - - ^7 '9 9 

which is nine pbnnds fifteen (hillings and fix-pence per 
anQum, or nine (billings and nine pence per acre *. 


But ;I fhould obferve, that as a crop of 
cloverrfeed is the moft uncertain and va- 
riotts of any that is grown, I have reckon- 
ed lefs for it by far than muhitudes pro- 
duce, though, at the fame time, many 
bring nothing at all. 

I know a field of twenty acres, which I 
have been often fold by feveral who knew 
the crop, once produced the farmer five 
bufhels per acre. It was all down on a 
Friday^ and the farmer fufpefting a change 
of weather, by great rewards to his work- 
men, and, bringing cafks of ale into the 

* Nothing is reckoned for the draw, as it is fuppofed to 
b^ made into the nianur«. 


t 369 ] 

field, and feeding them well, tempted 
them to work in an extraordinary manner 
ail the Saturday y and cleared the whole in- 
to his barn. It began raining in the night, 
and fo much fucceeding bad weather came, 
that the crops were, in general, greatly 
damaged. His produced, as I faid, one 
hundred bufheh, all which he fold at three 
pounds ten fhillings per bufhel, ariiing to 
three hundred and fifty pounds. And a 
few years ago I faw the fame field with a 
crop of clover, which did not produce 
twenty pecks, and that fo wretched as to 
fetch nothing. 

I read the above calculation to a farmer, 
and he obferved that I would reckon eigh- 
ty bufliels for the crop ; and as it is often 
grown, I will give another total, with that 
alteration, that the reader may adopt 
either, according to his idea of the 

Bb Profit 

I 370 ] 

/• s. 


Profit as above. 

- 144 IS 


Add 48 balhcis. 

- 66 


- 9 12 

— 50 8 

195 3 



- 56 ,g 

»38 7 9 

which is fifteen pounds feven (hllfings and fix-pence 
per anatiin, or fifteen flullings and four peace per 

As I mention back-carriage in this caU 
culation, I will explain my meaning. We 
generally carry our corn to the neighbour- 
ing fea-ports, and load home with coals 
for black-fmiths, or any' perfons that want 
tliem, who pay us eighteen (hillings for 
the carriage oF a loading, twelve ftiillings 
per chaldron, and we generally briiig one 
and a half. But as we may accidentally 
carry our corn where none is to be had, I 
make fuch allowances as to bring it neac 
the truth. 


[ 371 ] 

Calculation of nine Tears Expences and Profit 

of twenty Acres of Grafs -Land^ and Soii 

fuppofed to be the fame as the above Arable 


• > 


Firft Year's Kxpcnccs, 

* * . , L s. d» 

J^cttt, &c. - - - ' - 15 o o 

Mowing, oaakiog, and cocklDg ten acres 
of grafs into hay, at three (hillings 
per acre, with beer, - - - i 10 o 

Stacking, loading, &c, of ten loads of hay i i o o 
£xpenc^s on fbiir goings of hay when it is 

fold, weighing, ana market, - - o 16 o 
N* £. Nothing is reckoned for carriage, 

as nuinure is brought back, 
nftcen old crones *, bought in Auguft - 3 15 o 
f xpences in buying Iheep, - -040 

Three cows, at five pounds each, - - 15 o o 
Afow, and ten pigs, three weeks old, - 2 12 6 
Suppofing two acres to be manured each 

year with twenty-fix loads per acre, 
Forty loads of clay, at two-pence half- 
penny per load, - - - -084 
Twelve ditto of a(hes, mortar, or rotten 
dung,' bought ; &k waggon loads, at 
eleven (hiiiings and fix-pence per load -* 3 9 
Expences of carrying it on, fpreading, &c. x 8 o 
TnmiiTg and mixing jnanure, » .040 

45 16 10 

^ Old female fl:cep« 

B b 2 . Second 

[ 37* ] 

Second Year.* 

Rent, &c. - * . . . 

Mowing* making, &c, of fix acres 6f grals. 

Stacking, &c. fix loads of hay. 

Weighing, marketing, &c. 

Expences of buying fheep, 

A fcore of old crones, - - - 

Manuring two acres as above, 


























Third Year. 

Rent, &c. - - 




Mowing, making, &c. eight acres 


grafs, at three (hillings per acre. 




Stacking, &c. . . - 




Weighing, marketing, &c. 



Expences oq cattle. 



Fifteen crones, r - - 




Manuring two acres as above. 









fourth Year. 

Rent, &c. • . - 




Mowing and making twelve acres, at three 

(hillings per acre. 




Stacking, &c. - - - 




Weighing and marketings 



Expences on cattle, 



Fifteen crones, - - - 



Manuring two acres as above, 





29 4 4 


{ 373 J 

Fifth Year. 

Rent, &c. -. • '•- -icbo. 

Mowing and making ten acres, - - i lo o 

Stackii^, &c. . - - . I lo o 

Weighing and marketing, - -0160 

Expences on cattle, - - "030 

Fifteen crones, - - "<^"376 

Manuring two acres as above, - .. 594 

27 15 10 

Eighth Year. 
Rent, &c. - - - 

Rowing and making eight acres, - 

Sixth Year, 

Rent, &c. >-. - -' -15 00 

Mowing and making nine acres, . - , i 7 o 

Stacking, Sec. - • - . x 7 o 

Weighing, &c. - - - - o 14 

Expences on cattle, * - -040 

Fifteen crones, - - •'-450 

Manuring two acres, as above, - -.594 

28 6 4 

■ I II m 

Seventh Year. 

Rent, &c. - - - -1500 

Mowing and making twelve acres, - - i 16 o 

Stacking, &c. - - - - i 16 o 

'Weighing, &c. - - — . o 18 o 

Twenty crones, - - - - 5 o o 

Expences on cattle, ^ . « q ^ q 

Manuring two acres, as above, -^ - 5 9 4 








Carryover 16 4 o 
B b 3 Brought 


Stacking^ &c. 

Weighing, &c. 

Twenty cronesj 


Manuriog two acres, as above, 

t 374 J 

Brought over 


I 4 

O lO 

5 lo 

O 7 
5 9 

4 o 




29 14 4 

Ninth Year. 

Rent, &c. 

Mowing and making ten acre5> 

Stacking, &c. 

Weighing, 'See. - 

twenty crones, - 

lExpcnces on cattle. 

Firft Year. 

Ten loads ^f hay, wafted to eigb!;, and 
fold in the winter at two pounds per 
load, - - - - 

Fifteen old crones, fold fat, with their 
lambs, at fifteen (hillings per couple, <- 

A^ no expences are calculated for the dairy, 
fuch as wood, utenfils, &c. I (hall lay 
the clear profit of the cows at four 
pounds each *, which is what I have 
generally made of mine, every thing 



■ i 











" 13 q 

- j6 P fi 

^^ S Q 


• I fitid-ft IS drt>tigfct too high to reckon the profit of a cow 
at foor pounds. But no one I apprehend will think it (b, 


( 375 I 

paid, and yet kept a calf now and thea 
for ftodk : one* 1 reckon this year, 
I fhall not explain all the method of 
managing the hogs, but lay the clear 
profit of a (bw at different fcims, fuch 
as I have generally found my own pro- 
duce, - - - - 

7. f. i. 


45 5 

Second Ye?r. 

Eight loads of bay, wafled to feven, and 
ipld at two pounds per bad. 


Carryover 14 o o 

when they are informed that the common price of hiring 
,cows (in the country in queftion) is three poinds, for the 
^rtf/f/— Judge then if it may be reckoned tit four, Mr. EUis^ 
in his Pra^ical Hvjhandmany alfo tells us, the common clear 
profit of a cow is four pounds — and from the beH information 
I can gain, from c// and ^;ir^fr/V»W</hurt)aiid men, I find they 

ever calculate the profit at that fiim, or rather more whea 

the fummer-food is not reckoned. It is faid, in anfvver % to 
fny calculatiooy thatiihe profit of a cow is forty ihillings only, 
pigs included, in the weit of England ' ■ -Now the fummer- 
fe^ of fix months, at two Shillings per week, amounts to 
/otiy-jjight ihillings,— confequently a cow yielcfs (theie) ia- 
ftead of profit; eight (hillings a year lofs. 

Witn feme difficulty, I gained of a neighbouring farmer, 
a determinate piece of it^elligeoce ; a;/z« that he fold the 
milk of a cow, by rteafure, from May .till OSloher incli^five 
this year 1 766. She gave 369 gallons, which he fold for fix 
pounds twofhiHings. I leave irto any one to judge whether 
her nxjinter food came to forty 'two (hillings ? There was no- 
thing ''remarkable |n the goodnefs of the cow, or her (^td. 
jA^ many better itd^ as wotfe. Let me .further add, that I 
^fn fiiice informed, on good authority, that cows well fed be- 
^een Braintree and Walden in EJJix^ yield 8 /. produce; the 
pro^t.muft be much higher therefore than I have laid it. 

} See the Biufeum Rufticum, 

B b 4 Twenty 

[ 376 ] 

Brought oyer 140 q 
Twenty crooes, fold fat at feventeea (hil- 
lings per couple, - - - 
Three cows, at four pounds each, 
One fow, *- -r ► - 

Third Year. 
Ten loads of hay, wafted to eight, fold 

at two pounds per load, - 

Fifteen crones, fold at fifteen (hillbgs per 

couple, - - - - 

Four cows, the new one at three pounds 

(the calf is now a cow) 
One fow, - - - - 

Fourth Year. 
Fourteen loads of hay, waded to twelve. 
Fifteen crones, fold per couple at fifteen 

(hillings, - - - - 

Fpur cows, the new one three pounds five 

(billings, - - - - 

One fow, - -. - - 











» ; 





















Fifth Year. 
Twelve loads of hay, wafted to ten, - 20 o o 
Fifteen crones, fold per couple at iixteen 

(hillings, - - - -1200 

Four cows, the new one at three pounds 

ten (hillings, - - - 15 10 o 

One fow, • - - - 506 

52 10 o 


[ 377 3 

Sixth Ye^ir* 

/. s. dm 

Tea loads of hay, wafted to eight, - |6 b Q 
Fifteen crones, fold per couple at fixteen 

(hillings, - - - -t*oo 

Four, cows, - - - - . i6 Q o 

OnefoWs " ^ " - 7 10 o 

SI IQ o 

Seventh Year* 

Fourteen loads of hay, ^ wafted to twelve, 24 o q 
Twenty crones, fold per couple at fcven- 

teen (hillings, - -- -1700 

Four cows, - - '^ -1600 

Out fpy, - - - -500 

r • * ^ 

V ^ 62 • O O 

Eighth Year. 

Twelve loads of hay, wafted to ten, - 20 o 
Twenty crones, ibid per couple ai fixteen . 

{hillings, - - - -1600 

Four cows, — - - -i6oo 

One fow, - - - - 5 15 ^ 

iWll III! ' ■ 

57 15 o 

Ninth Year. 

Twelve loads of hay, wafted to ten, - 20 o o 
Twenty crones, fold per couple at four- 
teen ftiillings, - - - -1400 
Four cows, - - - -1600 
One fow, - - - - 7 o o 

57 .0 o 



I 378 1 


jft Yeir, 

2d Year, 
3d Year, 
4th Year, 
5th Year, 
6tb Yew, 
7 th Ya^, 
-gth Year, 
^tb Year* 


ift Year, - r 

2d Year, r - - 

3d Year, ^ - 

4th Year, - - - 

5th Year, . ^ . 

6tb Year, - « - 

7th Year, - * , 

Sch Year, - . 

9th Year, - « .. 

Produce of nine years, 
EoLpences of nine years, -> 

Total profit in nine years, - •* •.212 iiq 

vAnch is tweoty^three pounds eleven (hUttaga and twor 
pence per annum, or one pound three iitUiogs pe|: 
acre profit. 

The above account difcovers ihe vaftly 
fuperior advantages of grafs^ with us, to 
arable land. 


/. /. 



45 »^ 



28 16 



27 6 



29 4 



27 15 



28 6 



30 4 



29 4 



22 13 

269 8 



45 5 


49 5 


48 IS 


57 10 


52 JO 


51 »o 




57 i-S 





481 10 


269 8 


C 379" J 
It wsU certainly be remarked, thatnothIn|^ 
is reckoned for loffe? of ftock 5 but in an- 
fwer to that I (hoiild obfe&ve, that nothing 
^6 calculated in th^ arable account for fonxe 
bad years, when in fuch land not a quar- 
ter of ^ crop is produced : and I do not 
mean this calculation as perfe6l (that is 
impoffible) but only to <Jifcoycr the propor^ 
fycn between the one method and the 
other; and from what I have obferved^ 
and gathered from the information which 
the moft inteUigent fafmers can give me. 
i am clearly of (pinion, that the chances, 
on the whole, are much in favour of the 
grafs-land, the crop of hay and feed being 
inuch more regular than thofe of corn, 
clover, or turnips; and fuppofing the 
jcighty bufhels of clover-feed, yet the grafs- 
profit far exceeds the arable; but, as I ob- 
Jerved, the probability lies againft tlie 
latter, fuppofing the profit to be only nine 
pounds fifteen (hillings and fix-pence per 

I Ihould again remark, that I fappofed 
thefe twenty acres to be an addition to a 
farm, hot one by itfelf, and fo compared 
the refpeSlive profits ; therefore I have not 
allowed any thing for the feed which the 



[ 38o ] 

above-mentioned cattle may accidentalfy 
have on the arable-land^ or turnips which 
they may confumc in the winter ; and for 
this reafon, becaufe, ahhough it appears to 
me that grafs is the mod profitable huf- 
bandry, yet a certain quantity of ploughed 
land Ihould undoubtedly be a part of every 
grafs -farm, for the raifing turnips, fome 
artificial grafs, and fodder* enough for 
the winter's food. 

The three laft years I could have rec- 
koned two fleers fed on the grafs ready 
for turnips in the winter, and in fome 
other articles I have much under-calculat- 
ed the matter, I am certain, left the 
want of winter fodder fhpuld be an pbr 

I reckon the hay all fold at forty Ihilling^ 
a load ; whereas it is feldom in nine years 
lefs than that, and frequently fifty or fixty 
fhillings : but I think no objeftion can be 
made in this refpe<5l, as when I calculate 
the profit of the grafs-land I have at pre- 
fent, I never think of doing it otherwife 

*„CalIed in Suffolk^ ftvuer^ which> according to 
Shakefpior^ is the bell fort of whcat-ftraw, ufed for 
thatch, £sff. See Tempest, alfo whcat-ftraw in ge- 


[ 38i ]. . 
than in the manner above, as fuch is the 
profit arifing from my having fuch a quan- 
tity of grafs, and which I could not make 
of any ploughed land without the grafs. 
If all my arable fields were employed in 
raifing fodder and turnips for the cattle 
fupported in fummer on a very large 
quantity of grafs, the profit would be five 
times as large as from raifing corn in the 
common courfe of hufbandry. 


In addition to the foregoing calcula- 
tion, I (hall give another made by a friend 
of mine in my neighbourhood, founded 
on the event of five years comparifon, in 
his own farm. 

Expences on aa Acre of Arable Land four Years, the 

Proportion taken. 


A s. 


Rent, - - - 



I o 


Tythe and town-charges, 



o S 







Ploughing and harrowing. 



O 10 





o 4 


O I 



2 lO 



t 382 



Produce 10 four Years. 


Tarnif»s» - - . 
Four quarters and an half of barley, 

fixteea Ihilliags, 
Cbvar, - . . 
Three and a half quarters of wheats 

thirty-two {hillings, - - 



2 10 

3 12 

2 10 

5 «a 




H 4 

The fourth. 

3 ^i 


Deduft expencesi 



2 10 

Profit per acre. 

I I 


Rent, - - . 



Tytheand towa-charges, - 






Weeding, cleaning and roUing, 



Mowing, making, &c. &c. 








Thirty-five hundred weight of hay, at 

two <hiilings, - - - - 3 10 d 

After-feed, ' • - - * o 10 o 


Expcnces, - - -7260 

Pi o5t per acre, - - - - . i 14 o 



[ 383 I 

In this calculation the produce of the 
arable-land is fuch as, I am certain, my 
friend met with, or be would not have 
minuted it ; but it is fuch as not one in 
ten meets with in my neighbourhood, even 
if they pay a p6und an acre rent* 

In addition to thefe calculations, I fhali' 
ihfert a minute or two refpefting the pro- 
fit of grafs-lands. 


Foody Produce J and E>cpences of a Dairy of 

Four Cows in a Tear. 

Their food four fmall paftures, amount- 
ing to about fixteen acres, two of them 
I fed in the ipring, rather late before I 
ihut the pafture lands up for hay : an- 
other, of fix acres, the cows had to them* 
felves 'till the others were mown ; and 
then I ihut that up for a^ rowen (aftermath) 
crop of hay, cutting it the 20th of Auguft. 

Thercfwe they had firft that of fix acres, 
another «f two acres, which is common 
Ibr all my cattle, being never mowa; next 
a fivc^acre piece, after the hay was clear- 
ed from it> and then the other field of three 
sac%i befide6which> they ran 4 days in my 



[ 3»4 } 

clover, till, finding the butter tafted, I took 
them out. 

It will appear alfo, by the following ac- 
count, that they eat in winter one tun and 
feven hundred weight of hay, and two 
loads and a half of ilraw bought for them^ 
befides their (hare of fome which grew on 
my farm, the whole of which (fpring-corn 
ftraw) amounted only to five acres of oats 
for them and four horfes ; the chief of my 
lands lying that year fallow. 



1763. April 27. For two hundredweight /• s. d. 

of hay, . - - - -050 

Augoft 8. Twenty-five ditto, - - i 17 6 

Nov. 30. A load of ftraw, - - o 14 o 

Dec. 30. Half a ditto, - -050 

1764. Feb. 15. Ditto, - - -030 
Feb. 20. A load ditto, - - o 11 o 

Sundry expences la the dairy, - - o 10 10 


In the above account is included no* 
thing for firing, •which coft me very little, 
as the fmall buih-faggots^ which I grub 
up on borders of fields to clear them for 
the grafs to rife, completely ferved my 
dairy this year : thefe faggots are difficult 


i * 


t 385 1 

iA faie^ fetch but little^ and muft be rbote^ 
up if no cows are kept* 

P R d D u C E^ 

Butter, inilk, andcreadi; tlie butter fix- i; j& i% 
pence per pound, the cre^m fi^-pehcd 
per pidt^ the milk fine halfpenny per 
pint (the market pricci} ^ • 9 4 1^ 

Seven hundred and fixty pounds of cheefe, 

fold ^t two-pence haUfpenny per pound, 786 

The value of two yearlidgs, kept for 
ftock, (valued by a farmer, who offered 
to MM them al the price) - 3 10 d 

The fiickting calves fold at • • ^ 01^ 6 


4 5^ 

20 18 8 

Oddd^ dcpencei^ ^ ^. - 4 6 4 

Profit, fotir poudds three (hillings per 

cow, ^_ : - ^ - 16 12 4 

A tibtdble- fariner's wife would have 
made five pounds per cow. There is a 
great difference between one kept, merely 
for convenience, under a fcrv^t's main 
agement, aiid a farmer's. 

. k 

Ce EXP]g» 

r 3^. I 

,Food^ Produce 9 &c. ifj[ ttmn Gmsc m: T^r* 

Paftures the fame as the laft year. Turn- 
ed them into an aciet»f tifc'five-acre field 
the fixteenth of May^ belides which, they 
had the three acres to^tHfeQiffehresr Mov^ 
ed this year the fix 9cres, «nd thq yemj»^- 
ing* four of the five actt».- No drn^r^ • 

1764* . h s. 4. 

Faggots for firiog^ - - ; - \ lo o 

One tuD and two hundred wfiig^ of bufi > ijf o 
Half a I«ad of firaw, «• -060 

Sottdry iball articles, • - i 3 10^ 


The fire-wood was moft of it this year 
brufh^faggots out of a wood, and but few 
of the fmall bulh-faggots : I am therefore 
enabled better to calci^te their valu&r 
Befides the ftraw bought^ they had wh^ 
was^ ta ^re of my farip. 

PR D u C E. 

1764. ^ /. t» d* 

Juae Tbree calves. Tola t^ the bat- 
cher, . - " -360 

'i% ^: Carry over 3. 6 <> 

i i«7 i 

' ' ,. " " 1.' La. 

• .''( 

aiid ^ half of butter. , -^ - 8 lo t^ 

ilieBfe i fi^ huiidrfidiiM fif ty-^'thrce ft ^, 

- iwo-peoLoe hal&pcnnf, aod qdc Ixya- ,. . ^ _ 
fifed and fiftylx at two-pcnce; -" ^ f i^ 
For ixUlk ind, creaai, •% : o^x • oi r<ij 

' Sold fKJ^oi^^ifera* the . . ^ ... 
Jaft year's ycar- 
' , ilttgs; foi^ - 7 a a^ 
', /tealtiS, Wcvat tbcbt 3f,«> o- 


1- • ~^-> JiflJr 

^ aibdiit four jibofa^&^fil'teety ftiflriigs' , / , ; 
fee fow,i '" - ..; • ■ - ,. * ■; - ijj' . o ipl 


I tl^ink thefe iwo a(xounts.(rrot calcuh^^^ 
tion^) nwaft b&/atisfa6tpry* It will, doubt-, 
Idfs^ \k ob'femdi itothiag is yet Md of 
4c^g$.iHthe a][^^.. I imve reckoned nb- 
flfiRg for s^: the fidm-niilk and whey i 
thafe wei'e gij^i> to the hdgs* 

I iliail hoV?^ add fome obfervations;. 

cows for 174^3, a&^tow5, ' . 

Ccz Thertr 

it '3^ ^ 

Ther^ are ibme material obfervations 
to he toedQ-.oSi -this account* Is four 
pounds thrtc^'^i\\mgS'i2L'^o&t equal to 
that ofgrMingi Surdyiw't; Two fteers, 
or heifers, ^may be kept and: fatted ia die 
glace of one c6w J thefe ^ wiU' undoubtedly 
payrbettcri- ^ 

I am aware of thc-bbf^ion, that a 
dairy is iij^er fuppc^ed. to anfwer well 
without a good dairy^^wife to do all the 
biifineft^of if/* This certainly makes a 
material alteration : but. four pounds a 
cow is, in this neighbourhood, thought 
pretty near thefpfpfit pf j?!nc» Yet it rauft 
be evident, if there was no further eoiifi- 
Beratibn,^ a dairy muft be attended with 
conflant lofs : this confideration is the 
advantage derived from the hogs, which 
evidently compofe the pro^t -of a dairy, 

I am not yet able, from experiments, to 
iaflcrt how many bogs may be kept on a 
given number of acres withoiitthe aid of a 
dairy : this is neceflary to'Bfe* known be- 
fore the exadl profit of cows l:an be afcer- 
tained. The fpring-litters ftahd greatly in 
need of the milk and whey, which is then 
coming on j fo that few, I doubt,, could 



be bred at that time of the year without 
them. It is neceflary Wre to fay fome- 
thing concerning thfim. .. 

> r 


• . - ' 


EXP£ltrrflNt:7?74 " 

Food^atid Produce' 'of a J^oivl'and'Be Ptgs 
i :, o Bred by her^ in a Tedr.^ ' 

JShe pigged in Jifril fev.en.Jpigs^ and in 
OSioBer eleven. 

' *■ < . •^ . i. 

•<! , 


I. « iL 


NoT,i8, &c. For grains, - - - o lo 4 

Cutting a lit tcr,w - . j - ^- o 1-6: 

Dec.-S, ana Jan. 21. Five quarters of 

peafc, - - -.^10 

J Expences on ditto, - ^ . -.0 l ,0 
Fortenbu&efe^c^tiirlef, ' '4^* '^^i'^ 100 
FkW 1 7. aw* 2St fixpRK^i .ifrfelBflgi i [ ; f r- -^ .i i . 6*- 
, ; For.onc q^iarter wd; ^\«ro biiMs jpf- : 

peas, -» - - -102 


8 II 7 

' diii - ^ — * "' 

• *»' fhls jrear t cttiptoye<f iPfifttey, iiohe ofwhom^cantnd'* 

\ ml 

F A '^ » ' ' • . • ' . ^, - ^ r • o a 3 

A Fat hog, - - ' - - I 9 9 

A fajE hog. PP« IW|n4«?d ajvl Jc? 
*' ponnds weighs - • - -i la g 
Feb. XT'. Ditto,' ope hundred and Hxteen 
* ' . pcpiids' wcigbf, « ^qur, (bUHngi 

^nd ten*pehce per ftoilf , - * 2 Q 
Heads, &c** -^ • *- « - o 5 3 
f cb. 22. Three fat bogs, Ibtd alive, -^70 
^ * Ope dittp, /it foQr jbiUioj^s a|^^ f^n- 

pcpccperftone, , ' >* * - - ? <?" 9 
Ten live pigs, carried t6 next year's x ' 

furcoont, value4 at» ^ -41(^6 

■-■I II ■ 

18 12 9 

Pi^fit, '^' 'n ? "^ !•. * ^ ?ffl-T 2 

Tbft ^airy this ye^^rjgf^fpWil^ .* alt 
^Tie \<rh6y ^d (kim milk^m^t thrown inta 
|ljc hpgf cifteri], tqg(Stncr with the difh- 
wftlh H»id offal of the kitchen, arid the 
St^^ about tm quarters of malt ufed in 
j:he family, befides which, 6 quarters and 
^ tyfli e is inm e I bo ught for t hcm t ftU^hie 

for "^hnM A4k)nth8 lA^^^^^wmmfr^ 
ai^d |hc feven pigs raA"^ ^l6ve?^^^ '•fhefe 
«s$idioi» befides comis^ grafs^ (on ^^feb^ 

km. I 

by the by, they feed as well as ftiecp) were 
9II their lean food. 

N0W3 ffiom tl)« .ab&ve ^i:cofmt mi)/^ be 
dedofted the value of the dover-feed, 
ds th^t certainly jp^^s npt from grafs* 
grc^d> and may be ^im«bed» Such de* 
duftiohs I have no objeftton to, as we 
{nay xpme near the mar^ in valuing : . the 
preceding cakwilfttion, howeve)*> does not 
require Siejw^ ns the twepty. acres 
have been an addition to a farm, not one 

> ,:; vM :.r :.;..> ' : t s* dm 
Seven hogs«. Jt fonteen penoe per week, 

for tbreempatbi, cdniff^tD •* ^ o 14 o 

Six quarten Aiidioari>afliels of grains 0104 




'Food^\2 reduce^ &c. oj Hogs a Tear^ main* 
tained by a Dairy of four Ccms^ 

The old fow pigged in Aprils eleven 
^i|$, 4ncl agaih in Navembery twelve j the 
young one feven, in January^ ^7^S* 

1 '^'JO 

C c 4 £ X 

[ 39a ] 


1764- t s. d, 

Ten pigs, from laft ycarS account, to ht 

rcckpBjcd here, - s •»•..- 4 16 6 

For forty quarters of grains, - - 2 15 $ 

For fevcn quarters of pollard, - - i 12 5 

For a yonng fow and boar^ -> ^140 

J'or two ba(hel^of o^ta, - -949 

For tail-barley, - - r o 14 3 

For fix bpffiels of barley, - ' r o 14 3 

For one handled and twenty bofliela of tufT 
nips, and five bufiiels of cabbages; fay 
one hundred and twenty -five bufhels of 

turnips* : -z r. T r o * o 

N. B. My crap of tarnip$ this ywr produc- 
ed eight bufhels per rod (their root and 

' top cutoff): one hundred and twenty- 
five bu%te ts therefore fixteen rods,' 
vhicb, at twa pounds two fhillings per : 
acre, the price tius year, comes to four 
^(billings s but I bave (aid fix (hillings. 

Sundry cxpcncc$, c;^ ^ -154 

^hrea4noi(ths feed in olover. 

« ^ 

13 12 
6 12 


»4 4 



I It' • - 

. A?g- 2^ Sold eleven pigs, lean, for - 5 1^$ . ^ 
fJov. 13. Sold nine lean, -~ '-12 $ o 


Hfpughtover 17 i8 q 


t 393 J 

1 t 

f- I 

' I* Sm Urn 

Brought over 17 18 o 

Inarch 25. Value af ftock car- 
ried to next year (the old 
fow cxccffted) viz* the ' ' 
young fow (one of the ten) 
wUbfix pigs, - - :r 5t- li 6 
' Twelve pigs, - - 5 8 o 

A little fow with pig, 

(bought May 19) . - i 5 o 

The boar, - t i 1,0 

Ifrofit, \ 

ro 6 6 

»* 1 1 ^ 1 

28 4 6 
- H 4 S 

r 14. o t 

Before I ipake any obfervations on this 
account, I fhall explain the price I charge 
for clover-feed. 

I am enabled to do it very clearly this 
year, as I had none of my own, but hired 
a field of two acres and three rood, at 
one pound thirteen Ihillings^^r acre, froifi 
May to Michaelmas. ' I rented it purpofely 
for my horfes, bur kept' the ten hogs in it 
for three months. ' 

The price of the clover was four jkiiinds 
ten {hillings and fix-pence. ' The cattle it 
fed were ^ ' 


Five horfeSy three months ; 

Ten hogs, three months ; 

thirty eight flicep and lambs^ one 

Two heifers, twp ittpnthi 

The comptaop price of joi(H«k a hptfc is 
one (hilling an^ fix;^ipnQp:^r ,wpefe .4n c|p- 
ver ; but that i may raife ihe 'pricb '^ the 
hog?, I will reckbn the reft of the cattle as 
low as^ofllble. 

a ai f 

Kveliorles, fay it three Thilliogs "and fix- 

j^ccpcr week* for three monthSf 
Thirty-eight fticcp and lambs, at two- 
"""pcocc per couple, for one months , - 154 
Two heifers, at three pence per week 

cimA,'f<9f^y^m»ytkk - r .0 ? o 

TJiiP bpg*! , " " ^ ' - p w 


4 7 4 

^ . T|^5 .coro?s asDear the tnjitl^ a$,an]^ cal? 

^fiaiv by hiring Clpwr, kc^p i«y bpgs >s 
^pnA us this, without 9py afll^^ce froi^ft 
arable-land of my own. , 

r Xbc .0ief remark tp. fee p?a#,pi^ Aefe 
*p:|)^pbent8^s, that thepr<>fit pja hfgs iu ^ 

dairy-faiTO, is very confiderafcje*. *ybe 
, ,:-j food 

t 191 I 

fQo4 here fpecified, an4 which did not 
fomp from the dairy, is no impeachment 
of this ail^rtibn s bec«ufe the dire^ in- 
quiry is. What flock of hogs ought to be 
iSagmd a s^vep aqmh($r of coiv$ ? That 
is, hovf mmy Utters of pigs will the cows 
ijoakita^ f Jt being gregtly advantageous 
to keep the ftill^umber« and, if neceflary, 
to {MFebafe Qther food, a$ we have leenj 
and lu^h expiaices 4edu^e4 from the pro;^ 
jiuire, the rwMUijdef belong* to cows, 
pn^ iil^tbo^t t|iem the pigis could not be 

♦ 71 


• » 

»' •' '• . • ,. 



* .:.: .bbil x*P-'^-n;;pi ?orf . 


I 19<J ! 

Cftbe Improvement of v>et Paflures. 

AS I have, within a few years, not 
only had feme experience in my 
own farm, biit obferved the method^ em- 
ployed by many neighbouring gentlemen 
and farmers in riiending their paflures, I 
Jhall communicate a few of my remarks 
on the improvement of wet paflures i a 
fubje6l which may prove, perhaps, of 
fome little utility, as I fhall fpeak of no* 
thing but what I have either performed 
myfelf, or f?en in my neighbourhood. 

The particular lands of which I fpeak 
are loofe, woodcock, brick-earth foils for 
about eighteen or twenty inches, and un- 
der that, clay to a great depth. 

Some that I have improved myfelf were 
cxadly .level, fo as to be quite poifoned 
with the wet, which could not drain off. 

From the befl obfervations I could make 
on many experiments, the following is the 
method which anfwers befl to improve 
them. I fhall alfo infert the expence. 

The firfl thing to be done is, to make 
large, deep ditches round every field, and, 



[ 397 ] 
It they are large/ to divide them into 
fmaHer ones, of five, fix^ or feven acres 
e?ich, by new ditches : nothing is attended 
ivith a niore fudden improvement of alt the 
ground near the borders of the fields, than 
good ditches. 

I generally make mine fix feet perpen-^ 
dicular deep, feven wide at top, and three 
at thp bottom. I never pay for them by 
the rod, (which is cuftomary) but give 
two-pence halfpenny per load, of thirty 
bulhels, for all the clay, &c. that is thrown 
out of them, i and two (hillings and ^x- 
pence a fcore loads for filling and ipread*- 
ing it. 

Thefe ditches (hould be made in fuch a' 
manner, that no water can remain in 
them, but a :dercent from one to another 
to carry it quickly off. • 

It piay be eafily imagined how much 
thefe muft drain the land, befides the 
quantity of excellent manure (clay) which 
arifes out of them. Add to this, the great 
convenience of having fuch fences about a 
farm, that the farmer is fure to find his 
cattle wherever he turns them, inftead of. 
their breaking perpetually into his corn or 
ha^-fields, which, in multitudes of farms, 

. is 

t 198 1 

k ib ofteA tfttt cife^; it islbdntimiM itil^ 
workotfaboy, on]y;to. be hAiitiiigaftifl^ 
hogs and iheep that go aftii^ fisr Wao^t ^ 
good £etu:e& 

J In the banlfi of new ditches ^ atway* 
lay white thom» fifty root^ to a rad (th« 
workmen are allowttl flr-^penM/i^. hun- 
dred for gathering tfaem^) but i alwayi^ 
avoid intermixing any thing with 0^ ef^ 
pecially hafel^ for in the nttt-feafon fenced 
are pulled in pkces for die frust by att tlt6 
boys and girls in the ncighboorhciod ^ and 
oak, aik, &c, only to give an opportunity 
to get over the hedge with great eafe;- S^*^ 
low, willow, elder,* Of r. are to be avoided 
in the hedge, or by way of bedge^^flake for 
the dead hedge, zs they grow for faft Off 
quite to ovc^Hiadow the quick^fet^ and 
even deftroy it. After frequent cottingfi^ 
to render the plants thick and ftrong) I 
keep the quick -fet» regularly dipped^ 
which, in a few years, render the fenctf 
impenetrable to man or beaft, cotiiidering^ 
the largenefs of the ditth. 

Jf an old fence is growabad oi* thitf, rtr 
conipbfed of improper plants, I never yec* 
obferved it improved by planting quick- 


r in 1 

ftt* in the- gdpi': thf bcflr way hy t» i»n 
ttrft. thcribai^^^ and plant frefli ni^iic-t 

.Qnfe ad^ttniiage tiriimg from gbod fences 
zraot aql^partot at fitft light. Tb fihc dif^ 
gncd bchf fpQki^tt of mdft. df th€^ig^ntl<h 
ftian a£ JkrgiL Ibrtaoeb in this neighbe^ufr? 
kood^ tlte game is wretchedly deftro^ed tj 
poacfiJETS^. who. take it With n^ht'^fietyi 
Tbtk wrmiii^ wkl> are gcmr^Wy labour*' 
erSy ftransk idt tvtry Tillage aroqnd mt^ 
ThttTihcdibd is thafl : thij tdk« thf f^^ 
mt^sJasxSto xmt tf IhS: fidda, tod^ aft^ 
th^ dfib^ a hard: dajr's work, ride theoi 
aH no^bti as iaft as the^ can make them 
go» over the ftubblesi to. catch tbs^ pjirtrid* 
gcs> Uimderiag ovor every hedge (ei^cept 
fiich.aa I Inve defcrifoed) m their wayv 
oftentimes ftaking the horfes^ making 
gaps in. the ieiices, riding pter fllnding 
corn, clover for &bd^ or any thing that 
is a dohrer for hirdsr^ aaid after damaging 
the facmef in a moil (faamefiil manniei^^ 
cany the prodttce^ir infamous Ub^ 
boor to many, Tirho, to their great diir 
honour^ encourage thefe rafcals for thc^r 
convenience. The money they get is fpeaft 
at the next ale-houfe^ and i^iftead of do- 

[ 400 j 

ing the farmer- a good day's i work, thtf 
are drunk, 1 afleep, or idle, the whole 

Now there are very few farmers hories 
that Will leap a gate i but moft will plunge 
through fuch hedges as ai'e common herc-> 
abouts ; none could pafs fuch ditches asci 
always make and recommend. A farmer 
in the pariih where I live, has fb eiFedlu- 
ally fenced in his fields with prodigious 
ditches, that I have heard him declare^ 
that not a fingle night-netter has been on 
his grounds on horfe^back ; and were they 
to attempt it, they would lofe more time 
in palling one ditch than was neceflary to 
drag Ibme whole farms. 

The pernicious efFeds to farmeiv, of 
this abominable pr aflice, are notorious, 
and cry aloud for redrefs : if they would 
eale themfelves, I know of no way but 
fuch ditches as I have defcribed. 

In what manner they are to defend them- 
felves againft another fpecies of vermin^ 
hunters^ I know not. A real fportfrnan will 
do as little damage as poffible to the far« 
mers ; but I know feveral packs of hounds 
kept by fubfcription amongfl low people> 
and followed by an incredible quantity of 


t 461 ] 

Jfi9?-rafF; country furgeohs, tradefrhen, ^hd 
& number of farmers (to their (hame be it 
Written) who' do the country ten tinleS 
more mifchief than a fet of fporting gen- 
tlemen 5 for being mounted on vile horfes, 
they fcarce take a clean leap, confequently 
blunder through the hedges to their de-»^ 
ftruftion, and if the ditches happen to be 
good, break the gates and fliles to pieces : 
indeed it muft be confefled that the gen*- 
try are much too free with cutting, break- 
ingj and twilling gates off their hinges, ta 
the vaft damage of the farmers. There is 
but one way of being fecure againft hun- 
ters ; which is to make immenfe ditches^ 
and very high banks well planted with 
quick-fets, to have the gates much higher 
than common^ and to iron them from the 
hinges to the lock : but then the expence 
is fq great, .that the remedy would be worfe 
than the difeafe. 

But to return. 

When the ditching is done, the hext 
Work is to landnlrain the whole fields in 
fuch a manner, that every part of them 
may be laid dry. In a pafture of fix acres 
1 did two hundred rods. If there is the 
lead fall in any part, or any place more 

D d wet 

[ 40^ 1 

wet than others, the drains (bould be cutr 
thro' them. If the furface is exafHy levels 
the depth of the drains (hould vary, fo that 
the water may every where have a defcent. 
Thefe drains are made here, in general,, 
thirty-two inches deep, twenty inches 
wide at top, and four wide at the bottom* 
They are filled eight inches deep with cither 
ftones.or wood ^ but I (hould ever recom- 
mend the former^ as the moft effeflual and 


lafting, to thofe who are not defirous of 
faving the difference of the expence. How- 
ever, I know many fields in this parifli 
and neighbourhood, that are drained with 
wood, and which anfwer extremely well ^ 
and I have been affured that they will laft 
twenty or thirty years ♦. Nay, in forofe 
parts of Efex I hear they do it with flraw 
alone j but this mufl: be of fervice for only 
a few years, unlefs the foil, when the 
ftrawrots, forms an arch: if ftone be ufed^ 
there can be no doubt of its lafting. The 
labour of the whole is three-pence per rod. 
If with ftone > of the f armei^, a load of 
thirty bufhels will do three rods, and cofts 

* Since writiag thfe above, I have met with fome lO: 
perfed order, 40 years old ; and ItkcMrife maaj that 
tUQ as well as ftone Ofies* 



[ 4^3 ] 
one (hilling and a halfpenny flubbing and 
pickings fo the expence of a rod is feven- 
pence, befides carriage of the ftone, which 
will not be much : but if he buys his ftone, 
as is much the moft probable in this coun- 
try, we may fuppofe he muft go two 
xmlcs to fetch it, and give twenty-pence 
for thirty buftiels ready picked: the car- 
riage is worth as much more, thus the 
ftone, in this way, will coft per rod better 
than thirteen-pence. 

If bufties are ufed, a load of forty fag* 
gots will coft the farmer, if he buys them, 
or be worth, if he has then), five fhillings, 
andcoft cutting one ihilling *. They will 
do ten rods ; fo that the whole expence of 
doing a rod with them will be ten-pence, 
and with ftotie one fhilling and four-pence. 

The very firft year the prodigious ad- 
vantage of thefe drains appears, efpecially 
if the feafon proves wd:. The grafs (or 
corn if in ploughed 6elds, for they anfwer 
in all) will be frefh, vigorous, and fweet, 
wherever the pafturcs are drained. 

I have a field of fix acres (mentioned 
above) which by land-draining, ditching, 

* Good buflies proper for ftroDg fences cannot be 
ha4 nader 7 /. ptr load. 

D d 2 . and 

[ 4^4 ] 
and manuring, is an exceeding good paf* 
ture, and has produced two tuns and ten 
hundred weight of hay per acre, in a very 
good year, and generally thirty-five. hun- 
dred weight per acre; whereas the paf^ 
tures adjoining are fcarce worth the 
farming, and let but at feven (hillings per 
acre, producing fcarce any thing but a 
little feed for lean cattle. The foil is 
the fame in both; the fix acres, about 
twelve years ago, being full as bad as the 

To improve fuch wet land, nothing can 
be more advantageous than the clay which 
is thrown out of the ditches. Eighty loads 
per acre is the quantity I have laid on, and 
have been told by feveral fenfible farmers 
(who clay a good deal) that it is a proper 
covering ; but if nothing is mixed with it, 
ninety.five or one hundred. I know a 
piece of grafs land greatly improved, on 
which were fpread one hundred and fifty 
loads per acre. 

My method is to make a large hill of 
manure, by firft laying a quantity of clay 
regularly on a heap ; then placing a thin 
layer of muck, fuch as I have, upon it, 
either my liable or rack-yard dung, or 


f 405 3 

bringing it* of any kind in my waggon 
from the neareft town; on this layer, 
another thick one of clay y then the fecond 
of dung, and fo on 5 letting the propor- 
tion be about twenty loads of dung to fifty 
of clay. Thefe heaps, after remaining fix ' 
months without ftirring, I mix well toge- 
ther by turning them over, which a work* 
man will do, at the rate of eight (hillings 
for one hundred loads. Let it lie fix 
months longer in this ftate, and th6n carry 
it on to the land, paying two (hillings and 
fix-pence per fcore loads for filling and 
fpreading. This J take, from experience, 
to be by much the beft way of manuring 
with clay, as it works and impregnates 
the foil much fooner than alone, , 

Wh-^never I clay arable-land, I do it on 
clover^paftures after the crop of corn is 
off, managing it in the fame manner a^ 
fQr pafturcs. If it is ploughed in direftly. 
It is Teveral years before it works; but 
jhavifig a winter, and fumm*er to dilTolve 
and powder it, it walhes into the foil more 
equally, and much enriched by the efFe6ts 
.of the air, acquired by being fo long expofed. 

Thefe are the principal points to b^ ob- 
ferved in improving fuch wet, cold, loofe 

D d 3 pafturcs 


[ 4o6 ] 

paftures as I have defcribed : fome that I 
have quite changed by thefe means were 
half over-ran with mofs and rufhes ; but 
draining them thoroughly, and claying 
them, kills all trumpery of this fort, and 
prefents the farmer with fo admirable a 
view of good pafture for dairy or grazing, 
where fo lately nothing could live, as to be 
equalled in fcarce any thing of the kind. 
But as all impravement ceafes to be 
fuch when more money is fpent in it thaa 
the advantages will repay, I fhall in a few 
words fet forth how far this is from being , 
the cafe here. I will fuppofe two or three "- 
fields are improved, amounting in tiio 
whole to twenty acres. 

Sixty loads of day per acre thrown out of 
the ditches, twelve hundred loads, at 
two*pence halfpenny per load, - • J2 o O 

I will fuppofe fixty rod of new ditching 
done, which, before clay is thrown out 
by the load, will coft one (hilling per 
rod, - - - - 3 

Three thoufand quick-fets, at fix-pence 

per hundred, - - ^ Q 15 

J^aod-draining feyen hundred rod with 
buChes (this is the quantity I have now 
marked, out in a field of twenty acres) 
at ten-pence per rod *y t -? ^9 3 4 

Carryover 44 18 4 

* In Effix^ however, they make tbw draips fc^t ^ 
rod afqqdcr. 


f 407 } 

Brought over 44 18 4 
tkB. \ had a great part of a crop of bar- 
ley killed in a' field of this fize with the 
wet : I had therefore a fine opportunity 
of marking exaAly where the drains 
ihould be aiade, which ought, on fuch 
occafions, never to be omitted, were it 
only for the comm*on water-furrows 
which are made for every crop. Iq 
(bme fields, unlefs fuch a guide offers, 
it is very difficult to tell exaftjy where 
to make the land^drains. 

Turning and mixing one thoufand fix- 

hundred loads of manure, - - 680 

Filling and fpreading one thoufand fix- 
hundred loads, at two ftiilings and 
fix-pence per fcore, - - - 10 o o 

I will fuppofe that the work may be done 
the fooner if the farmer brings one 
hundred loads of the four hundred of 
dung from the nearefi: town \ and as I 
have not reckoned the horfes and dri- 
ver for the clay-cart, C'lhall not m the 
bringing the dung: therefore the ex - 
pences per waggon-load will be, the 
coft three fliilliogs, b6y fix-pe'nce, and 
tnropike fix-pence. A waggon-load is 
two .tumbrel-loads (in this country)fo 
f^ty loads, at f9ur fhillings, are •* 10 o 

Total 7164 

This is three pounds eleven (hillings 
and three pence per acre : and fuppofing 
the profit to laft but tvii^enty years, al- 
though the draining arid ditching part 

D d 4 will 


[ 4o8 ] 

v^ill Uft twice that time, and the clay 
five and twenty as good as at firft. But 
the farmers thereabouts feldom change 
their farms, if tolerable ones, Hving in 
them their lives, and their fons after them, 
with leafes of feventeen, twenty-one, and 
twenty-five years : fuppofing twenty years 
profit, I fay, the expences will .^ then be, 
fer acre per annum^ three fhillings and 
fix-pence halfpenny. 

So fmall is the expence divided. But 
now let us confider the profit. 

Such land as I have defcribed never lets 
here for more than ten fhillings per acre, 
by far oftener for eight fhillings, or eight 
ajid fix-pence : and it is from my pwn ex-» 
perience, as well as various obfervations, 
that I aflert the fame land, after the im-« 
provements, will let to any tenant for 
feventeen, eighteen, and twenty fhillings 
per acre. 

I will fuppofe it only fixtecn fhillings, 
though I am certain that it is confiderably 
under the mark ; he then gains, in point 
of rent, fix fhillings per acrei aad the 
whole calculation is abfurd, if we do not 
gdd his whole proportional profit on the 

acre ; 

[ 4<^9 3 

acre : fuppofing his profit on It before im* 
provement was a rent, ten ihiilings ; af- 
terwards it will undoubtedly be the fame, 
at leaft ; which adds fix fliillings more to 
the profif s fo that the whole will be 
twelve fhillings per acre per annum. 

Twelve fliilliags per ecre Is per annum, for 

twenty years, - - - - 240 

Ifxpences of improvement, *• - - 7- 

Clear profif j 

- 169 

That is per annum, « -^ •* 8 9 o 

Deduct the intereft of feventy-one 

pounds, - ^ - - - -311.0 

Clear profit per annuo),. 

- 4 18 o 

I think the cafe of this improvement is 
ftatcd clearly; and muft repeat, that 1 
fpeak from experience. The fum to be 
expended on twenty acres will appear large 
to moft farmers, whofe property is not 
confiderablej but the proportion holds 
for a fingle acre, and thofe who cannot 
pfibrd to improve twenty, may three, 


I * 

[ 4J0 ] 

four, or five ; and I make no doubt but in 
fuch an attempt they will find their ac- 
count in it greater than I have ftated it. 

As I have mentioned a tumbrel-load to 
be thirty bufhels, and a waggon *Ioad to 
be but two tumbrels, I fhould obferve that 
we carry away of muck fifty bufhels at a 
time in our tumbrels, and fb agree with 
our men in proportion to the thiity-^bufliel 

I have obferved, that in making new 
ditches, or enlarging old ones, I feldom 
pay by the rod, but by the load : however, 
to thofe who chufe the former way, I 
would recommend that they have them 
worked by a frame of fmall (lit deal, nail- 
ed into the exa£l fize of the intended ditch, 
and agree with the wofkmen to do their 
work by it : this will prevent difputes 
which frequently arife. 

Before I conclude this fketch, I (hall 
once for all apologize for the inelegance of 
my language, and, perhaps, unneceffary 
repetitions; but it appears to me that the 
mattery in eflavs of this nature, is infinite- 
ly more material than the ftyle. Indeed it 
is almoft impofiibleto attend with fuccefs to 
the diclion of a paper which contains a nar- 

[ 4U 1 

rative of farming experiments, full of 
cramp, barbarous terms, equally difagi^ee- 
able and neceflTary : but one fimple rati- 
onal experiment is worth ten elegantly- 
flowing periods. The language of 
hu{bandry a farmer may underftand, but 
that oi ftyle is to them unintelligible as 

I 4"* ] 

Common Farmers vindicated from the Charges 
ef being univerfally ignorant and obftinate^ 
wtbjbme reJleSHons on the prefent State of 
Improvements in Hujbandry. 


THE following hints, on the fitu- 
ation of comaion farmers, were 
occafionally thrown together with inten- 
tion to obviate the torrent of ridicule, the 
new improvements in hufbandry let loofe 
againft them. 

The converfation in any company feU 
dom turns on country-bufinefs, but the 
common farmers are fligmatized with the 
appellations of ftupid fellows^ prejudiced 
clowns^ fenfelefs men^ who Itread in the fteps 
of their forefathers without the idea of 
improvement, who di^udge on in the old 
road, rather like machines than rational 
animals. Much declamation have I heard 
of this fort, and as I am a farmef myfelf, 
iliall take this opportunity of vindicating, 
ki fome meafure, my brethren from afper- 


[ 4^3 1 

lions not always fo juftly founded as pe- 
remptorily afferted. 

^be borfe^bbeing bujbandry^ tbe cukivation 
tf artificial graffeSy tbe '^ mowing of wbeaf^ 
with many other new improvements, have 
found numerous advocates among gentle- 
men-farmers : it (hall now be my inquiry^ 
whether the tenants do not aft very wifely 
in refufing to meddle with experiments be- 
fore the evidence of their fenfes gives them 
hopes of fuccefs. 

In all the woodland country in my 
neighbourhood (I (hall (peak only of what 
I have fcen, and know perfecWy wpU) the 
. farms are generally fmall, from twtnty 
ri(ing to two hundred pounds a year, and 
here and there one of more ; but in general 
they are under an hundred : and the land 
lets from nine to (ixteen (hillings per acre. 

It is pretty evident from hence, that no 
fortunes are to be made in them : a com-^ 
fortable and decent living for the farmer 
and his family, and at his death a hundred 
pounds, befides his (lock, is not very com- 
mon among them. 

In fuch a (ituation, would they not be 
prodigious fools to meddle with all the 
£a(hionable whims that are every day ftart- 


r 4H ] 

cd in farming ? The track in which they 
are, they know will produce fomething: 
ihoald they leave it for uncertainties which 
may produce nothing ? Surely not. 

Let the landlord try experiments^ and I 
will warrant, if a few years prove them to 
anfwer, the tenant will adopt them. But 
men who have little money before-hand, 
and rent and expences regularly to pay, 
a£t very prudently in being only ipe6tators 
of thefe new fafhions, till proof fufficient 
is afforded of their fuccefs. 

The farmers 1 have talked with, are far 
from being the prejudiced peopk I have fo 
often heard them reprefented; and many of 
them make no bad defence of themfelves 
for not adopting the fchemes of the gentle* 

Men who farm their own lands ought 
to be cautious in iligmatizing farmers, and 
ihould firft confider whether their accounts 
are fo clearly kept, that they can perceive 
profit arifing from their farming when rent 
is paid, fuppofing they lived under an- 
other man s and fhould alfo fuppofe they 
had no other cafh ever in hand than what 
arofe from their farm : if this manage* 
tnent is not clearly followed, it is wonder- 

4 f"I 


[ 415 ] \ 

ful impertinence to arraign common far- 
mers for the narrownefs of their views, 
when their own have not the extent to take , 
in the fair compafs of the qucftion ; yet is , 
this frequently the cafe. 

I know fcverai gentkmen who arc apt 
to talk in the common ftyle, and extol 
their own methods of hufbandry, which 
are calculated for the improvement of land, 
and the raifmg great crops. 

Thefe are great ; with them quantities 
ef manure, frequent fallowing, &c. out- 
do all the neighbouring crops. Here is^ 
fund for converfation ; but where are^ 
the accounts ? Let me fee the expenccs*. 
Could a farmer, who lives on his farm 
alone, fupport it I Would he ftar ve with 
ten quarters an acre on his land? 

Material inquiries thefe ; but, alas I too 
feldom to be anfwered fatisf aftorily . . 

There is a medium in every thing. The 
farmers, I readily believe, are rather more 
backward in adopting improvements than 
reafon, or, perhaps I (hould fay, education 
will allow. But, on the other hand, 
gentlemen and authors are yet more apt to 
' adopt chimeras at once, and then rail at 


t 416 j 

their inferiors* for not being as raih A& 

Experiment is the rational foundation of 
all ufeful knowledge : let every thing be 
tried, but do not expeft it of thofe who 
cannot afford it : let the landlord play all 
imaginable tricks with his land ; if out of 
the game of chance a lucKy hit arifes, the 
tenant's eyes will not be fhut. 

Many experiments have been lately madb 
in this neighbourhood, at a confiderable 
expence, and many more have failed than 
fucceeded ; I know but few that are yet 
fufficiently eftablifhed in their credit, 
among even gentlemen themfelves, for the 
farmers with any prudence to adopt 
them. I (hall infert a few minutes taken 
of an unfuccefsful experiment or two« 


Mowing Wheat. 

I SHOULD premife, that a common 
way with the farmers in this country is^ 
to fow their wheat on clover paftures, only 
turning up the (urface once. 

[- 4^7 1 

I moweid the half of eight acres, and ' 
reaped half, dividing the field in fuch a 
manner as to give each method a fair pro- 
portion of the weedy and clean parts. 

The moft judicious farmers here, gene-. 
rally cut their wheat a week before it is 
quite ripe, and leave it the longer in the 
field in fhocks, that the corn may acquire 
a hardnefs, and the weeds have time to 
drp and die. 

I laid each lot of wheat by itfelf, and 
have -fince thraflied and fold five quarters o£ 
each : the refult of my experiment was 
. as follows. 

That which was reaped, was fit to carry 
in a week ; that I mowed was fo full of 
weeds in the bottoms of the fheaves, that, 
at the end of ten days, I could not carry it t 
if I had ventured, the fweat in the barn 
would have fpoiled it. 

The twelfth night, fo much rain fell 
(feveral fhowers, flight ones, had fallen 
before, without damaging the wheat) as 
to be of prejudice to the corn: when a 
fortnight was elapfed, fome of it was 
grown in the fliock. At the end of fix- , 
teen days, I got it into the barn, much 
out of humour with ftiy experiment. 
' E e When 

[ 4i8 3 

When I cameto thrafti, that Whidi Was 
reaped coft me three fhillihgs jJ^r^quafftr, 
the other five (hillings 5 a very' fair difference, 
I am convinced, confidering the length of the 
liraw, and the quantities of weeds. Weeds 
there muft be more of than in the other 
method, as they reap quite over inoflrof 

At market I fold the reaped wheat at 
two pounds ^fr quarter, and the mow9i Sit 
thirty.five ftiillings. Here I fliall clofe 
4he comparifon : if the value of a litde 
pipy hard ftraw, and the faving in a flo- 
venly expedition, are fuppofed to pay rae 
five (hillings per quarter ; by all means let 
tl^e pradlice advance: for myfelf, Khali 
be much more inclined to reap my oats, 
than mow ray wheat. 



I FALLOWED and ploughed two 
acres of light graVelly land till it was clear 
of weeds : this is the foil Mr. Miller^ in 
his Gardeners Dictionary, fays is mo(t fuit- 


t 4'^ ] 
4^Dle to It J I therefore chofe it In preference 
Jto feyeraj other kinds in my farm, 

J fowed it in his manner, twelve pounds 
,to the two acres, in drills two feet from 
.ieach Other, the beginning of jfipril. The 
Weather was favourable, and the plants 
Jcame up tolerably well and regular. 

Durmg the whole fummer I kept the 

Ipaces between the rows quite clear pf 

weeds with hand-hoes,- and gave it two 

jploughings, turning/ the land up to the 


The Ijoeing was a very confiderable ex- 
p^nce to Jme; nevcrthelefs I was deter^ 
milled, to giv€ the plant a fair trial, 
therefqre did not let the weeds rife at 

After all the trouble I had with it, and 
the raillery I met with from the neigh- 
bouripg farmers, I jvas rewarded about 
the beginning of Septemier, with three 
hundred of lucerne hay, .the value of 
which, 4id ^ot a twentieth part pay even 
the hoeing of the crop. 

Tl^e plants died away, and but few put 
put their leaves again in t|ie fucceeding 

Ee2 I 

[ 420 ] 

I ploughed up the land, and (owed it 
with white oats, the largenefs of which 
crop made me fome amends for my dif- 
appointment, as I do not doubt having 
feven quarters and hzlf per acre when they 
are thrafhed. 

As I laid no dung on the land, I attri- 
bute this extraordinary crop to the frequent 

Any perfon who has read the article 
Medica in Millers Di^ionary^ and Mr* 
Rocque*s Short Treatije on Lucerne^ will per* 
ceive the methods to be diametrically op- 
pofite, as well as the opinions of the 
proper foil. It is to be regretted that au- 
thors, who write on gardening or hus- 
bandry, will not keep within their due 
bounds, and not ruin their compofitions 
by vain attempts at univerfality. 

Since the trial I made of this grafe, 
I have heard of feveral perfons who 
have been equally difappointed with my- 
felf, in following Mr. Millers directions ; 
and alfo of two or three who have (own 
lucerne in Mr. Rocque's method, on ^ rich 
mould, who have fucceeded the firft year 
very well, but with fome doubts whether 
theicrop will lafl. 

7. K 

r 421 ] 

If the defcription I have heard of lucerne, 
and its excellencies, is true, it would be a 
moft valuable acquifition in all this coun- 
try, bur only artificial ^rafs is clover, 
which we can very feldom turn cattle into 
before the tenth or twelfth of Mdy^ long 
before which time our turnips are gone; 
fo, for want of fome grafs which comes 
earlier, we are at a vaft expehce to feed 
our cattle, efpecially if the fpring proves 

To fupply, in fome meafure, this want^ 
I have geperally, at Michaelmas^ fown a 
few acres of rye for feed in the following 
fpring, and afterwards ploughed and pre- 
pared the land for turnips : and I propofed 
trying cole-feed for the fame ufe. 

The fummer-feed of clover lets here ex- 
tremely wells from thirty-five to forty- 
five (hillings /^r acre, from old Afoy-day to 
old Micbaelmas'Azy •j and I have known 

to fifty (hillings ,given. From thefe 

circumftances it is extremely clear, that 
lucerne, if it fucceeded, would prove apt 
obje6t of great importance. 

I have inferted thefe two experiments, 
not as criterions from which to form a 
judgment, having fucceeded myfelf with 

E e 3 lucerne, 

[ 422 ] 

lucerne, for the firft year, otherwife naar 
naged, and bfeing credibly informfed, that 
mowing wheat has anfwered to others; 
but as a proof that both points will ddmit^ 
in many circumftances, of greatt doubt^j 
and until thefe doubts are fully removed, 
no one can ftigmatize common farmer^ 
for being Ihy of experiments; 


Of manuring Land at a large Expence^ 

THE following inftance of manuring at 
a very large ex pence, I am perfe6lly well 
acquainted with, having long feen the ef- 
feft, which is not, however, fo certain 
but fome neighbouring farmers difpute 

I infert it as a proof, that even common 
farmers are not always backward to cxpcn- 
five improvements. 

A farmer, at the diftance of about four 
miles from the neareft town, has regular- 
ly, for many years, employed his team, 
and a flout waggon, in bringing manure 
from it. ' 

f 423 ] 

I have brought many loads myfelf, tho' 
nothing in proportion to him. From 
\yhat I have experienced, and from his 
^^ount, the expences on each load are as 
f^Upws : 

For a waggon-load of atH)Ut on^ hundred bu- 
ibels of manure, either cinder -afhes, old 
mortar, hog-muck, rotten horfe-muck, or 
cleaning of the fireets, &c. mixed, one load 
yith another cofts - - - 3 Q^ 

A man and a boy a day Qittle time is to be fpar- 
«d after the horfes are cleaned and well 
looked after, and the mannre unloaded) -id 

Turnpike - * - - - 6 <i 

The work is generally done at the moft leifure 

" time of the year, mofily in winter, when the 
formers allow their men a flated qpan^ity oJF 
corn abd hay for their horfes when they do 
not work; they mud have extraordinary, 
on account of the journey, a bu(hel of oats, 
which, at twelve (hillings per quarter, is - x 6* 

The loweft that can be reckoned for chaff and 

hay, is - - - - - I o. 

The working the horfes in drawing fp great a 
weight (frequently four tuns, and generally 
three and a half) can fcarcely be laid at lefs 
than one (hilling per horfe (I am fure I 
would not let my horfes at that rate) -40. 


In this account, nothing is reckoned for 
the wear and tear of waggon, harnefs, and 

E e 4 horfe- 

[ 424 ] 
horfe-flioes, (no trifling articles) and yet 
each load amounts to eleven ihillings and 
fix-pence brought home, befides the after 
expence of fpreading it on the land. In 
appearance ^ this can never anfwer : but 
no farmer in the country underftands bu- 
finefs better than this man, none raifes 
fuch great crops (for he is almoft con- 
ftantly manuring fome field or other) and 
he is evidently and well^ known to be in a 
thriving condition. 

He began with a very fmall farm, and 
now rents above two hundred a year. 

It may, however, admit of a query. 
Whether the above expences are not too 
great for the crops to repay ? 

Whether the money would not be better 
laid out in manuring with clay, which is, 
to be had every where in this country ? 
Our foils are, in general, either a loam, 
brick-earth, or woodcock, and under them 
clay: we can have it thrown out of our 
ditches (by which means alfo our fields are 
drained) at two-pence halfpenny per tum- 
brel-load of thirty buftiels, and filled and 
fpread at two fliillings and fix-pence for 
every twenty loads. 



C 425 1 

- of Broad-Wbeekd Waggoml 

AMONG the many improvemente 
which are daily ra^in^ in agricul- 
ture, and the inftruments and machines 
employed in it, that of broad-wheeled 
waggons is far from being the leaft coii- 
fiderable, as they are equally ufeful to the^ 
fermer and the carrier. 

Great, however, as the advantages ate 
which attend the ufe of them, very few are 
built by farmers. I am informed that ia 
Kent^ and fbme other parts of England^ 
they are coming into ufe ; biit in Suffolk 
and Norfolk J where there are many farms 
equal, if not fuperior to moft in Eng^ 
landy I know but very few ufed by far- 

This is the more furprizing, as the great 
convenience of them is evident and indu- 
bitable. Any fartn that requires eight or 
ten horfes to cultivate it, is large enough 
to prove the advantages attending their 
ufe. If fuch a farm is fituated on a great 
road, and within reach of a market- town, 


r 4*6 J 

from whence manure may be brought, the 
faving by them is yet more confpicuous. 

1 know, within a few mil^s, fcve- 
ral fubftantial farmers, who keep from 
ten to twenty flout horfes, and are fie- 
qneptly carrying coro to the neighbogrn 
;ng towns} fomt of them hriog l<trge 
quantities of manure, at leifure times, and 
^rt-timber, or any other work, which 
carpenters, or others, can employ them 
in; but all is performed with narrow^ 
wheeled waggons, which, on our turn- 
pike-roads, are allowed to be drawn by 
only four horfes. 

The praftice of the farmer, who 
brought manure at the expence of eleven 
fhillings and fix-pence jper iQad, I ihaU 
confider in the prefent cafe. 

He keeps, I think, fourteen or fifteen 
horfes, fix or eight of them ftout enough 
for a broad-wheeled waggon. 

The common load of a narrow«>whed[ed 
waggon is about ten quarters of wheat, 
twelve and a half of barley, a tun and 
half of hay, and of manure, about from 
ninety to an hundred bufhels. Thefe 
loads are pretty near the general practice, 
whether with four horfes in the turnpikesj^ 


[ 427 ] 
ftr iive or fix in other roads. With corn^^ 
hay, planks, &c. two men are always lent 
to attend eaeh waggon, and a man and a 
jboy when manui^e is the load* 

I know but three farmers who u(i 
broad-wheeled waggons, and only ofte of 
them to the greateft advantage. 

Eight horfes are always allowed to draw 
them, when they are nearly loaded/ 

None of thefe three farmers ever fent 
more than two men with them, who can 
manage the eight horfes with nearly the 
fame eafe as five or fix in a common wag^* 
gon: the difference in trouble is but tri- 
lling. As to the load, the fuperiority will 
be found to be very great in favour of the 
|>road wheels. 

But I fhould premife, that when A far- 
mer builds one of thefe waggons, he 
(hduld, by all means, remember to have 
very ftout hanging-boards td fix occafion- 
ally round it, projetling, about fourteen 
or fixtietn inches from the buck *, over the 
wheels, ahd the ends* When a waggon is 
built of a proper ftrength, with plenty of 

♦ The buck of the waggon, is the body of it, which 

coQtaiQS the load. 

'« • • • • 


t 428 1 

hronSy thefe proje^ling boards enable it to 
hold an immenfe load. 


I have feen but one wag^on^ in a far-* 
mer's hands^, built on thefe principles^ 
and the loads it conftantly carried were 
really furprizing. 

Such an one will hold two hundred and 
fifty bulhels of manure. Let us compare 
the faving in this article. 

Between ninety and one hundred bu-* 
fhels in a common waggon coft eleven 
{hillings and fix-pence: the expence of 
two hundred and fifty in the broad-wheel- 
ed waggon is as follows : 

g /•, /• a* 

Two hundred and fifty buihels of mannre, 

at the fame price as the other - -.076 

Two men a day - - - - -020 

Turnpike - - - - -010 

Two bufliels of oats - - - -030 

ChafFand hay - - - -020 

Ufc of the horfcs - - - -080 

3 6 , 

From this account it is plain, that fifty 
bufhels of manure are gained by the ufe 
of the broad wheels, clear profit, every 
journey, or better than five ihillings, ac- 

[ 429 I 

cordjnif to the coft of it the common 

You will cafily conceive how much this 
mufl amount to in a year, in thofe farms 
where very large quantities arc conftantly 
brought* The farmer I mentioned takes 
almoft every leifure day . to bring it, and 
has freqiiently two waggons at the work 
at the fame time, lofing, in this manner, 
half a guinea a day, for want of a broad- 
wheeled waggon. 

In eighty loads, twenty pounds are 
faved clear ; and feveral farmers I know 
take confiderably above an hundred jour- 
neys in a year. 

I fhall next examine the faving in a load 
of wheat or barley, carried out in a broad- 
whfeeled waggon. 

J have known fuch an one as I have 
defcribed carry forty quarters of corn at a 
time; but I will eftimate the load at 
thirty quarters. The expences of carrying 
out thirty quartiers of wheat, or other 
corn^ in a common waggon^ are 


I 450 i 

Two ilicn two days each jourliey, - ** o 12 d 

Their allowance for expences oa the road, 
«ch:tiwc<i? fluUiiigs - - - o i8 

Xhc^e$ of oats for fix horfes each 
lime, one quarter one bufliel, at twelve 
slhUlMigs, is . * - - • o 13 6 

* ni'bfee .&QS of chaff each time, at four- 
pence per fan - - - o 3 O 

One' himdred of hay each time, at tw6 (hil- 

Uogs .- ■»• - - • o 6 d 

Vie of fix horfes, at two ihillings and fix^ 

pence each per journey - - -250 

' f ' ' 

4 J7 > 

A common waggon brings a chaldron and 

half of coals, or fifty-four bulhels, for 
which the fafmers receive twelve IbU- 
liogs per chaldron : in three journeys 
this is four chaldron and a half to be 
' deduAed from the expences * - 2 14 

Remains total expence on carrying out 

thirty -quarters of corn - - * 236 

The expence on one journey of a broad- 
wheeled waggon, with eight horfes, will 
be as follows : 

.TwQ*mpn two days - -» - o 4 o 

Their aHow;ince - - -060 

Fourbufhels of oats - - -060 

Four fans of chaff - - -014 

Carryover o 17 4 

• We meafure our chaff in thofe wicker fan-ba&ets ufed to 
clean the chaff from corn : they hold about three bufliels* 


[ 4J1 ] 

Brought over o 17 4 
One hundred and a half of hay (this is 
nibre than the propoftioti, but I give , 
the narrdw wheels fair play in every 
"artSclc) - - - -030 

*£ight horfes, ^t half ft crown each • 100 


'Bfiick carriage 6f four chaldron and a half 
of co^ls, or one hundred and fixty-two 
bufliels, at twelve (hillings per chal- 
dron - - - * 2 14 O 

Expences , - - - -204 

^Profit on each jtmrney, by means of back 

carriage - - - - o 13 8 

Whereas, in three journeys with the 
common waggon, there is a lofs of two 
pounds three fhiliings and fix-pence^ 
which makes two pounds feventeen fhil- 
lirijgs and tworpence profit on every journey 
with z, broad- wheeled waggon. 

An important article this is in a large 
farm, and highly worth the confideration 
of thcHTe farmers who ufe land enough to 
employ eight ftout horfes. 

Let us fuppofe ^ a farmer to raife ^n 
hundred and fifty acres of corn in a year, 
and allow four quarters per acre 3 no high 


[ 432 ] 
calculation, if he is one that employs 
lumfelf in purchafing and bringing ma- 
nure. • 

One hundred and fifty acres, at four 

quarters per acre, are 600 quarters, or 
fixty journeys with a narrow-wheeled wagr 
gon in a year, which, at two pounds three 
ihillings and fix-pence lofs every three 
journeys, amounts to forty-three pounds 
ten {hillings per annum. 

Six hundred quarters arc twenty jour- 
neys with a broad-wheeled waggon ; and, 
as I have above proved, that there is two 
pounds •fcveflteen (hillings and two-pence 
profit by evei7 journey, the twenty amount 
in the. year to fifty-feven pounds three 
(hillings and four-pence, or above the 
price of one of thefe waggons, in a. fingle 
article in a fmgle year. 

Many are the farmers who raife an 
infinitely greater quantity of corn than I. 
have fpecifiedj fome, doubtlefs, much 
lefs J but it will be an eafy matter to cal- 
culate the profit on any quantity; and it 
will prove very great, in proportion, in 
all farms that employ eight or more 

' horfcs. 


t 433 ] 

The fame van: fuperiority will be found 
m every article of employment, to which 
tnefe waggons can be put. They wilL 
carry three or four times the quantity of 
a comnion waggon of hay, ftraw, faggots, 
planks, or other pieces of timber ^ and in 
each article the proportion of gain by their 
ufe will remain the fame. . ' 

If we reckon only twenty pounds in a 
year faved in bringing manure, the clear 
pirofit on that, and carrying out the corn, 
amounts to feventy-feyen pounds three 
Ihillings and four-pence. If we calculate 
the faving at one hundred pounds for eve- 
ry article of work in the year, I am per- 
fuaded it would not be above the truth j 
efpecially if the farmer (as fome few in my 
neighbourhood do) carries planks, and 
pieces of timber, or any thing elfe for 

I Ihall now inquire into the reafonable- 
nefs of fome objeftions, which many far- 
iliers I have converfed with on the fubjeft, 
have ftarted againft the ufe of thefe excel- 
lent waggons. 

They fay a broad-wheeled waggon is. 
fo huge and cumberfome a machine, that 
it cannot be ufed for any purpofe in 

F f . their 

[454 I 
their grounds; no where but in good 

A very trivial reafon for not having 
them, furely ! A farmer who has eight or 
ten horfes, in all probability, has three 
waggons; many that I know have four^ 
without renting very large farms. Two 
waggons, with narrow wheels, are abfp- 
lutely neceflary for home-bufihefs, and in 
many farms three, in fome four. When 
no broad -wheeled waggon is kept, they are 
built generally very ftrong for road-work, 
to a much greater price than would be ne- 
ceflary if they were ufed only at home : 
here would be a great faving, in h;^ving 
the common waggons lighter built : and 
as one waggon in moft farms is very ftout 
for road biifinefs, the difference would be 
no coniiderable fum between that and a 
broad- wheeled waggon. 

I have now one with narrow wheels, 
which coft me twenty-feven pounds: I 
can build one with broad vvheels for fifty, 
complete in every relpe£l : . the extraordi- 
nary expence, therefore, would be only 
twenty-three pounds. But, to anfwer all 
doubts, I Will fuppofc the farmer muft 


t 4^5 ] 

k^p the fame number of commbii wdg« 
gonSj and the whole fifty pounds expended 
extraordinarily. Ltt any one of common 
fenfe judge if fuch a purpofe would not 
ianfwer, wefc th6 twenty pounds pet an-* 
num feved in bringing tnanure, the only 
profit arifing from it* Th6 anfwcr is plain 
and evident. How much more advanta- 
geous is it then, wKcn feventy or art hun- 
dred pounds a year is the gain by hanng ^ 

I h^e heard fome other objeftitJn^sf 
made to their ufe, but all fo extremely 
triflingj that it is needlefs to take the* 
tfouble of anfwering them. 

A broad- wheeled waggon will go ill any 
quafter-road^ and to moft towns in Eng- 
landy of any confideration 5 even where 
there are no tmtipikes, roads good enough 
for thefe carriages, lead. But in the 
county, of which I more particularly 
Ipeak, <)iz. Suffdky exceeding good roads 
are every wTicre met with, and in moft 
places better for quarter-carriages than 
narrow-wheeled waggons.- 

Load eight horfes in a broad*-whceled 
waggon,- vvith three times the weight 
which four horfes will carry in a common 

F f 2 carri* 

I 436 I 

carriage on our turnpikes^ and they will 
perform their journey with far more eafe 
to themfelves than the others; and in 
other roads, where a narrow-wheeled wag- 
gon is jolted, and almoft racked to pieces 
in deep ruts, a broad-wheeled waggon will 
carry, with eafe to the horfes, and not 
half the tear of iron, &c. three times the 
weight which fix horfes can draw in one 
with narrow wheels. 

The breadth of the wheels gives a fteadi- 
nefs to the whole machine, and enables it 
to roll along without thofe violent jolts, 
which fo greatly increafe the fatigue of 
drawing narrow wheels; and their hot 
cutting into the ground fuch deep ruts, 
muft indubitably eafe the draught to a 
great degree. 

I have more than once heard them 
found fault with for fpoiling roads ; but 

furely with very great injuftice for all 

the beft roads in England are thofe in 
which mod of them travel. In crofs-roads, 
kept upon that vile principle of havings 
but one track, where one wheel conftant- 
ly runs in the horfe-path, they may cut up | 
the roads; and the fooner they do it the 
better; that fo barbarous a manner of 
\ . making 


r 437 J 

making them may be done with. Nothing 
defer ves the name of a road, but a tolera- 
bly level furface, upon which the tracks 
,may vary, without haying quarters a yard 
high to crofs'. 

• - -;V'^^^>■' 

Ff 3 


( 438 } 

l^fijins ivbf Farming fo eftm froffft^ kci* 



WHEN I began farming, I was warn^ 
cd from expcding profit, by twa 
different fets of people j Fir ft, by gentler, 
men, who affured me nothing was to bo 
made by it, but much, probably, woul4 
be loft, if I Iiad rent to pay i nnce {qw^ 
who even farmed their own land, couldi 
do more than make their rents, ancj 
keep their horfes, by their farms.-r — Se-^ 
condly, the farmers, who have a mortal 
antipathy, to what they call gentlemen^ 
farmers, and are fure to laugh very wifejy 
at thofe who pretend to know any thing of 
the matter, treated vcrj idea of attempting 
it without lofing money, as ridiculous. 

No great encouragement this to begfn ^ 
but my inclination to a country-life, ancj 
my averfion to the mere idle enjoyment of 
it, overcame thefe prudential cautions j 
and I engaged in farming, with the expec- 
tation of, at leaft, lofing nothing by it. 
An indolent pra6lice of bufinefs was not 
piy fcheme; thof? who would purfue 


. * 

I 439 ] 

farming ta advantage, fhoiild adopt the 
fentimerit of Statius : 

'^"Sieriles tranfmifimus annos^ 

th^c devi mi hi prima dies^ hac limind vita. 

Whenever the bufinefs of hufbandry 13 
followed with attention and induftry, 1 
am very well convinced it will prove pro- 
fitable, barring particular exceptions : but 
fhere is Scarce any purfuit in which more 
% ft]ioney may be loft, through ignorance or 

The rent of a farm is a very material 
article, though not. in this country fo- of- 
ten, the caufe of a want of profit, as com- 
monly imagined. 

In fome parts of Englandy I know, the 
rents are fcrewed fo high, that the tenants 
are little better fituated than day-labour- 
. crs : but this is not the cafe in Suffolk ; 
rent does not bear fo hard upon the farmer 
as his Handing expences. 

Men of tolerable experience, who have 
feen any parcel of land at different feafons 
pf the year, will judge pretty exaftly what 
rent it is Worth ; and, except in very little 
fairms, the property of people in low cir- 

F f 4 cum- 

[ 440 ]' 

curndsQces, I know but few inftances of s^ 
want of fuccefs, owing merely to the rent. 
The reafon is frequently thrown on it : 
t)Ut a near examination generally difcover^ 
fome bad management, or accidental cir- 
ctimftances, to which a failure may be attri- 
buted, as well as to a high rent : however, 
fome exceptions there muft be to the beft 
founded aflertion^. 

The ftocking a farm is a point of great 
importance, and requires as much judg- 
ment and forcfight as any other point in 

The bad fuccefs of great nuipbers is 
owing to their not having a fufficient fun> 
of money to begin with, which inevitably 
involves them in difficulties, and reduce^ 
their profit on every article of their pro- 
duce.' Their farms are und^r-ilocked j 
they fell at a conftant difad vantage ; their 
fields are not half cultivated; and in a 
ftioit feries of years, unlefs fome l\icky hit 
fets them up, they grow poor, in fpitc of 
all poffible induflry, judgment, and ap- 

Even a low and eafy rent will feldpip 
femedy the want of money in fetting out. 


[ 441 3 

l:he want of judgment, in proportioBy 
Ing the quantity of each particular kind of 
ftock to the quantity and nature of the 
lands pf a farm, is alfo attended with great 

Eor inftance ; if a farm requires four 
horfes, qt two ploughs, and the farmer 
k^eps only three horfes, or a plough and 
a harrow, his fields cannot be fufficiently 
cpltivated, even according to the ideas of 
culture, common among farmers; and, 
of courfe, in a few years his lands muO: 
be in very bad order, to his great annual 

On the contrary, to over-ftock himfelf 
with horfes, is to keep what will inevita- 
bly eat him out pf houfe and home: the 
expences attending them are very great, 
and if they are not kept conftantly at 
vyorjk, their owner muft neceflarily lofe 
by them. But it will not be amifs to ex* 
plain myfelf more particularly on this 
head, ,^^^,^ 
* I aijilpeaking at prefent of the pradice 
of farmers, fome of whom over-ftock 
tjiemfelves with hor&s, without giving 
their lands extraordinary ftirrings on that 
fi(:counU If a farm, which commonly 

5 require? 

[ 44a ] 
requires three horfes, has fouf kept, «nd 
is coiifequently ploughed and harrowed 
proportionably more, the farmer will be ' 
no lofer by his fourth horfe 5 but the cafe 
is very different when he is kept without, ^ 
being worked to thk beft advantage of the 

It is not to be at once perceived how 
much is loft by not having the nun^r 
of horfes proportioned to the land s nor 
can this always be done. 

A farmer may find it itcceffary to keep 
four horfes, and when he has got them,' 
it is a chance but he could perfe6Hy well 
manage feveral fields more with them ; and 
when a man has an opportufnity of hiring 
additional fields, then ihould bis jtfdgnteht 
come into play, tx> take no more than bis 
old ftock will manage to advaaifage, unlefe 
he has a fum of mofyey ready to rtiake an 
addkton to it. 

The fame \\\ confequences^ attend either 
over or under-ftocking a farm with alt 
other cattle : and it would be to the far- 
mer's advantage,, was he always to remem- 
ber, that three beafts, of any kiftd, well 
fed, pay better than foiir vs^ithout thfeii? 
bellies full. On the contrary, not to keep 


E 443 1 
the ftock jiecc0kry, is. to fabmit to a con^ 
ftant lofs. Thefe miftakes are frequent-* 
ly made, to the great unprofitabknefs of 

The proportion of the pafture and arable 
lands of a farm, is of great confcquence 
towards the occupier's making a profit of 
his bufinefs. 

I have aheady fhewn how much more 
jidvantageoas the former are than the 
latter; neverthelefs many farms have 
icarcely any grafs:^ and others none at all ; 
the contrary fault, of having too much» 
pever came yet within my obfervation. 
' The unprofitable praftice of ploughing 
up paftures> and not laying them down 
again, which is fo univerfal in this coun« 
try among farraersj^ whenever their land- 
lords will allow it, tends perpetually to 
impoverifti themt They are dfto a man,, 
mad after ploughed lands, and would v/iU 
Jiagly break up every acre of grafs in their 

. So getieral an opinion among them 
would intake, one think the praftice really 
profitahles but the contrary appears be-, 
yqnii aJil contradiction to be the truth ; 

I mean^. 




^ t 444 1 

f mean, according to the culture at pre«* 
lent purfued in this country. 

Two thirds of the land of a fai^m in a 
rich country ^(hould be grais ; and a little 
one had htttev aH be fo* The vaft ex- 
pences of the plough, without doubt, keep 
many farmei;^ poor, who, if their farms 
were grafs, would not run half the 
hazard, and enjoy a much better in- 

Particular points of bad management, 
for want of fenfe or knowledge (through 
ilovenlinefs, idlenefs, or other objedtions 
to any profitable huibandry) are not what 
I mean to fpeak of here ; fince they are fo 
very various, and fo totally ruinous, that 
HO reafoning can be conclufive, unlefe all 
iiich exceptions are made. 

The improper quantity of land in 
a farm is^ often ag^inft the farmer's pro* 

Very large trafts, of two or three thou- 
fand acres, which are common in Norfolk^ 
are too extenfive . for coie farm. It is im- 
poflible for one man to cultivate iuch a 
i^aantity of land well : much of it muft be 



t 445 I 

iicgle6led, and but little perfe6lly mari*^ 
aged *. 

Great profit indeed arifes from moft o£ 
thefe farms; but they take a very large 
fum of money to ftock and manage theni 

Very ftnall ones, unlefs the farmer does 
the whole bufinefs himfelf, are equally li- 
able to objeftion. The medium, which 
is ever, in proportion, the mod profitable, 

* No man can accurately culilvAte above 2oo &r 300 
gcres', therefore if he gits by a larger tenure, it moft 
arife from fome ever-plus in the terms of the bargain, 
fiere the great owner is over-reached, or in other words, 
THE Landlord; let him think himftlf as firewd and 
tunning as he pleafes. We will predift the event of 
over-grown farms to England (i. e. farms from 400 to 
500 and 1000 /• annual rent;) and in a few years// 
will be thus ; tenants Yikejlewards will purchafe im- 
perceptibly, and as it were inch-meal^ every angle of 
their LANDLORDS qui nunc demrmat agellum. We (hall 
have an opulent Yepmanry and an indigent Gentry. 
This is no objeft to the public in general, but // may he 
to individuals. 

Whence arifes this inadvertency in I^andlords, 

which hurts public population beyond conception ? 

Why, in truth, even great landlords may want money 

and moft have it, acervatim. 


Mem, Communicate My very excellent friend means I 
apprehend exceeding large farms, and in a rich foil. 
Farms cannot be fmall in a poor one. 



t 446 1 

is that quantity of ]and which will admit 
of being flocked and farmed without 
the want of either any addition or diminu-* 
tion. What I mean k this : 

Let us fuppofe a farm to confift of fe- 
vcnty acres of land, twenty of them grafs, 
and the reft arable, in a rich country, the 
land from ten to fixteen and feventeen fhiU 
lings per acre j the occupier muft keep on^ 
fervant, and if he does not work haf d him- 
felf, one labourer all the year, tefides 
fome additional help at bufy times. 

I know there are many flovcnly men, 
who cultivate (if their management de« 
ferves that name) fuch farms with fewer 
hands than I have mentioned ^ but their 
conduft can be no rule to good farmers. 
Four horfes are alfo neceflary for fudi a 

Now, for the fame ftanding expences 
of fervants' wages, horfes, &c. the fame 
number of ploughs, harrows, tumbrils, 
waggons, &c. &c. one hundred acres, or 
better, might be farmeti with the fame 
proportionable profit : in this cafe, there- 
fore, the tenant of ftventy acres lofes con- 
fiderably for want of thirty or forty more. 

9 Indeed 



I 447 1 

J^ ed w© feldom meet with a farm nicely 
propoitioned te the flock on it. 

Tliere are many very evident reafons 
why farming fhould prove unprofitable to 
gentlemen, who undertake to cultivate a 
part of their eftates^ whether for their 
amufement pr convenience, or, generally 
fpeaking, even for profit. 

Avery fine Norfolk farm, of a large ex- 
tent of country, the rent exceeding low, 
and a gentleman willing to be at the ex- 
pence of marling ; i^i fuch a cafe, there is 
no fear of confiderableprofit, eyen without 
perpetual attention: but in common 
farms, in rich countries, no profit can 
aiife to any gentleman that does not give, 
the bufinei^conftant attention, and defcend 
tP minutia 5 which m^y be too difagreeable 
for him to fubmit to. 

What I mean by profit, is not making 
the rent which he might receive from the 
tenant without troijble, and without ha- 
zard ; but that additional fum which is the 
farmer's profit after his rent and all ex- 
pences are paid* This is fcarcely ever made 
by gentlemen, who farm either for conve- 
nience or amufpment; and, excepting g^afs 
grounds, I am perfuaded they lofe confi- 



( 44« i 

derably by keeping land in their hand .. 
The plea of raifing enough for family, 
life of Wheat, oats, &c. is a miflake ; they 
had better by far buy every article, than 
have any thing to do with the plough. 

When I am told that farming anfwers 
to gentlemen, who I know do not give 
the farmers attention to the bufinefs, I ne- 
ver believe it, or, at leaft, am perfuaded 
that no regular accounts are kept It will 
not be difficult to produce fome good rca-^ 
fons for this incredulity. 

It (hould be remembered, that the 
farms which gentlemen keep in their own 
hands are feldom above fifty, fixty, feven- 
ty, or an hundred a year, and not often 
fo much. It is no eafy matter for a far-^ 
mer, with induftry, fobriety, and applica^ 
tion, to make above a rent profit in fuch a 
farm; and I believe but feldom fo much. 
This is with every advantage of undcr-t 
ftanding his bufinefs, applying clofe to it^ 
and doing fome work (if his farm is fmall, 
a gt'eat deal) himfelf : how unlikely is it 
therefore, that a gentleman, who may 
probably want thefe advantages, fhould 
make near that profit, or, indeed, any at 

all ! 


I 449, ) 

III the firft placCj a principal part of hk 
bufinefs, his buying and felling, is tran£- 
afted hy his bailiff, or head fervant, who 
inufl: be paid for his trouble. He may b6 
lucky chough to meet with art honeft one ; 
but I would never advife any one to let 
'the profit of his farming depend on the 
honefty of other people. Sufpition^ to the 
open generous mind, is irkfomc and grate- 
ing : but the farmer fhbuld fet out with 
the maxitn of Defcartes- — ^to doubt of his 
very exiftence, and fuppofe every man ^ 
i:nave till h£ finds him honefi. 

But there are many inconve^niences, be«-' 
iides thefe, in truflihg to bailiffs. 

The gentleman we muft certainly fup- 
jpofe to be ignorant of farming j and he is 
then, of courfe, in danger of having ah 
ignorant fervant, without the ability oi 
dete6ling him» liowever, the .fingle ex- 
pence of a bailiff, or a i^^^sr^-fervant, (which 
are much the fame) is too great to be kept 
conftantly for a fmall farm -, and in their: 
abfence the gentleman muft depend oa 

This is evidently no dependence at all > 
for can it be expefted that he will foreg<i 
luis diverfions, his excurfions of pleafure^ 



. [ 450 ] 
the company of his friends, the joys of 
fociety, to attend his farm ? I could almoft 
as foon believe, that his wife would re- 
nounce an opera or a ball for the pleafure 
of dancing attendance on her butter and 
cheefe in the dairy. The rural joys of 
romance are pretty much out of date now j 
and, alas !. there' is great difference be- 
tween the employment of a farmer's wife 
in E77glandy and keeping fheep on* the 
plains of Arcadia* A Mrs. spencer is not 
to be met with every day. To, return : 

There are, even in a fmall farm, a 
thoufand objeds which require conftant 

Cattle of no kind will thrive but in the 
mafter's eye : every variation of the fea- 
fon to be remarked \ the lucky moment 
for ploughing, harrowing, fowing, reap- 
ing, &c. to be caught, and ufcd withdi- 
ligence and forefight ; fences for ever to 
be attended to ; and, in fhort, a million 
of other things, which require conftant 
thought and endlefs application. 

That fingle article, the employment of 
labourers, will, alone run away with the 
profit of the whole farm. It is twenty to 
one but every labourer cofts the gentleman 



t 451 ] 

near 40 /• a year, or double what it does the 

farmer: for he will not only receive his 
pay, as of the farmer, but live (and perhaps 
half his family into the bargain) out of the 
gentleman's kitchen. Nine farming fervants 
out of ten have a fellow-feeling with all the 
labourers in a gentleman's farm-yard. 

When thefe points are confidered with 
ever fo little attention, furely the opinion I 
have adopted will not appear unreafonable.- 
The advantages of the farmer over the 
gentleman will be ken evidently, not en* 
joyed, indeed, without fome defertj for 
few of the latter, I apprehend, can ad-^ 
drefs theiv countrymen in the wor^Is of 
Crefinus : Nee poffum vobis ofienderey aut in 
forum adducere lucuhrationes tneas^ vigilias^ 

But furely it appears plainly, from what 
I have faid, that the improfitablenefs of 
farming is fcarcely ever owing to the art 
itfelf, but the miftakes of thofe who prac- 
tife it. 

As I have been fo particular in diftin- 
guiihing feveral points, by- which the fol- 
lowers of it lofe, I ihall now trefpafs a 
little longer dn the reader's patience, and 
give my fentiments on the cuftom of gen- 

G g 2 tlemen's 


t 452 j 
tkmen's farming, in other reipefts than 
that of profit, to thofc who are not folici- 
tons about it, and in relation to it, to 
thofe whofe fortunes will not allow an in* 
difference to fuch a point. 

It is fcarcely poflible for a gentleman to 
live in the country without finding many 
inconveniences in not keeping a team of 
farming-horfes, with waggons, carts, &c^ 
and other implements ufed in the bufinefs 
of hufbandry. While profit is not confi- 
dered, there will flow a multitude of agree- 
able circumftances from farming, which 
will hav? fome relation to almoft every 
particular of a country-life. 

In refpefl of entertainment, what more 
national, or more amufing, than country- 
bufinefs, without the anxiety of caVing 
for profit ! The public-good calls loudly 
to all gentlemen to keep fome land in their 
hands, that experiments may be made, and 
modes of agriculture purfued, different 
from the praftice of the neighbourhood ; 
for the farmers, at leaft, to fee that their 
own cuftoms are not the only good ones, 
and that there are improvements to be 
made even on tbeir pradice. 


r 453 ] 

All the improvements and new inven- 
tions in agriculture come from gentlemen ; 
fcarcely one, that I ever heard of, is known 
to have been difcovered by farmers. 

I do not wonder at this, for I think it 
IS natural enough ; but, at the fame time, 
it is a ftrong reafon for gentlemen's farm- 
ing, whether they make profit by it or not. 
The expenfive ufe of manures, introducing 
a garden-culture into the field hufbandry, 
and the culture of turnips, were the efFefts 
(among a hundred other inftances) of .gen- 
tlemen's farming. 

But if the puUic-good was not to be 
confidered, yet the mere amufement of 
farming, to a gentleman of fortune, who 
has the leaft tafte for country-bufinefs, 
xnuft plead warmly for its pradice. Such 
farmers foon make a garden of their ef« 
tates, at the fame time that they improve 
the value of them. 

What can be more apiufing than expe- 
rimental agriculture? trying the cultiva- 
tion of the new -difcovered vegetables, 'and 
all the modes of raifing the old ones; 
bringing the earth to the fineft pitch of 
fertility, and raifing plants infinitely more 
vigorous and beautiful than any in the 

G g 3 common 


[ 454 1 

common tillage ; ufing the variety of new 
machines perpetually invented, and ob- 
ferving their £fFe£ls j in k fmall extent of 
ground, feeing the growth of an infinite 
variety of vegetables, unknown in the 
common praftice; perpetually enjoying 
the neatnefs of hufbandry, that fimpleoc 
munditiis of farming which gives the moft 
beautiful colouring to every objeft around, ,, 
and plcafes the refined imagination with 
the enchanting profpeft of all the elegance 
of nature. 

Thofe gentlemen of fmall fortunes, 
who, if they praftife any thing of farm- 
ing, find it neceflary not to be indifferent 
to profit, have many points to confider. 

Such au one fhould remember, although 
a farm will afford amufement, it will not 
yield profit without application. A con- 
ftant attention to every article is highly 
necefTary. He fhould keep the exadteft 
accounts, -and make memorandums of 
what knowledge he can pick up. For a 
few years he mufl employ a bailiff} and 
he will find that every day and hour will 
increafe his own knowledge, if he is at- 
tentive to the bufinefs. 


I 455 1 

Let him beware of trying experiments 
from books, except infmalL . It is twenty 
to one but be lofes by them, if he does 
not begin with little patches bf ground, to 
gain fome experience, before he ventures 
on a whole field. All the work that is 
poffible, he muft put out to his workmen 
by the piece j if he employs many by the 
day, I aflert it is impoffible to make any 
thing of farming. Let him, when he be- 
gins, apply a fuflicient fum of money for 
that purpofe 5 for he will find it a more 
expenfive bufinefs than he may imagine, 
I, if he does not keep regular ac- 
counts, he will certainly be a lofer. 

If he has his choice, he fhould not think 
of farming lefs than an hundred a year 
in a rich country* 



I 45« J 


Offbe Vfefulnefs of acquiring a Knowledge of" 
Foreign PraSlices in Hujbandry^ witbfome 
Hints toward attaining and propagating 
that Knowledge *y particularly recommendec( 
to the Notice of the Society inftituted for the 
l^ncouragement of Arts^ M^nufaStures^ 
and Commerce^ 

AGRICULTURE, I believe, is car^, 
ried to greater perfeftion in Eng-f. 
hndxhzvi in any other country of Europe y 
neverthelefs, we are certainly very far re- 
moved from that point of perfeftion to 
which we might arrive : nor is this king-* 
dom in general, I apprehend, near {o 
thoroughly cultivated as the empire of 
China y if we m,ay at all credit the beft ac-^ . 
counts we have of that region. 

I conceive that fcarcely half the kingdon^ 
is at prefent in an a6luai ftate of cultivar 
tion : mountainous and fenny trafls,^ 
downs, heaths, moors, &c. form an im- 
mcnfe quantity of land, which few, I be* 
lieve, will think ahfolutely incapable of 

Agriculture, in the fineft parts of the 
jkingdomj^ is not known fp pcrfeftly as tQ« 





[ 457 1 

yender the clofeft attention to Improve- 
Cient needlefs or unprofitable. If an exa£t 
regifter had been kept, for a century paft, 
pf any tra6t of land, or farms, fetting forth 
the produce of every kind, we fhpuld find 
it in an uniform progreffion of increafe. 
The beft authorities which curious men 
have been able to confult, difcover the in- 
creafe of our growth of corn, which is an 
evident demonftration of an improving 
hufbandry : and the experience of many 
thoufand intelligent men will Ihew us, that 
we are yet very far from that perfection 
which we ought to flrive to reach. 

Nothing can contribute more towards 
Ipreading a general knowledge in agricul- 
ture, and to make known to every part of 
the kingdom the methods followed by all 
the reft, than a general receptacle of far m-^ 
ing intelligence, publiflned frequently. 

But there yet remains a large and im-* 
portant fource of knowledge in ^his branch, 
which it is impoffible fuch a work fhould 
comprehend fully. 

I fancy there „ are few refle6ling men 
who will aflert, that all improvement can 
come only from ourfelves, and that various 
points of knowledge in agriculture cannot 



t 458 ] 

be gained from the pra6lice of foreigners. 

The cultivation of the earth may be in a 
far more flourilhing ftate in this kingdom 
than in many parts of Europe > but we 
ought not from thence to conclude, that 
other nations, who have not the peculiar 
bleffings of liberty and fituation which we 
poflefs, cannot make great and fhining 
difcoveries in agriculture, however poorly 
they may contribute to their general good, 

It is not our fuperior fagacity to which 
we are indebted for the poffeflion of fo 
happy a ftate of tillage ; it is owing to that 
admirable fpecies of liberty, which gives us 
a being fcarce known in any part of Eu* 
rope, the fubftantial hufbandman *• 

However fuperior we may be in this 
rcfpedt to the reft of Europe^ we ought to 
remark, with attention, the innumerable 
methods of huflbandry praftiled by the reft 
of the world, compare them with our 
own, make experiments of their refpeftive 
merits, and, without prejudice, adopt all 
that are good, 

* Whoever confiders Flanders and Brabant^ from 
the year 1600 to 1650, will finS as great, or greater 
improvemeots than England tver made in half a century. 
See Hartlib's Legacy, 1653. Sir R. fFe/lcn"$ 
Fl£M. Husb. ibj^i. 


[ 459 ] 

Let us make fober and rational experi- 
ment the foundation of our knowledge, 
and let us determine to admit every me- 
thod, which experiment proves to be bet- 
ter than our awn. 

If this is really the fenfible manner of 
proceeding, our bufinefs is to render our- 
felves acquainted with the praflice of 
foreign countries down to the minuteft 
particulars. But where is this knowledge 
to be gained ? The nobility and men of 
large fortune travel, but no farmers ; and 
unfortunately thofe who have this pecu- 
liar and diftinguifliing advantage, this 
nobje opportunity of benefiting them?- 
felves and their country, feldom inquire, 
or even think, about agriculture. 

The age at which our Britijh youth 
travel, is an infurmountable obflacle to 
the poflibility of their country being the 
better for it. If any one in a more ma- 
ture age undertakes the tour of Europe^ 
how few give any material attention to'' the 
cultivation of the variety of land they are 
obliged to pafs over ! If a traveller has the 
parts and abilities neceflary for fuch ob- 
fervation, fewer ftill have that degree of 
knowledge in farming which is neceflary 


[ 46o ] 

to fee the advantages of any pra6lice, and 
the points in which it promifes ' to be fer« 
viceable at home. 

It muft be expelled, that thofe who 
travel fliould confult the common advan- 
tages refulting from that part of educa- 
tioij : a general and polite acquaintance: 
with the knowledge of the times is rea- 
fonablej and a man of literatm'e, tafte, 
and fentiment, meets with fo much ta 
catch his attention, and pleafe hfe imagi- 
nation, in the acquaintance of the literati^ 
and the ftudy of that profufion of the 
productions of the fine arts, fo common 
abroad, that it is to be lamented he will 
not attend much to agriculture. 

It muft not be thought that a plough 
will come in competition with the gl6wing 
tints of a Corre^gio ; or the breed of a cowi 
or a fheep, interrupt the ideas of beauty and 
delicacy raifed by the viewof theFi?;7«5 de Afc- 
dicis. — Travellers muft facrifice to the gra- 
ces.— -Happy for their country if they would 
give fome little attention to public utility ! 
It is to me furprifing, that among the 
men of fenfe and reflexion who have tra- 
velled, and publifhed their remarksr, fo 
few have thought agriculture worthy their 



t 461 ] 


obfervation. Buildings, paintings, flatueS, 
relicks, and curiofities have been recorded, 
criticifed, and copied without end. Of all 
the journals of travels I have read, fcarce 
one gives any idea of the flate of agricul- 
ilire, and the methods of practice followed 
in the countries it defcribes. 

But the complete knowledge of foreign 
agriculture, ^-which I could wifh wds pof- . 
fefled at leail: by one of my countrymen, 
and publiflied for general advantage, is 
not to be acquired by our young nobility 
and gentry while they travel on the plan 
at prefent generally adopted ; nor is it to 
be met with in any book of travels hither- 
to publiftied. 

Let us fuppofe a proper perfon to un- 
dertake the tour of Europe^ or a part of it, 
merely to render himfelf perfeftly ac- 
quainted with every particular, the leaft 
worthy of obfervation, in the pra£lice of 
the agriculture, of every country through 
which he paflcs. Such a perfon, however 
he might cafually amufe himfelf in a city, 
ought tp deem the country the fcene of his 
travels, and every where take up his abode 
in a village. He Ihould, in general, 
avoid the roads purfued by travellers, and 



i 462 1 

take his rout through provinces whei*^ 
foreigners feldom appear. He (hould be 
very flow in his motions, refiding fbme 
time in any place -where he finds matter' 
for obfervation. If any thing ftriking oc- 
curs in the pradlice before him, he (hould 
attend the culture of the lands, the fowing 
and harveft ; and manage his rout in fuch 
a manner, that this plan may not occafion 
an unneceffary refidence, nor a needlefs 
di(lant removal from one place to another. 
The, foil (hould always be an objeft of his 
attention, in every variety, and the grain, 
or grafs, which feems beft to fuit it. He 
fliould make drawings of every machine 
and implement of hu(bandry that differs 
from thofe of his own country, and ob- 
ferve particularly the refpedive methods 
of working them. He (hould procure feed 
of corn and grafs, (and (bme of the breed 
of remarkable cattle) fending them to 
England^ with direftions on what land to 
be fown, and on what grafs to be fed. In 
fome countries this may be prohibited, but 
it is allowed in many: in a word, the' 
whole, oeconomy of agriculture in every 
province (liould be obferved and minuted ; 
the manner in which lands are rented, the 

o cove- 


[ 463 ] 

covenants, the method of cultivating them 
where the landlord farms, and all upon 
his eftates are either his fervants or his 
flaves. It would not be amifs to remark 
alfo the methods of making and repairing 
the roads in moll countries , all the efFefts 
of the laws and police refpefting the poor ; 
not to ftudy them in books, but to 
view their effedls among the very people 
concerned. Some hints might poflibly be 
caught, worthy the attention of the JSr/- 
ii/h legiflature itfelf. 

On fuch a plan, I fhould think it advife- 
able to take the rout of Holland and Flan-- 
ders. In Brabant ^ the methods of convert- 
ing a poor foil to great profit by their 
flax-hufbandry, fhould be noted; parti-, 
cularly between Antwerp and Holland \ 
their clover-hufbandry is likewifp faid to be 
very perfect ; yielding three good crops in 
one year, though fown among oatsv 
French Flanders comes next, Lorraine^ and 
the provinces adjoining; Champagne and 
Burgundy. The foil and climate of which 
provinces fhould be accurately examined, 
that thofe parts of our American colonies 
might be the eafier difcovered, which bid 
fair for producing their wines. Then the 


t 4^4 1 
tour of Frencbe Compti and Lyonois^ and tlieft 
acrofs to Normandy^ Britanny^ Orleanois^ 
and Anjeui the marquis oi 7 our billy s ad- 
mirable Mimoirefur les Defricbemens^ opens 
a fine field of obfervation in this province. 
All his noble improvements ought to be 
viewed with the moft attentive eye : the 
prefent condition of his cftate compared 
with the unimproved neighbourhood, and 
minute obfervations made on the effe61: of 
every meafure he took. To take a furvey 
of his territory, with his Eflay in one's 
hand, muft be an entertainment of the 
higheft nature, as well as nobly inftrudlive. 
From Anjouy the tour fhould continue 
through Guienne and Languedoc, where isi 
a fpring- wheat; then examine Provence, 
and the food of its excellent mutton. A 
late author fays, the famous mutton that is^ 
fed between Aix and Aries, is upon " a 
moftextenfive plain, without a tree or the 
leaft verdure, or any thing to be feen but 
pebble-ftones j but it turns out more pr6- 
fitable to the proprietors, than if it pro- 
duced wine or corn in the. greateft abun- 
dance, as it is entirely covered with fheep ; 
which, though ever fb poor, become fat 
in three weeks time, on a little white 
flower, ever in bloom, which grows un- 

[ 4^5 1 

dcrne^th the ftones -, to come at which, 
they are obliged to fcrape with their feet j 
it alfo gives the mutton fo fine a flavour, 
that it is fent as prefents, when killed, to 
a great diftance, as we do venifon *." This 
is a wonderful pfent indeed! However, 
without.expefting accuracy^ we may fup- 
pofe the food fomething uncommon, and 
certainly worthy of attention. Then enter 
Daupbiniy Gafcmy^ the improvements of 
the ^heaths of Bourdeaux examined, where 
above 200,000 wafte acres, have been 
lately divided into fmall farms, by a moft 
patriotic fociety of improvers, under the 
encouragement of the royal authority, A 
noble example, and worthy of our imita- 
tion. Then to enter Spain^ and travel to- 
wards GaUiciai in- which province the 
foil, and culture and fpecies of the turnips 
which are raifed near the fource of the Min^ 
ho^ and which fometimes weigh (as it is 
faid) fifty pounds, ftiould be remarked -f* : 
travelling acrofs Portugal^ enter Anda-- 
lufiay where may be fcen, particularly, 

♦ Gtniletnan*s Guide, en his Tour through France^ 
p* 66. 

f dariis Letters on the Spantjh Nation, p. 4. 

Hh Colu^ 


% \ 

[ 466 ] 

Columellas Lucerne^ moft excellent Sain« 
foine, and a fpring-wbeat : the return by 
Catalonia and Valencia^ the latter province 
being the garden of Spain^ and the natural 
produ6tions well worthy the attention of 
a farming traveller. 

I have heard iM[r. Merci of Batb^ who 
ferved in Spain under the earl of Peterbo- 
row and lord Gallway^ and who has refid* 
ed in moft parts of Europe^ declare that 
Valencia was the fined country he ever 
beheld, and the moft plentiful one to forage 
in ; that it abounds with vaft quantities of 
fwect nouriftiing grafs, which gr4)ws to the 
height of four feet % belides other grailes 
equally advantageous* Tbofe who objeft 
the great difference oi climate between 
England and Spain^ fhould remember that 
many of our fruits and moft ufefiil j^ants 
are the natural inhabitants of much war- 
mer countries ; and that lucerne is traced 
even to the hotteft climes of A/ia. 

Cuttings of vines, from the fpecies moft 
promifing to thrive, in our Nortb^American 
plantations, (hould every where be pro- 
cured. The Spanijh wheat ftiould be par- 
ticularly confidered j alfo the breed of 
fheep, and the methods of houfing them 

4 ' for 

y I 



tor tke fake of their wool. Not forgetting 
the. Semkradore^ as likewife the Cembran^ 
jpine^ aiid t4ie Algarobnle-tvt^^ 

Returning through France *, the JHp^ 
Bavos^^ and Swit:terlmd^ fhouM next en- 
gage his att*ntiom The latter country, t 
am informed, will prefent to an attentive 
travclfer many particolafs in agficukure, 
land th6 brcedirtg and nwanageiftent of eat-' 
tie, well worth a ttiinwtt obferVtition. TM 
Memoireis of the excellent Berne focrety - 
would furlrifh many ifiattei's of inquiry^ 
which ought to be well examined on th^ 
JTpot: the names df %h^ places Where 
fevcral noted iraprotrenients are to be met 
with, occur in' tljofo papers *• 

The proportion bstween the value of 
land, Ahd the crop* it yields, fhoiiW be 
inquired into/ M ^ la Harpe^ m M« 
Cvitivi^Mr EafiM pat ies Fres^ Artifitiels, 
fays the land abou*? hmti that s wofth 
6 /. $Sk per acre ftfriing^ is not bad, but 
I^C^ ; and it lets* in general for ts. 3 ^/. 
per acre : ftere this ^ Alfo the prices of 
labour the^ faaie gentkmftn mentions i 

♦ Ail tfce Memoires of agtkUltbre, |)ublifheJ by 
tvery fociety in Europe^ ftiould, in fuch a tour ^Ji;^ 
be read on the fpot, an4 every inftanc^ ^Ji^tS^Tthere 

HJv-sT Main- 


[ 468 I 

L s. d. 
Maintaining a ploughman, - 1 2 lo o 
Ditto, a cow-herd, - -6 5 o 
Harvefting wheat per acre, .060 
■ other corn, - -039 
Thrafliing^r acre, ^ * o 7 6 

This laft is very odd work to do by the 
acre. I only hint thefe particulars, becaule 
they (hould every where be inquired into, as 
well as the prices of all forts of provifions, 
and the proportion of them and the prices 
of labour. The neighbourhood of Geneva 
fhould be particularly attended to, and the 
reafons difcovered why the common huf- 
bandry is fo miferable, in comparifon 
writh that of England^ as it appears to be in 
the experimental writings of M* ^ Chateau^ 
vieux. The date of the new hufbandry 
jfhould be remarked, and the whole man- 
agement and profit, as fome hundreds of ^ 
acres were employed in it. 

The foil and culture of hemp, in the 
neighbourhood of Nice^ ihould be atten- 
tively examined, as Dr. Smolkt* fays, it is 
the largefl and ilrongeit he ever faw. 

^ ^'^avib^ Vol. i» p. 341* 


[ 4^9 1 


The principal territories in Lombardy 
fliould next be vifitedj the praflice of 
ploughing with buflfalo's examined j and 
the advantages and inconveniences of the 
e3fceffive long Italian ploughs minuted. 
The culture of rice remarked, that a com- 
parifon might be drawn between their 
methods, and thofe followed in CarcUna 5 
and an inquiry made (by an attentive qb- 
fervation) whether the culture of this nou- 
rifhing -f* grain cannot be rendered more 
confident with health. The fouthern parts 
of Italy (ihould next be taken, and remarks 
made on the. different ftate of agriculture 
in Hufcany^ and the pope's and king of 
Naples dominions j with the reafons for 
fuch difference, which it has been remark- 
ed is very great J. And the? foil and her- 

t The beft IndUn workoien weave/s and painters at 
Pondicberryy cannot earn above two-pence a day 3 yet 
upon this he is able to fubfift himfelf, bis wife, and 
his children ; their principal food being rice boiled in 
water, or wrought up in a pafie and baked upon the 
coals. Mod. Univ. Hiji. Vol. xi. p. 106. 

% Upon onr entrance into Tufcany^ fays Mr. Sharpe^ 
we were furprized at the remarkable change in the ap- 
pearance, both of the country and the people. The 
whole face of Tufcany is covered with farm.-houfes and 
cottages ; an objeft very rare in the Pope's and the 
King of Naplis* dominions ; but the cottages here, 

H h 3 and, 


[ 47^ ] 

bage of the 7ufcan p^fture? minutely exa^ 
mined, their beef being exceeding fine, 
The cfFefls of the duties on export-? 
ed corn in Naples fhould be minute- 
ly obferved j they would doubtlefs furnifh 
many arguments in favour of our 
bounty. **' Some years fmce at Naples 
there was fuch an amazing harveft through 
the whole kingdom, that»they had upon 
their hands a quantity to the amount of 
two or three hundred thoufand pounds ir^ 
value, which they could not confume, 
There was at that time an applicatior^ 
made for the exemption of the duty on 
exportation, withoqt which the nierchant 
could not find his account in fending it 
abroad i and though the minifter was in-: 
formed by federal, and, amongft the reft, 
by an old Neapolitan gentleman of my 
acquaintance, that the revenue wcJuId cer- 
tainly feel the good effefls of fo much 
money brought into the country, as fully 
as in the fhape of a duty on the export, 
he was deaf to all their reafonings, and 
would not eftabUQi fo dangerous a prete- 

aqd, indeed, through all Itqly^ are not as ia Frame 
^nd En^lanrJ 9 thatched huts, with walls of mud; they 
are all built qf ftone or brick. Letters from Italy^ 
p. 228. 


[ 471 ]/ 

dent, as he thought it ; the confequence 
was, that the corn grew mouldy and pe- 
rifhed, and the next harveft failed, and a 
dreadful dearth enfued*." Sicily somes 
next ; that ifland is pretty well cultivated, 
being the nurfery of corn, and, doubtlefs, 
fome ufcful knowledge might be gained 
from its inhabitants. The plantations of 
fugar-canes on the ancient Mount Hybla^ 
between CitadeUa and Syracufe^ fliould be 
attentively examined, and minutes taken 
of their method of culture ; as the fugar 
they make is moft excellent ; and the heat 
of the climate well attended to, as it is ima- 
gined the Bahama iflands are too far north 
for this produAion. 

If the plan be found pradicablq (which 
J am informed is really the cafe) the bed 
way to return towards Germany^ would be 
by the Turkijh provinces, on the Adriatic 
Sea^ and enter the Aujirian A\^\,Q\ii^s^ making 
the whole tour of Germany^ particularly 
thofe parts of it which border on the great 
rivers. The tour of the north fliould be 

* Sharp* $ Letters from Italy^ p» 224. In another 
place Mr. Sharp mentions the vaft number of hhc^- 
guards^ 8cc..m Naples i whereas, in 1758, when the 
Rev. Mr. Harte was there, not a beggar was to be 
feen in the flreets. See Ejpiys on Hifjbandry^ p. 68. 
§uere ? th,e caufe of the alteration. 

H h 4 pro- 

[ 47^ ] 

profecuted through Poland^ the paftures of 
which country ihould be examined s as 
their beef is equal to that of Tufcany. Li* 
vmia comes next, Finkndy^ Ruffia. The 
Ukraine very attentively examined, that a 
perfedt knowledge might be gained of the 
climate, and the culture, foil, &c. of hemp 
and flax, that thofe parts of the Britijh do- 
minions in America moft propef for their 
production, might be certainly known. 
Then comes Sweden and Denmark. 

The other parts of the globe (none 
ihould be omitted) would require various 
perfbns. The moft populous countries are 
moft worthy attention, as that circum^ 
ftance is, at leaft, a reafon for the proba- 
bility of a lively cultivation. 

Our American colonies fhould be exa- 
mined with the moft careful attention i 
for the general ignorance in this kingdom, 
concerning their foil, productions, culture, 
labour, and living, is furprizing: thofe 
who have travelled over parts of them, 
differing in their accounts as much as 
others who have. not been there, in their 
opinions. The whole of their natural pro* 
duCtions fhould be examined, firft, with a 
view of tranfplantation to Great-Britain 


t 473 1 

and Ireland ; ajtid, fecondly, for the perfec- 
tion of culture in their natural foil. Vines, 
mulberry-trees, hemp and flax, are the grand 
articles which ihould be ft^died relative to 
themfclves; and that not only in the cultiva- 
ted parts, but along the rivers MiJJ^ppi and 
Ohio. In many parts of which territories w- 
perimental plantations fhould be formed, for 
gaining an accurate knowledge of what 
the foil would really prdduce. The tim- 
ber trees (hould every where be examined, 
by felling, fawing, and plaining; but here 
I fhould refer the reader to the incompa- 
rable Effays on Hujbandry^ particularly from 
page 119 to page 146, wherein are many 
extremely valuable anecdotes and remarks 
on Nortb-American culture. 

The contrariety of the accounts of their 
foil and produftions will appear very evi- 
dent, if Dr. Stores Defcriptton ofEaft Flth 
rida^ and ^be Prejent State of Great-Bri^ 
tain and North-- America^ be turned to : both 
authors write of countries they have view- 
ed—- but they ^re diametrically oppofite 
in their accounts. The firft gives an en- 
comium upon Florida^ the other fays it is 
the vileft country under the fun : The one 
fays it is healthy, the other, that it is the 


[ 474 J 

grave of the human fpecics. Who is in 
the rijght we know not ; further than the 
accounts which the news-papers give us ; 
which are "very contrary to what the firft 

Having mentioned The Prefent State^ I 
mufl remark, that the author throughout 
the work is extremely dogmatical in all his 
aflertions, relative to the agriculture of 
JNortb^America ; and yet difplays in fome 
. particulars, fuch iigns of ignorance in the 
ait, that one knows not how to give ere* 
dit to him in any others. For inftance ; 
page 359 he calculates horfes to confume, 
each, 20 quarters of oats annually; and ^^^r 
37, reckons five or fix acres totally to main-^ 
tain each horfe. Page 38, " if turnips 
are not fed with (heep, they exhauft lands 
more than corn itfelf." Page 40, he re- 
' commends the employing poor and mean 
lands^ by fowing them with beam ! Page 
91, he fays that by harncffing oxen diffe- 
rently, you may plough three feet deep I 
Thefe inflances are fufficient to prove that 
the author hazards wild aflertions, without 
the moft common knowledge for a direc-* 
tion. If his experience in Nortb-^American 
agriculture is no greater than in the JBr/- 
tijh^ he is poor authority indeed ! 


[ 475 1 

A traveller, were he to conduct himfclf 
judicioufly,- would no where find more 
smple fubjefts for his attention, than in 
P^ortb- America ; nor would the knowledge 
he gained in any other country, be more 
important to this nation, The tour of the 
(polonies, well executed, would yield by 
far better foundations for our American 
politicks, than any we can poflefs at pre- 
sent The grand fyftem of plantation, 
management ought to depend entirely up- 
. on their Agriculture ; but if that is not ac^ 
(urately known, and the nature of the foil 
thorpughly explored, all muft be blind 
work at beft. 

In this whole tour, an exaSt and minute 
journal (hould be kept of eveiy remark 
made on the infinite variety of objecls that 
would occur, all the information^ that 
, could be gained from the inhabitants of 
iBvery country *, and ample defcriptions of 
^he whole prpcefs pf cultivation where it 

♦ Great care id admitting, and reje^tng muft be ufcd 
when we take the accounts of natives, concerning 
fheir own country. Some talk big through vanity, or' 
partiality ; fome are milled through ignorance ; fome 
take a pride to impofe. >f// which, poor Jd < 

pxperienced ip Ws Book ofTraveh^^r'-'^Mcm. Commu^ 


[ 476 J 

was foiind worthy recording; and the au- 
thor, on his return home, (hould commu- 
nicate this €xtenfive work to the public, 
as a general fource of knowledge and im* 
provement, and a monument of his own 
abilities, his induftry, and application :— 
the moft ufeful book of travels that ever 
appeared in the world ! 

Fully am I perfuaded, that was fuch a 
tour as this executed by a proper perfon, 
or rather perfons, great and important 
advantages would refult from it. Species 
- of plants, methods of cultivation, and 
many implements and machines at prefent 
totally unknown in England^ would be dif- 
covered, and, after experiments, adopted. 
I may be miftaken, but in this light it 
xftrongly appears to me. 

So great and arduous an undertaking, 
to be perfeftly executed, would require pe- 
culiar abilities and advantages in the per- 
fon who attempted it. 

He ought, in the firft place, to have a 
competent knowledge of the methods of 
cultivation iifed in general in England^ 
and this knowledge (hould refult not alone 
"from books, but alfo feme years pradlice, 
that he might be well acquainted with th^ 




C 477 1 

advantages and defers of our prefent 
modes of hufbandry, and our principal 
implements ufed in them : and that he 
might readily perceive wherein foreigners 
have the advantage of us ; he (hould be a 
man of penetration, quick conception, 
thoughtful and attentive ; the fcope of his 
tiavels would require vigour and aftivity. 
The variety of people he would have deal- 
ings with would render a pliancy of diC 
pofition, patience, and dexterity, equally 
important. He (hould be a mafter of the 
principal European languages. He ought 
to have fuch a proficiency in drawing as to 
be able to iketch, in the moft accurate 
manner, machines of all kinds, and plants, 
A knowledge of botany would alfo be ne- 
ceffary for the defcription of the new plants 
he might think deferved his attention: 
and, to crown all, he fhould have an am* 
pie revenue for numerous purchafes, and 
to fmooth innumerable difficulties. 

Thefe qualifications, I believe every one 
will allow are neceflary ; but where arc 
thej^^^to be found ? 

The utter improbability, or, I may fay, 
impofilbility of this is alfo evident c but I 
do not conceive that the advantages refult- 


{ 4'7^ ] 
ing from the fcii^me ihould be loft for w&tit 
of fome paiticulars to render the execution 
the more complete. A pra£tical know^ 
ledge of Englijh farming, and a flight 
acquaintance ivith drawing, would be 
abfolutely neceflary, joined with as much 
penetration, quicknefs of parts, and folidi* 
ty of refiedion and condu6t, as could be 
found. It is very improbable that fuch a 
man, if he had an ample fortune, would 
engage in the undertaking, and equally 
unlikely that a rich roan would be proper^ 
ly qualified were he willing. 

Much, in fuch cafes as thefe, if they zx6 
deferving attention, is to be hoped from the 
munificent public fpirit of the Society for 
promoting Arts : good judges of a propej* 
perfcm to execute fuch a plan, can there 
doubtlefs be found, and likewife to give him 
proper inftrudlions. I flatter myfelf, that 
we ihall one day fee their bounty ex^ 
erted in executing fome fcheme of public 
utility of the fame nature as this I have 
iketchcd : their improvements on the ideas 
of individuals in fuch cafes will doubtlefs 
be ilriking ; and, however incomplete this 
jEffay may be, was the pJan ever to come 


C 479 1 

within their attention, it would certainly 
turn out to the benefit and ilnftruftioii c^ 
the whole kingdom. 


SINCE the foregoing \yas written^ I 
have read, with that attention fo exceUant 
a bools deferves, Mv.Hartes Effays on Huf^ 
bandry. This moft penetrating author h^ 
proved clearly the great adieantage wbkb 
muft attend an accurate obfervation of IJMib 
foreign methods of hufbandry : he fptaks 
from his own expeciet^e, having travelled 
tike a true philofopher, a«id good dtbaen;. 
What pity that a man with foenl^htencdk 
a genius, poffeffing every rcquifite I, have 
Iketched, fhould make fo large a part o£ 
the tour without publifliing his travels ^ 
From page 62 to page 84 of the Bffays^ 
contains a fpecimen of what the wod(f 
would have enjoyed in fuch a volume, i 
have fcarcely known i» the range of litera* 
ture, a work, the want of which I more 
regret. Would the author, even at pre- 
fent; favour the public with more parti- 
culars that attra£led his- attention abroad, 


[ 48o ] 

in relation to hufbandry^ they would form 
an admirable fecond part to the incompa- 
rable BJfays. Some few pafTages* give us 
hopes of a fecond part : it would be a 
public misfortune) if the author fliould 
change his mind. It is too like prefump- 
tion in me to venture thefe (heets to the 
prels after the publication of fucfa a vfotky 
which fuggefts fo much more than it ex- 
prelles; but» as I have been particular in 
the pro)e€l of difpatching a proper pcrfon^ 
abroad, and as I do not remember that 
author mentions fuch a fcheme, I am 
tempted to proceed this once in a path fo 
lately trodden by a very Magtiabecbi in 
agriculture, i cannot avoid here taking 
notice of the miferable idea a writer, who 
iigns himfelf Mago^ has of this incompa« 
rable volume. He criticifes that excellent 
work in an extra£t from it : but his total 
inattention to its value^ and to the fub- 
)e£t of it, appears fron^ his finding fault 
that it was not contained in a letter to the 
Mufhim Rufiicum. Not a needleis fyllable 

* See parttcuhrly, Effay L pages 96, 1899 227. 
MJfoy II. p. 831 and 232. 

C 481 3 

Isinthebooki whenrcadbyamanoFttku 
ication and tafte for agriculture ; but as 
|br farttieri) who ever fuppofed it Ivas 
wrote for tlwir readiiig? Can any one 
fuppofe they can have « ta^ for whet 
th^ B^i rwdiy are, th£ OaoRGtca <mp 
7H£ Mind. The author knew too wdl^ 
that they will never, by books, be induced 
to cultivate any thing out of the common 
road, to addrefs himfclf to them *. How 
little anxious for the improvement of 
agriculture muft any one be, who can 
regret fix (hillings for the EJays on Huf' 
kandry! abounding with a vaft variety 
of knowledge, the moft enlarged reflec* 
tions, the moft ufeful advice ; and con- 
Itaining the beft, completeft, and moft 
fatisfadtory ^raEtical due^ions for the 
culture of lucerne, of any author in 
any language, on that or any parallel 

Memo's objections are fearcely worth 
notice, and in this cafe can arife from 

^ From which circumftance it is of little coofcr 
guence, whether they read them or not. See Lh Ih" 
ffr(/ls de la France Mai Entendus^ Vol. i. p. 119. 

J i potbing 

[ 482 1 
ixitfaiDg but his not having ifeen the 

Much more thto this (light fketch is 
due to the rare merit of that elegant pen ; 
which produced not only ^be Efjaysy 
but that noble work, the Hsftcny of Gus- 
TAVU6 Adolphus the Great^ 

F I N 1 $.